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chosen people then, “predestinated fits of Christ's death can be applied according to his purpose"_" cho to the individual believer for his sen in Christ before the foundation sanctification. Eating at that altar, of the world”-are not the individ. he really and not in a figure-not uals whom he did foreknow, but are symbolically only, but in an unthe aggregation, the body corpo- searchable mystery—eats the flesh rate, of the visible organized church, and drinks the blood of Christ, and with its threefold ministry, and its thus becomes completely united and ordinances and ceremonies; and incorporated with Christ. In ache who is united to that visible cordance with this theory, our auchurch is one of God's chosen. thor says that Christ has appointed

2. The church, as the body of the sacraments to be to the church Christ, and as enjoying a priesthood “its joints and bands, through which descended by an uninterrupted se. nourishment is ministered, accordries of successive ordinations from ing to the effectual working in the the Apostles, through bishops ruling measure of every part, from Him, over two orders of inferior minis- the Head.” p. 20. ters—the church as a visible cor- 4. Yet it is not to be supposed poration related to Christ, is the ex- that this system formally dispenses clusive possessor of all the grace, with faith, or with a personal expeand all the hopes and promises of rience of the work of the Holy Spi. the Gospel; and membership in the rit on the mind. If we should perchurch is the only appointed way mit any of our readers to take up of salvation. The church, with“ its such an impression, we should feel commission deducible in direct suc. that we had misrepresented the syscession from Him whom the Father tem which it is our purpose to repsent to found it,” is to be recogni- resent plainly, but with exact fair

as the witness and keeper of ness. Be it understood, then, that holy writ, the preacher of the Gos- the system in question does not propel, the conveyer of spiritual life fess to deny the necessity of repentand nourishment, the sealer of the ance, faith, and spiritual renovation, promises." p. 11.

in order to the salvation of the soul. 3. The grace and salvation which It teaches that “ formalists and hypbelong to the church are communi- ocrites have rested in the visible cated to individual members in the membership, without the witness of ordinances or sacraments. Baptism, the Spirit in the inner man which is rightly administered, makes the re- its life.” p. 18. It teaches that “recipient a member of the church ; demption through the cross of Christ it removes the guilt of original sin, only,” while it is “ applied to the inand of all actual sins up to that dividual believer by the Spirit in the moment; it regenerates by the com- ordinances," is “apprehended by

; munication of supernatural grace, faith alone.” p. 20. Its doctrine of and thus is the commencement of grace is the doctrine of “the grace a new life ; hence it is called “the which, transmitted in the church, sacrament of regeneration.” In the from the Root, through the branches Lord's supper, rightly administered vitally joined to it by faith, alone -or, to use the language of the sys. enables them to bear their fruit." tem, in " the eucharist,” the bread Our author's theory of religion is, and wine are not mere symbols and in his own statement of it, “God in memorials of Christ's atoning death Christ; Christ in the church; the for us ; they are a real oblation to church in her offices, ordinances and God; and it is only by participa. members; all bound together in one ting in that sacrifice, by eating and mystic Body, visible in its human drinking at that altar, that the bene. members and sensible administra.

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tions, but vivified and energized by Col. i, 18, 24;) is a visible corpora. the Spirit of truth, holiness and love, tion or society, organized after one dwelling in the whole Body as its particular form, and that therefore Soul, and thereby making it, as a there is no membership in Christ's whole, His temple ; while in each body, no vital union with Christ, ex. member He also dwells, according cept by a visible membership in that to the measure of the gift of each, visible society or body politic. If thereby making the mortal body of that idea is shown to be unfounded, the individual a temple of the Holy it will need but little argument to Ghost which is in him, which he has convince a candid man that the of God.” “ This mystery of grace," whole system is erroneous. And on says the Bishop, " is the basis of the the other hand, if that idea is warwhole superstructure both of faith ranted by Scripture, there is a fair and holiness.” pp. 20, 21. In other presumption that the remainder of words, faith is indeed essential to the system is not far out of the way. justification and salvation; but the It is worth while then to inquire, church, the priesthood and the sa- What is the church' which the craments are equally essential. Faith Scriptures speak of as “the body of is indeed essential; but faith itself Christ”? What does the New Tesfastens upon the church, entrusts the tament mean by 'church,' in such soul to the authority and legitimacy a connection? of the priesthood, and apprehends In ascertaining the answer to this Christ and the benefits of his re. inquiry, it is first to be observed that demption, only as they are exhibited in strict propriety of speech there and sealed in valid sacraments. A is no such word as • church in personal experience of the inward the New Testament. The word work of the Holy Spirit is essential ; church,' or some other word iden. but the Holy Spirit is given only in tical with it in signification, is found the true visible (that is, the Episco- in all the modern languages of Chrispal) church, by a legitimately con- tendom. It is the word which grew stituted ministry, through valid ordi- up in the middle ages to denote that nances. There is indeed a certain vast and powerful institution which, “union and communion of the Head centering at Rome, overshadowed with the individual members,” (p. the world. It had' at the beginning 23,) but it is only a union and com- one definite and unequivocal meanmunion of the Head with those who ing,-a meaning very little differing are members, not directly of Christ from that which Bishop Whittingham by faith, but of the organized visible and those of his way of thinking at. church by a participation of the sa- tach to the same word now. But at craments; and in the words of our the Reformation, when the Bible was author, if you “aim at maintaining translated into the vernacular lanthe individual access of the believer guages of Europe, this word was to his Lord, independently of his con- assumed in some translations as the nection with him in the Body, [that proper word to represent some of is, in the Episcopal church,] you iso- the meanings of a certain word in late him from the fount of blessing, the New Testament. Our common and lead him to broken cisterns that translation of the Bible was made will hold no water.” p. 23.

in this way; so that in English the This whole scheme of religion' is a Bible word, and seems to originate in the idea that its meaning in popular use has been “ the church” which Paul frequently modified in consequence of its standcalls a body, and which in several ing in the Bible. The authors of the instances he calls “the body of Geneva version, which King James's Christ,” (Eph. i, 23; iv, 12; v; 23; version was designed to supersede,

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avoided the use of this word from to denote an assembly for the wor. the dialect of the middle ages, wise- ship of God under the Mosaic disly judging that if introduced into the pensation. Thus (Heb. ii, 12) it Bible it would carry something of its stands in the translation of a verse own associations along with it

. In from the Hebrew of the twenty sethis they followed the example of cond Psalm, (ver. 22,) "I will deLuther, and this was one of the clare thy name to my brethren, in things which made their version un. the midst of the congregation will I palatable to the powers that ruled in praise thee :” the allusion being ev. England. The word church,' all idently to the worshiping assembly redolent of tradition and the middle before the tabernacle or in the temages, stands in King James's ver- ple. 3. The same word is used, as sion, as the word “Easter” stands the corresponding Hebrew word is there, (Acts xii, 4,) to produce an frequently used in the Old Testaeffect upon the reader, which a lite. ment, to denote the Hebrew nation ral and exact translation would not or commonwealth. “ This is that produce. True, he who reads the Noses," said Stephen, (Acts vii, 38,) English Bible merely as it is, if he “who was in the congregation in the will read it carefully, comparing wilderness," that is, who there led Scripture with Scripture, and allow- and governed the nation of Israel. ing the sacred record to be its own 4. The same word is used to denote interpreter, need not be misled. But the meetings or assemblies of believhe who reads carelessly, presuming ers in Christ, for worship, communthat the word church in the New ion and instruction. A word in the Testament has the same meaning most common use, and of the most which it has in history, or the same extensive signification, a word very meaning which it has in the conver- much like our word meeting,' was sation or the preaching with which he most naturally employed, first to de. is most familiar, will easily misun. note the daily meetings of the disciderstand the matter. With this ex. ples at the temple and from house planation, then, we repeat the seem. to house in Jerusalem, and aftering paradox— There is no such word wards to denote similar meetings in as church' in the Bible. Neither the other places.* Whenever the word Hebrew language nor the Greek, in is so used, the context always dethe days of the Apostles, contained termines the signification, just as the or could supply any word analogous word 'meeting,' in our language, to the word • church'in English and whenever used to denote a religious in other modern languages. The assembly, is understood without dif

. word could not precede the thing. ficulty. 5. By a natural transition

Pursuing our inquiry, we may from the use of the corresponding next remark that the word translated word in the Old Testament, as one 'church,' has, in the New Testa. of the designations of the Hebrew ment, at least five different mean nation, the same word 'congregaings. 1. There is the original and tion' is used in a figurative sense, generic meaning, a meeting,' an to denote the general community • assembly,' a congregation,' for of Christ's followers, the commonwhatever purpose,

and on whatever wealth of believers.t occasion. Thus (Acts xix, 32—41) In this last use of the word its the word is used twice to denote the precise meaning varies, just as the mob in the theater at Ephesus, and meaning of the word believer,' or

", once to denote a regular town-meet- • Christian,' varies. The Christian ing.* 2. The same word is used

* New Englander, No. III, p. 399. * See the New Englander, No. III, p. 398. t Ibid. pp. 399, 400.

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community' may mean the commu- grateful and obedient affection of nity of those who are known and those whom he has reconciled to recognized as Christians. So it is himself. It is a community, a kingobviously to be understood in the dom, a congregation on Mount Zion, passage, (1 Cor. x, 32,) “Give none which includes all those whom God offense, neither to the Jews, nor to has chosen from eternity to be his the Gentiles, nor to the church] own, and whom in time he calls by congregation of God,”—all men be- his word and renews by his Spirit. ing comprehended by the writer in This is “ the church” by the prothe three classes of Jews, Gentiles gress of which is now made known or pagans, and Christians. So in to the principalities and powers in the three passages, (1 Cor. xv, 9; heavenly places”-that is, to the an. Gal. i, 13; Phil

. iii, 6,) in which Paul gels that rejoice over one sinner that speaks of himself as having "per. repenteth, _“the manifold wisdom secuted the church] congregation of God.” This is the church" of God;" —he had been the enemy in which glory is given to God of all who bore the Christian name. " through Christ Jesus throughout all So in another place, (1 Cor. xii, 28,) ages, world without end." This is Paul says that “ In the [church] "the church” the relation of which congregation,” that is, among Chris- to Christ is like the relation of the tians, “ God has appointed some to bride to her husband, and which be, in the first place, apostles, sec. Christ“ loved, and gave himself for ondly, prophets,” &c. These are it, that he might sanctify it with the all the clear instances of this shade washing of water by the word, that of meaning which occur to us. To he might present it to himself a glothese we may add the doubtful in. rious [church] assembly” of restance (Rom. xvi, 23,)“ Gaius, mine deemed and sanctified ones, not host, and of the whole congregation,” having spot or wrinkle or any such where the apostle may mean to com- thing." This is the church” which mend the hospitality of the well-be. is "the body of Christ," and to loved Gaius, either as exercised to which Christ is “ head over all wards the members of some par- things.” ticular congregation, well enough It


be here observed that alknown to those whom he was ad- most every instance of this particudressing, or as exercised towards lar use of the word is found either all Christians. But let the sacred in the epistle to the Ephesians or in writer be speaking of Christ's fol- that to the Colossians-epistles, the lowers, not as such in outward pro- whole scope of which is removed fession and recognition, but as such very far (quam longissimè) from in spirit and in truth, and then if he such topics as the outward instituhas occasion to use the word in tions of Christianity. To that man question, it assumes a higher and who imagines that “the church” more spiritual tone. In such a con- spoken of in the Scriptures as “the nection, it denotes that great spirit- body of Christ,” must be a visible ual community of chosen, redeemed, body politic, a certain organized corforgiven, sanctified souls, of which poration, we say, Read those two Christ is the founder and redeemer, epistles carefully, see what it is that and in which he is the prince or fills the apostle's mind, analyze his head. This, and not any outward arguments and the various combinaorganization, is the true kingdom of tions and successions of his thoughts, Christ--the kingdom of God; it is and then judge whether the congre. Christ living and enthroned in the re- gation of which he speaks is not generated hearts of ransomed men; identically that of which he speaks it is God in Christ reigning in the in the epistle to the Hebrews, (xii,



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22-24,) “ Ye are come to Mount just that which, to borrow terms Zion, and to the city of the living from the dialect of that party, disGod, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to tinguishes all “ Churchmen" from an innumerable company of angels, all “ Dissenters." It is just that to the general assembly and congre. which Bishop Onderdonk and Bishop gation of the first-born who are en. Doane have in common with the rolled in heaven, and to God, the Archbishop of Paris and the Patri- . judge of all, and to the spirits of just arch of Constantinople, and to which men made perfect, and to Jesus the Dr. Alexander, Dr. McAuley, Dr. mediator of the new covenant, and Merle D’Aubigné, and the missionato the blood of sprinkling that speak. ry Goodell, have no title. It is just eth better things than that of Abel.” that which unites (!) the Anglican, Who will tell us that such language the Roman, and the Oriental branas this describes a certain outward ches of the one complex and discorporation, with its prelates, its cordant “Catholicity”-one but mapriests and its ordinances,-a corpo- nifold, and which separates them, tion which includes such men as not from each other, but from every Leighton and Usher only by a prin- body else. This one “Catholic" bociple which excludes such men as dy—the unity of which, with all its Watts and Bunyan, and which has boasted visibility, is about as metaa place for Henry Martyn only by physical as the unity of three moshutting the door against Gordon narchies, two of which are at war Hall and Robert Morrison.

with each other, and both with the That “church,” then, which is third,—is the one body of Christ, by Christ's body, is none other than the virtue of its outward and “ perpetuuniversal community of penitent and ally visible” unity; and it is Christ's believing souls. Another inquiry body, because Christ loved it as a connected with the subject is,- In corporation, and gave himself for it what sense is that church Christ's as a corporation, and endowed it body? It is a body only as the in. as a corporation with sacraments, dividuals are united by some princi. priesthood, prelacy, and the grace ple of unity. What is the unity, by that is thus administered. Such is virtue of which a countless multitude the church' or high church' the. of individuals, scattered among all ory. According to the opposite nations, and living in successive or evangelical theory, the church, ages, are the one body of Christ ? the congregation or community of That principle, on the theory of the Christ's disciples, is Christ's body, Episcopalian,-or, as he loves to because all who belong to it belong call himself, the Churchman,-is the to him, and are individually and perprinciple of unity in outward organ. sonally united to him. It is their ization; it is the principle of sub- union with him which unites them

; jection to the divine institution of with each other, and makes them one prelacy, the principle of outward body; and it is not their formal uncommunion with a certain priest. ion with each other in one visible hood through operative sacraments. body, which unites them to their Sa. On this theory, as exhibited by vior. Christ is the vine and his dis. “church” authors of standard rep. ciples are the branches, (see Christ's utation, the essence of the body of own statement on this point, John Christ, the uniting principle by virtue xv, 1-10,) every individual believ. of which its many members are one er is united directly to him, as the body, is just the difference between branch to the vine, --not indirectly, Episcopalianism on the one hand as the branch to the root, through and Presbyterianism or Congrega- the trunk; and the unity of the tionalism on the other hand. It is branches is nothing else than the Vol. I..


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