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does Easter Sunday mean in com. We regard these general features memoration of the resurrection of of the Prayer-book, together with Christ, when every Sunday is in other things which we intend to tended for the same thing? And mention, as extremely disastrous to Trinity Sunday?--we confess we the cause of truth and experimental are in darkness here also. We religion in the Episcopal church. have never been able to learn any If the idolatry of the church of plausible reason for such a day. Rome is not directly authorized by Surely “the church” does not re- the liturgy, yet such affinities with quire a worship of the Trinity more it are retained, as may easily decoy on this day than at other times. men into it.* We believe that the And commemoration here is out of Popish dress of the liturgy furnishes the question. In our humble opinion, a half-way house to Popery itself; a day called Christian-Sunday or and that the entertainments of that God-Sunday, would have been house being served up with excluquite as proper.

The truth un- sive pretensions to ordination and doubtedly is, that all those days validity of ordinances, and some were found in the Roman Catholic mysterious sanctity or power conritual, and at the early period in veyed by the imposition of the which the liturgy was compiled, it bishop's hands from the Apostles did not occur to the authors that through the church of Rome, lead they could be dispensed with. “The directly to this result.t And inAnnunciation of the blessed Virgin stead of wondering that there have Mary,” is another day of the same character; and as no gospel truth is made plainer or more efficient by three clergymen of the Episcopal cburch

* It is a remarkable fact that no less than any of these days, we can not con- in Connecticut have, within the last five ceive any possible use to which and twenty years, become Papists. We they can be applied, unless it is to allude to Dr. Kewley of Middletown,

Mr. Barber of Waterbury, and Mr. White preserve that savor of Popery which

of Derby... has already resulted in the extensive

+ We use the phrase validity of ordiprevalence of Puseyism.

nances,

because ihis is the current lanNor do we like, any better than guage of Episcopalians; but we confess

we have never been able to attach an in. we do these feasts and fasts, the ap- telligible idea to it. We conceive an orpellation of“ priest,” constantly giv dinance to be valid if accompanied by en to ministers of the gospel. It is the divine blessing, and invalid if not. contrary to New Testament

usage,

That is, we do not conceive that ordioan. and contrary to fact. A priest is

ces are any thing in themselves but only

as they affect the heart, or teach some one that offers sacrifices. The Ro important truth. If a sinner hears the man Catholic ritual retains this ap- gospel and is induced by it to give up his pellation because the priest is sup

heart to Christ, becoming regenerate by

the Holy Spirit, we suppose his regeneposed to offer the sacrifice of the

ration is valid whoever may have been mass; but no such thing is pretend the preacher; and to question the validi. ed by any true Protestants. Under ty of preaching which issues in salvation, the Christian dispensation there is appears to us supreme nonsense. So also

if a Christian communes with the Lord but one priest, the great “High Jesus Christ and his brethren at the Priest of our profession,” the Lord Lord's table and finds spiritual nourishJesus Christ, who offered up one sa

ment thereby, in our plain way of think crifice for the sins of the world. ing the ordinance is valid to him whether

the bishop's hands had been laid on the The whole body of Christians are administrator or not. The validity of figuratively called “an holy priest- ordinances is a phrase which takes its hood to offer up spiritual sacrifices,” origin from the same Popery that talks of but no one class are so designa- burying grounds, holy wafers, holy wabeen so many examples of it, we dation for this idea of apostolic sucrather wonder that there have been cession, the Nestorian bishop who so few. We regard the recent has lately left our shores for his developments under the name of own land, could put in a claim for Tractarianism, as much the same it infinitely better than any of our thing, and arising from the same Episcopal brethren in this country

holy vestments, holy houses, consecrated ted.

ter, holy crucifixes, &c.

cause.

There is a broad founda- or in England. But he discarded tion laid for this error in the usages the idea. Protestants are the last and preaching of the Episcopal persons in the world who can reachurch, and the affinity produced sonably assert such a claim ; for by them to something different from they must derive it through the all the rest of the Protestant world. church of Rome-a church which We believe it will be found that no has long ago excommunicated them where among Protestants has the all. They can not therefore with principle prevailed, that ordination any show of reason pretend to exin order to be legitimate, must be ercise powers which she who gave derived in uninterrupted succession them has officially taken away. If from the apostles, except in the the church of England ever had English Episcopal church and the that imaginary thing, the apostolic offshoots from her. We see in this succession, it was taken from her fact how far the idea is from the by the supreme authority from which Scriptures, since nobody has dis. it was derived. If a man derives covered it but English churchmen authority to exercise the office of a and those who have imbibed their sheriff from the government, and modes of thinking. When Bancroft, the same government revokes that chaplain to Archbishop Whitgift, authority, it is clear that he is sheriff afterwards Bishop of London, first no longer; and he can neither combroached this idea in 1588, it was municate the office to others nor received with misgivings by nearly exercise it himself, unless by other all that heard it. Some were afraid authority than that from which he it would prejudice the Queen's pre- derived it. So also the church of rogative ; for if the bishops acted England, having been disfranchised by divine right derived through the in the Roman commonwealth, must church of Rome, what would be look elsewhere for her authority, or come of her supremacy as head of it is all a vain pretense. She can the church? Others were afraid do nothing by virtue of authority of disaffecting the foreign Protest- from Rome, Rome having taken ants, and by a new doctrine sepa. back whatever she gave. This prinrating themselves from their com- ciple extends of course to her de. munion. The effect wbich Bancroft scendant in America. If it should intended of elevating the hierarchy, be said that the power being once then confessedly founded on human communicated is inalienable, that authority, above Presbyterianism, ordination impresses an indelible would hardly compensate, in the character; we reply, we can form opinion of some of the adherents no idea of such a thing, and we do of the church of England, for the not believe that others can. And loss of the confidence of the Pro- that our Episcopal brethren do not testant churches abroad. The idea credit it, appears from the fact that however was so consonant to pre. they sometimes depose a minister latical pride that it rapidly gained and by that means obliterate his the ascendancy; and it has been clerical character, the imposition of handed down to the present day the bishop's hands notwithstanding. with no abatement of its arrogant Had the reformation in the Eng. pretensions. Were there any foun. lish church proceeded farther, and

were

the liturgy been founded strictly on ple which are interspersed throughthe principles of Protestantism, out the Prayer-book, were well holding forth in every shape an ab- enough to serve a temporary pur. horrence of Popery-rejecting even pose, but are miserably adapted for an innocent usage which had been perpetual use. When the clergy prostituted to idolatry, and associa- so ignorant that they could ted with that in the minds of the not make an address themselves, it people, as the Puritans wished ; and was right and proper to compose had the pride and self-glorification one for them; but when they are of Bancroft and his coadjutors met able to write sermons these forms with a proper rebuke, we should ought to be given up. There is an have seen at this day the mother obvious objection to them, arising church in England, and her daugh- from the fact that one set of words ter in America, much less exposed frequently repeated as an exhortato the influx of Romish doctrines. tion to the people, becomes of course When Hezekiah, king of Judah, per- a matter of no significancy. It is ceived that even so sacred a relic like a constant repetition of the of antiquity as the brazen serpentsame sermon from sabbath to sabof Moses was perverted to idolatry, bath, which would be an intolerable "he brake it in pieces,” and by annoyance. The first of these adway of derision “ called it Nehush- dresses is singularly defective in its tan." Had the men who gave style and composition, abounding character to the English church in tautologies which no preacher of been such thorough reformers, that the present day would dare to put communion would never have been forth. The people are exhorted to cursed as it now is with the mani. acknowledge and confess their man. festation of a propensity to relapse ifold sins and wickedness—not to into the worst doctrines of Roman- dissemble nor cloak them, when they

We repeat it, then, that the assemble and meet together. They Popish tendencies of the liturgy, are to ask those things which are supported by exclusive pretensions requisite and necessary. These deto validity of ordination and of sa- fects of language in an ordinary craments derived from the church exhortation would be considered of Rome, prepare the mind for a unpardonable. The reason they return to Popery. When therefore are not noticed here is, that the Romish doctrine appears in the Ox. whole exhortation is

mere dead ford tracts, and circulates exten- letter, serving only to fill up a place sively among those who have lived in the book without any meaning. under such an influence, it is as It is moreover somewhat absurd, or seed suited to the soil already wa. at least it presupposes a remarkable tered to receive it. It springs up degree of indifference to public and bears fruit abundantly. Aside worship, that the worshipers should from all other evidence, the single need twice a day to be exhorted in fact that Puseyism finds all its dis- the same words to pray, when that ciples among the jure divino Epis. is the very object for which they copalians, is proof enough of our are assembled. Not only this, but assertion. Other Protestants have all the addresses seem to proceed no more thought of becoming Pu. upon the hypothesis that the minis. seyites than of becoming Moham. ter is incompetent to do any thing medans ; an argument after the but read other men's thoughts—an manner of the Oxford divines hav- hypothesis which was no doubt ing not the shadow of plausibility founded in truth in respect to many to their minds.

when the Prayer-book was first The forms of address to the peo. composed, but by no means so at the present day. Nothing is placed rable summary, expressed in simple at the discretion of the officiating language, though altogether too genminister but the reading or omitting eral. It is inferior, in our opinion, to read some portions of the ap- to many an extempore prayer flowpointed service. What a contempt. ing from a full heart, deeply imuous treatment is this of the clergy!* pressed with a sense of sin, and

Let us now examine the services richly furnished with scriptural lanprescribed for every Sabbath. We guage. But yet it is excellent. The have already remarked upon the absolution which follows, however, address to the people as unhappy is a perfect nullity. It seems to be for the present day, however it a general principle of the liturgy, might have answered a temporary that when confession is made, absopurpose in the day in which it was lution follows. This can be acfirst composed. The“ general con. counted for from the fact that somefession” which follows, is an admi- thing like absolution, or at least

to

* The addresses in the Prayer-book, same profound ignorance and stupidity. not only presuppose that the clergy are They are also drawn up in a style equally ignorant and incompetent to teach, but feeble, prolix and inelegant. See the adthey also manifestly assume, that the dresses to be used in notifying seasons of people are so profoundly ignorant as to communion, and at the communion table; need to be told, over and over, continu- and also the addresses to be made to the ally, the first principles-the very rudi- sick, and to prisoners and condemned ments of the Christian religion. Thus, malefactors. in the address at the opening of the daily It is also noticeable, that long, verbose, morning and evening prayer, the people tautological, and ill-constructed sentences are not only exhorted to pray-as if they occur in every part of the Prayer-book, did not know for what purpose they had except in the portions translated from the come together—but they are treated as Scriptures. Tautology, indeed,—or the being so ignorant as not to know, or so repetition of the same thought in another stupid as not to consider, that the Scrip: form, and the coupling together of syture inculcates the sinfulness of man, and nonymous words,-seems to have been the necessity of repentance. And there. studiously soughi after, as if it was a fore, with much formality, these elemen- great beauty of style : and long, complitary truths are drawn out, and amplified, cated, and verbose sentences seem and urged, in two long, complicated, and have been regarded as most consonant to heavy sentences, as a necessary prepara- good taste. tion for the ordinary worship of God. The collects, prayers, and thanksgivThe minister must say : “ Dearly beloved ings are, almost uniformly, thrown into brethren, the Scripture moveth [admon- long and complicated sentences, in which isheth] us, in sundry places, to acknowl- a happy precision of thought, and a pleasedge and confess our manifold sins and ing vivacity of expression, are by no wickedness, and that we should not dis- means usual characteristics. The collects semble nor cloak them before the face of for the several Sundays and holy days, Almighty God, our heavenly Father, but most commonly labor to bring out some confess ihem with an humble, lowly, obscure or fanciful analogy between the penitent and obedient heart; to the end day of the year and the worship performihat we may obtain forgiveness of the ed; and the effort is, not unfrequently, a same, by through] his infinite goodness partial or a total failure. In some instanand mercy. And although (as) we ought, ces, such a fog is raised, and such indisat all times, humbly to acknowledge our tinct vision produced, that the whole colsins before God, yet ought we (we ought] lect is involved in great obscurity. Thus chiefly (especially) so to do, when we the collect for the first Sunday in Ad. assemble and meet together, to render vent contains this very confused picture : thanks for the great benefits that we have Almighty God, give us grace that we received at his hands, to set forth his most may cast away the works of darkness, worthy praise, [to render him deserved and put upon us (thou? or we?) the armor homage, to hear bis most holy word, of light, now in the time of this mortal and to ask those things which are requi- life, in which thy Son, Jesus Christ came site and necessary, as well [both] for the to visit us, in great humility; that, in the body as [and] the soul.”

last day, when he shall come again in his The other addresses in the liturgy pre- glorious majesty to judge both the quick suppose, in the clergy the same incom- and dead, we may rise to life immortal, petence to instruct, and in the people the through Him who liveth and reigneth something which should be called He declares that “God hath given by that name, was necessary in power and commandment to his the time of Edward, lest too great ministers to declare and pronounce a shock should be produced in the to his people being penitent, the abminds of those who had been ac- solution and remission of their sins." customed to such a service in the What then? Does the minister ex. Romish ritual. The service, as the ercise this power and obey this comliturgy has it, appears to be an at- mandment? By no means. He tempt to unite the Protestant idea tells them that “ He (God) pardonthat God only forgives sins, with eth and absolveth all those who the Popish, that absolution must truly repent, and unfeignedly become from the priest. According. lieve his holy gospel.” Here then ly, the minister is directed to stand is a complete contradiction. God while the people continue kneeling. has given power and commandment And what does the minister say? to his ministers to pronounce abso

with thee and the Holy Ghost, now and like other people, so the former scrupu. ever. Amen."

Here the three dramatic lously avoid using in the house of God unities, of time, place and action, are all the diction and phraseology sanctioned disregarded; and the scene shifts so of. by general custom. ten, so suddenly, so totally beyond all Among the faults to which we have calculation, that the mind is confised alluded, the following are worthy of more and can see nothing clearly. For similar specific notice. examples, see the collects for the third 1. We often 'meet with words which and fourth Sundays in Advent, and for are entirely obsolete, or at least are not Epiphany, and for all the Sundays in used in the sense they have in the PrayerLent. The collect for peace, in the daily book. Of this character are the follow. morning prayer, presents an equally con- ing: Let, for hindrance; and to let, as a fused picture to the mind. Indeed it is verb, in the same sense.- Prevent, for most manifest, that the writer had no dis- preceding, going before.-Premonish, for tinct idea of the object for which he would admonish.—Health, for spiritual life, or teach us to pray. It might be peace with spirituality; and healthful, for promotive God, or peace in the conscience, or do. of spirituality - Governance, for provimestic or social peace, or peace among dence.- Godly motions, for divine influcontending factions, or peace among war. ences.--Moveth, for admonisheth.- Inspiring nations, or any, or all of these com- ration, for gracious influence.-Good lipbined. The language of the collect is: ing, for holy living:- The folk, for the O God, who art the author of peace and people.-Word, for thing, in the phrase lover of concord, in knowledge of whom no word impossible.-Shawms, for hautstandeth [is] our eternal life, whose ser- boys, musical instruments.—Picking, for vice is perfect freedom; defend us, thy pilfering:- Troth, for faith, or fidelity.humble (unworthy) servants, in [from] Estate, for state, every where. all assaults of our enemies; that we, 2. We meet, at almost every step, with surely (safely) trusting in thy defense, colloquial words and phrases, or those may not fear the power of any adversa- which modern taste will allow only in ries, through the might of Jesus Christ conversation. These sink the dignity of our Lord. Amen."

grave discourse, and sometimes border on In all parts of the liturgy, the diction and the ludicrous. As examples of single phrascology are antiquated, unpolished, words, we notice: doings for actions ; and at variance with good taste. We fetch, for bring; help, for aid, assistance ; might reasonably expect such to be the and hurt for harm, injury. Examples of style of the work, as it was originally colloquial phrases, or combinations of drawn up in the age of King Edward VI; words, are very common. Thus we have but we are surprised to find that the same the “ sharpness of death," for the pangs faults are continued and handed down of death.-The " kindly fruits of the through all subsequent revisions of the earth,” for the various fruits, &c._" This book; and are even imitated and made naughty world,” for this evil world. conspicuous in the most recent additions "The old Adam," for the old man, orig. to the volume. The English and Amer- inal sin._" Comfortable gospel," for comican compilers of the liturgy seem to have forting gospel; and most comfortable as great abhorrence of modern taste in sacrament,” for comforting sacrament.language, as the Quakers have of modern Lovingly called and bidden," for affectaste in dress; for, as the latter scrupu. tionately called.-- We pray " for all sorts lously avoid appearing in public dressed and conditions of men.''-We offer to God

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