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VII. In the formation of the past tense and the past participle of some weakly inflected verbs, there is not only a shortening of the quantity of the vowel, but sometimes also a restoration of the vowel sound, which had been attenuated; as, meet, met; lose, lost; leave, left. The vowel in the present tense standing, or having stood originally, in an open syllable, suffers attenuation, while the vowel of the past tense and past participle being in a close syllable, is retained.
VIII. There are certain vowel changes in the transition from Gothic or Anglo-Saxon to English; (1.) the attenuation or precession of the vowel sound ah to eh; as, to make from Anglo-Sax. macian; (2.) the attenuation or precession of eh to ih; as, to steal from Anglo-Sax. stelan; (3.) the strengthening of ih to ai (= the Eng. diphthong i,) by vriddhi, as, to bite from Anglo-Sax. bitan; (4.) the strengthening of uh to au by vriddhi; as, thou from Anglo-Sax. thu.
IX. We come now to words derived from the Latin. Among these we find some vowel changes, which are found in the ancient Latin, and are to be explained by a reference to that language, and others, which exhibit themselves in the transition of Latin words into English.
Among the former is a play of vowels in words compounded with prepositions; (1.) the change of radical a into i in an open, and into e in a close syllable; as, facile, deficient, defect; (2.) the change of radical a into u; as, capable, occupant; (3.) the change of radical e into i in an open syllable; as, legible, intelligible; (4.) the change of au into u; as, claudent, include. This change of vowel, which modern philologists have investigated with great care, is to be regarded as an attenuation or lightening of the vowel sound, as an offset to the weight of the preceding prefix.
Among the latter are the follow
ing; (1.) the attenuation or precession of the vowel sound ah to eh; as, Lat. papyrus, Eng. paper; (2.) the attenuation or precession of the vowel sound eh to ih; as, Lat. Stephanus, Eng. Stephen; (3.) the change of the vowel sound ih by vriddhi to ai (= the English diph thong i;) as, Lat. libellus, Eng. libel. These changes are to be regarded as a strengthening of the several vowel sounds, on occasion of the accent which had been disturbed by cutting off the final sylla ble; connected in the two former cases with a subsequent attenuation.
X. In words derived from the Greek, we have some vowel chan ges, which are found in the ancient Greek, and are to be explained by a reference to that language, and others, which exhibit themselves in the transition of Greek words into English.
Among the former we may reckon (1.) the play of vowels in collateral roots, closely connected in signification; as, chro in chrome,
chra in catachresis, and chri in chrism, all signifying primarily to touch the surface. This process in the formation of collateral roots, is a part of the great system of the natural development of roots, as ex hibited by Becker. It is distinct from the formation of words from roots. The different use and application of these roots depended without doubt on the appropriate import supposed to inhere in each vowel. (2.) The attenuation or precession of the vowel a to e; as, system from
sta; lemma for lebma from /lab; tmesis from tam, by transposition tma. (3.) The strengthening of u by vriddhi, or the change of u into eu; as, zeugma from ✔zug or zyg. (4.) The change of vowel by internal inflection; as, tome from tam.
Among the latter, besides those common to Latin and Greek derivatives, are the following; (1.) the attenuation or precession of ai to e; as, phenomenon, from pha,
or by lengthening the root and strengthening the vowel phain; (2.) the attenuation or precession of oi to e; as, economy from oic; (3.) the attenuation or precession of ou to u; as, music from mous.
XI. In words derived from the Hebrew, no new phonetic principle is exhibited.
Hebrew or Phenician words which have come to us through the Greek and Latin, fall under the class of Greek and Latin derivatives.
Words derived immediately from the Hebrew as an ancient ecclesias
tical language, have by common consent been subjected to the same general principles as Greek and Latin derivatives. Thus (1.) a in an accented open syllable suffers attenuation, or is changed from ah to eh; as, Nabal; (2.) e in an open syllable, accented or unaccented, suffers attenuation, or is changed from eh to ih; as, Sheba, Medeba; (3.) i in an accented or final open syllable suffers vriddhi, or is changed from ih to ai (the English diphthong i;) as, Ziba, Levi.
Elements of Algebra; being an Abridgment of Day's Algebra, adapted to the capacities of the young, and the method of instruc tion in schools and academies. By JAMES B. THOMSON, A. M. New Haven, Durrie & Peck. 12mo. pp. 252.
Nearly thirty years have elapsed since President Day (then professor of mathematics and natural philos ophy) first published his "Introduction to Algebra." It excelled all other treatises known to our colleges and academies, in the clearness and precision of its definitions and rules, in the happy choice of examples and illustrations, and in the exposition of such principles as are not only important in them. selves, but have an additional value in their relation to the higher branches of mathematics. This work being specially "adapted to the method of instruction in the American colleges," it was a good idea to reduce it to such a form, as would render it suitable for scholars of the primary schools, and the ordinary classes in academies.
The editor, Mr. Thomson, was well fitted for the undertaking, both by his taste for mathematical studies, and by much experience in teaching the elements of algebra to young learners. We have no doubt that all teachers who desire a treatise on this useful and interesting subject, more concise and simple than "Day's Algebra," will find in this publication a book exactly adapted to their wants.
The Family Sabbath-Day Miscellany; comprising over three hundred religious tales and anecdotes, original and select, with occasional reflections, adapted to the use of families on the Lord's day. By CHARLES A. GOODRICH. Published by Daniel Fanshaw, 601 Broadway, New York.
This work having been previously published by the author and extensively circulated, must be well known to most of our readers; to whom it can need no recommendation from us.
In the first number of this work, will be found some account of a special meeting of the American Education Society; and of the appointment of a committee to revise the rules and regulations. This committee reported at the meeting in Boston, May 28th, a series of resolutions, which, after a single amendment, were unanimously adopted, as follows:
Resolved, 1. That no aid be given to any candidate for assistance, before the commencement of the college course, or before the candidate has completed two years of classical study.
2. That aid be given only to those students who, being in other respects qualified, are proved by the testimony of their instructors, to be making good proficiency in their studies.
3. That aid given to each student be proportioned to his wants, the average not to exceed eighty dollars annually, and the maximum not to exceed one hundred dollars, annually.
4. That it be discretionary with the local committees, in consultation with the beneficiaries, to determine whether in each case, the aid afforded be in the form of gratuity or loan; that the sums gratuitously given shall be considered as an encouragement, and an expression of the interest of Christian friends, and that loans be made on condition of payment before settlement in the ministry.
5. That each recipient of aid shall subscribe an obligation, to refund to the society whatever he may receive from its treasury, if he shall voluntarily fail to enter upon the work of the ministry.
6. That the immediate supervis
ion of those students in each college, who are aided by the society, and the distribution among them of the funds voted by the directors for their use, be entrusted to a committee at or near the college or theological institution, who shall be appointed by the directors.
7. That the appropriating committee, at or near each college or institution, be the examining committee.
8. That the appropriating committee, at or near each college or institution, before recommending a candidate for the patronage of the society, shall satisfy themselves, both by personal examination and personal testimony, respecting his need, his piety, his proficiency in his studies, and his promise of usefulness generally, and shall report the particulars, and make return of the testimony to the directors, upon whom in all cases shall devolve the
responsibility of making the appointments.
9. That the appropriating committee, for each institution, shall renew their inquiries respecting each individual, before each successive appropriation, and shall particularly ascertain from his teacher, his diligence and proficiency as a scholar, and his unexceptionable deportment.
10. That the directors be requested to inquire whether the expenses of conducting the business of the society may not be materially reduced.
It will be seen, that hereafter the patronage of the society is to be confined to students in the colleges and theological seminaries; that the aid is to be wholly gratuitous to those who desire it; and that the selection and oversight of the beneficiaries is to be entrusted to a committee of gentlemen at or near
the several institutions of learning. These are the most important features of the new arrangement; and it is hoped, that they will remove most of those objections to the society, which have for some years past embarrassed it.
No change has taken place in the oganization of the other national religious societies; but some improvement is manifest in their financial condition, and the most encour. aging prospects of usefulness cheer them onward to still greater exertions. The income of the Seamen's Friend Society, twelve thousand, nine hundred and ninety two dollars and seventy cents, exceeds that of the last year, but still falls short of the expenditures by about eight hun dred dollars. The Foreign Evangelical Society has received its whole income from twelve of our cities and large towns, to the amount of ten thousand six hundred and seven dollars, exceeding the disbursements nearly nine hundred dollars. The American Tract Society, has received the noble sum of ninety six thousand two hundred and forty dollars, and fifty three cents, exceeding the income of last year, and leaving a balance in the treasury of two hundred and ninety dollars. The American Home Missionary Society, we regret to add, has over. drawn its treasury seven thousand and eighteen dollars and thirty eight cents. The receipts were ninety nine thousand eight hundred and twelve dollars, and eighty four cents. This is seven thousand three hun dred and forty nine dollars and twenty cents, more than the total receipts of the preceding year. This institution, being emphatically the hope of our country, ought to have a more liberal patronagenot less than that extended to the cause of foreign missions. With
such an income, the society might employ two thousand ministers, instead of eight hundred and forty eight, the present number. Vol. I.
A new society, entitled, "The American Philo-Italian Society,” was organized December 12th, 1842, in New York; the object of which, is to promote the diffusion of useful and religious knowledge among the Italians. Theodore Dwight, Jr. is the corresponding secretary. The address of the executive committee to the American public, is an interesting document. The door, we are informed, is open for the diffusion of useful and religious knowledge among the Italians. They may be divided into three classes, papists, Catholics, infidels. The first sympathize with the pope in all his secular and spiritual tyranny-with a spirit of servility towards man, not of sincerity towards God-selfish men, who have an interest in supporting the established religion. The second are Catholics, but not papists; that is, they abhor the dominion of the pope, while they are prejudiced against Protestants, as infidels. They are a class between the Protestants and papists-men of conscience, who desire the knowledge of the truth, but have had no proper means of gaining it. The third constitutes a large class in almost all papal countries-men who have received their ideas of Christianity, solely from the superstitions and vices of a corrupt priesthood. These two last classes among the Italians may easily be reached and influenced, particularly by the agency of intel ligent natives, who are ready to engage in the work of propagating the Gospel among their country. men. It is the plan of the society to prosecute its work in Italy, by the exclusive agency of Italians.
STATE OF RELIGION.
The reports of the Congregational associations of the several states, come to hand too late for notice in
the present number. We can only say, that our January report of the
bodies, the Old School, not less than fifty new churches have been added, and most of the old churches have been enlarged. The number of members in the churches at. tached to the New School General Assembly, has in many presbyteries been doubled; in others, trebled; and in nearly all the churches revivals of religion have been enjoyed. Perhaps in no previous year, since the colonization of, the country, have the Presbyterian churches been so generally blessed with the effusions of the Holy Spirit.
THE TRIAL OF SINGLETON MERCER, FOR THE MURDER OF MAHLON
THE recent tragedy in Philadelphia, is worthy of a more attentive consideration than is commonly given to scenes of vice and crime. Its details have already been spread before the public, with a disgusting minuteness, and are read by all classes with an eagerness which shocks every sentiment of delicacy. We shall allude to them no farther than is necessary in order to review the legal proceedings in the case, and to exhibit the tone of moral feeling in the community in which the event occurred. Early in January, Mahlon H. Heberton, a notorious libertine, formed the acquaintance of Sarah G. Mercer, a mere girl of sixteen, the daughter of respectable and pious parents, residing in Southwark. The acquaintance began improperly; Heberton accosting Miss Mercer in the street, without an introduction, and she consenting to walk with him, under the impression that he was a Spanish gentleman whom she had before seen at her sister's house. After this inter
view the thoughtless girl met her pretended lover again and again; sometimes by accident; frequently by appointment; always away from her father's house, and without the knowledge of her friends. At length being completely taken in his toils, she became the victim of his lust. Her ruin accomplished, her seducer continued to deceive her with the promise of marriage, till her intimacy with him became known to her friends, and she fled from the house of her father to one of those haunts of vice to which she had been previously introduced by Heberton. As he, however, was now ready to discard her, she was soon restored to her mourning parents, but only to increase their anguish by confessing her shame. The ter rible disclosure overwhelmed all her friends with indignation and sorrow; but its effect on the mind of her brother, (a young man of twenty,) was alarming.* In the frenzy of
*Efforts were made by Mr. Mercer, to induce Heberton to marry his daughter, but the proposal was rejected by Heberton with insolence. This circumstance excited the indignation of Singleton to the highest pitch.