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munion, but these efforts may bey must take the lead—and an enthe means of increased religious terprising pastor will accomplish life. There is no way in which much. the pastor or his church can pro- We deem it of great importance vide more effectually for kindly and to the prosperity of our churches saving impressions, than by laying in every point of view, that the hold of the sympathies of all. In particular church be not displaced no way can the young be kept from its true foundation, and from back from folly and sin, so effect. the legitimate ground of the union ually as by a cheerful air, and among its members, by any attempt pleasant words, and manifest inter to bring its influence to bear directly est on the part of the religious com- and formally upon public opinion, munity. If the members of our and the decision of matters in dis. churches would lay themselves out cussion among Christians. In this thus to do good, many pul judices way, narrow and divisive tests are against religion would be avoided, introduced, the appropriate work of their own piety would be kept from the ministry and the church is an austere and denunciatory spirit, thrust aside, and the good sense of and numberless avenues of good the community is offended, by seemight be opened by a gentle hand. ing the church forget its high vocaWe desire not that their admoni. tion. Let Christians do what seems tions should be less frequent, or the to them wise and good in voluntary steady assertion of the necessity societies, and at the ballot box, to of repentance and faith less press- remove all social evils, but let them ing ; but we do desire that the irre. welcome to their communion, all ligious and even the erring portion whom Christ would receive. Let of the community, should not be it be forever settled, that Christ re. repelled and held off at a studied ceives all who are sound in the distance. This human nature of faith and prayerful in heart, and ours was given by God, that through unspotted by offenses against the its sympathies and affections, the recognized laws of morality. Within soul might be saved. Would that the sacred enclosures of the church, we all knew it better. Direct and we meet as fellow Christians. Here frequent efforts may be made to let every difference be forgottenexcite and strengthen these bonds differences of opinion in respect of interest. The pastor may see even to what are appropriate Chris. his people often in social gather. tian duties. Let us forbear with ings, or meet them in circles at each other, and pray for each other, each other's houses, in which all and remember, that a Christian and classes shall freely meet and be kindly tolerance of one whom we welcome. Above all, may our pric think greatly in the wrong, is among vate religious meetings be more the last attainments of a soul that truly social. A freer atmosphere is ripening for heaven. Any other may pervade them. The subjects course than this, is sure to excite introduced may be more various. well-grounded prejudice in the comAll the services may have more munity, and to repel from our freedom and freshness, less con- enclosures those who have sense straint and less formalism. In this, enough to know what the church as in every good work, the pastor was designed to be.
This book, if all its parts are ta. play little critical skill, and are deken together, may be said to give an formed, not only by mistakes of the account of the new age of classical press, but also in some cases by un. study. In this, as in all departments fortunate conjectural emendations. of knowledge, there has not been a Nor was it the practice of the edi. uniform progress. Its changes and tors to give an account of the sources fluctuations may perhaps be best un- of their text. During this age, by derstood by assigning to it four pe- degrees, classical learning passed riods since the revival of letters. from Italy to the more northern The first of these periods we may countries of Europe ; and at its terminate with the middle of the six- close, Catholic orthodoxy teenth century. In this age the an. was frowning upon the language of cient classics served as guides and the New Testament in Italy ; while masters, to awaken taste and the spirit the thirst for knowledge, spread by of philosophical inquiry, and through the Reformation, and the investigathe imperfection of modern books tions consequent upon that event, were the principal sources of know. had awakened a zeal for ancient letledge. The age, like a man to ters among thé" Protestants. Towhom the stores of knowledge are wards the end of this age, Basel bejust opened, was one of ardent cu- came a literary center, where learn. riosity. Manuscripts were hunted ed men were congregated, and from after to fill the libraries of the great; which the more important editions the Greek classics were turned into were scattered abroad. Latin ; Plato being now first known, The second period may include a school of ardent Platonists arose the next hundred years, down to at Florence, and Aristotle began to 1650. This was an age of thorough be to many an abomination; anti- and universal scholarship—the manquarian researches were pushed to a hood, or at least the vigorous youth, considerable extent, especially those of classical studies. In it every kind which related to the Roman repub- of knowledge relating to this delic. The pioneers in this age were partment received a new start. Now Italians and Greek exiles. The first the want of a thorough revision greater
number of books were of the text of ancient authors began printed at Venice and other Italian to be felt, and now first arose men towns. The editions, though now whom all succeeding scholars have valuable to the editor, as giving looked to as occupying the first rank. readings from manuscripts which It is remarkable that the most emimay have disappeared ; and though nent of these scholars were Frencheagerly sought for by bibliomanists, men of the Protestant faith, who on account of their scarcity,t dis- spent the best part of their lives in foreign countries. Joseph Scaliger, Holland indeed had produced from Casaubon, and perhaps Salmasius, age to age since the Reformation, deserve to be put at the head of the
* Classical Studies, by Proff. Sears, Ed- others of the same kind from the manuwards, and Felton. Boston, 1843. scripts a few years since, mentions in his
+ A principal reason for the scarcity of preface that he knew of but two entire many of the first editions is, that books copies of the Aldine edition in Germany, were read to pieces, and worn out in the seven in the Italian libraries, and iwo at uses of the lecture-room. This is partic. Paris, besides one for sale at Florence, for ularly the case with the Rhetores Græci which the bookseller asked $50. When of Aldus, in 2 vols., Venice, 1508-9, a the mode of teaching thetoric changed, book much used in teaching the rules of the book ceased 10 be called for, and no style. Prof. Walz, of Tubingen, who for new edition was published for three centhe second time edited these writers and turies.
of plodding and accurate schol. literati of their time. Scaliger ex. ars, and had been an asylum for forcelled by the force of his genius, eign literati, whose Protestant opinand among other services to the ions drove them out from their nacause of letters, first brought chro- tive lands. Since the University of nology out of its chaotic state. Ca. Leyden was founded, a succession saubon, on account of his vast learn. of eminent men had taught, such as ing and sound judgment, may claim no other seat of learning in Europe the first place among classical schol. can boast of. In no other place perars, particularly in Greek. Salma. haps in the world can an exhibition sius, far inferior in acuteness to be made, like that which is presentmany who have had a less name, ed in the unpretending hall where explored the nooks and crannies of the portraits of the professors of ancient literature, as an antiquarian, Leyden are collected. and exbibited in his works rather
În the volume before us appears vast reading than sound judgment. an account of the Dutch school of
From the middle of the seven- philosophy in the last century, preteenth until the latter part of the pared by Prof. Edwards, of Ando. eighteenth century, which forms our ver. It begins with Hemsterhuys, third period, the attention to classic- who was contemporary with Bental literature rather declined than ad. ley at the beginning of the century, vanced. Whether this was owing and ends with Wyttenbach, who died to the wars which in the middle of in 1820. It will be read with great the seventeenth century absorbed interest by the classical scholar, as the interest of England, France and a learned and careful account of seGermany, and in a measure barba- veral men who have done service rized the latter country, or to the to the cause of letters. The mate. increased attention now paid to na- rials for the lives of the principal tive and modern literature, or to the Dutch scholars are ample. Ruhnadvancing study of the sciences, ken has set forth the merits of his whatever may have been the cause, master, Hemsterhuys, in a eulogy the fact was as we have represented almost unrivaled for its Latinity. . it. Any one may satisfy himself of Wyttenbach has written the biogra. the fact, by running over the leaves phy of Ruhnken, and in turn has of a bibliographical manual, and ex- been commemorated by one of his amining the dates of the editions. pupils. Perhaps this careful regard He will find the years from 1550 to for the memory of these three men, 1650 fertile in reprints of the clas- and the entertaining mode in which sics, while those from 1650 to 1750 that memory has been preserved, were comparatively barren. In Eng- have exalted them unduly above two land, the singly truly eminent schol- of their friends and compeers, Wesar of this period is Bentley; and seling and Valckenaer, who would his controversy with Boyle shows not fall below them as useful guides the low state of classical learning at to subsequent scholars. If we look Oxford, where the most eminent at the characteristics of the Dutch scholars lent their aid to Boyle, but school as it is called, we may be led could not stand up against a blow to doubt whether it deserves the from the little finger of the Cam- name of a school, and whether there bridge giant. The only other coun- was any decided mark by which we try where these studies were pursued can distinguish the successors of with much ability and zeal, was Hol. Hemsterhuys from those who went land.
before him. They all had the same way of writing annotations, the same Through Porson and his followers it behabit of loading their common place
came so exquisite and so limited to the books with parallel passages collect- tragedians, to the neglect of the orators,
mere language and meter of the Greek ed from every quarter, the same historians and philosophers, as to lose its often unnecessary display of learn. strong hold on the character of the na
tion. ing. It must be confessed, howev. er, that Hemsterhuys mingled some. This is just, and the cause of the thing of French genius and directe defect was owing, it would seem, ness with Dutch scholarship; that partly to the practice in the English he surpassed his immediate prede schools of composing Greek verses, cessors in the knowledge of Greek as the scholar's most serious task, literature, and that he took a very and partly to the national trait of broad view of what was required to being content to follow in the steps form a finished scholar. But if of a leader, without having the en. compared with Bentley, he must be terprise or independence of seeking pronounced to fall far below him, to go beyond him. Had Porson live both in acuteness and invention. ed to old age, and been a man of We will say nothing of the highly good habits and high principles, finished scholarship of Ruhnken, the there is every reason to believe that evidences of which for posterity are he would have opened many other ample, but lie within a small com. paths for his successors ; although pass; nor of his successor, Wytten- in that case he would probably have bach, who revived the study of gone into the church, and received Greek philosophy. But of the lite preferment, unless his politics had rati of Holland during the last age, stood in the way. He was a man in general it may be said, that, while of incomparable acuteness, of vast they made no brilliant discoveries or reading in Greek literature and wonimprovements in their branch, they derful memory, and if not gifted deserve to be remembered for set. with a philosophical mind, was qualting examples of a scholarship more ified in some respects to go beyond complete and elegant than had be. any scholar of the last century. Before been seen. They were guilty, ing such as he was, he did but little. however, of the fault of putting too He opened one path, new though much value upon scholarship in it- narrow, and was of essential service self considered, and did not come in calling the Germans to the study to the ancient writers with those se- of ancient meters, and to nicer obrious purposes reaching beyond the servations of style, than had been text, which characterize many of known before. His followers in his the earlier scholars.
own country did little besides cor. Towards the close of the last cen. recting and extending his researches tury arose in England a school prop- in one direction. The consequence erly deserving the name, and differ- of this limited range of study was, ing in some respects, from any that that when the English scholars, af. had preceded it. Dr. Sears speaks ter the peace of Europe, became of English scholarship as follows: familiar with the labors of their con
"England in the days of Stanley pur- tinental brethren, their native school sued the favorite method of polyhistory, lost much of its respect in their as it was termed, which was introduced eyes, and now the best of them are by the French and carried to an extreme by the Dutch. At a later period it (Eng
more nourished by the fruits of Ger. land or what?) separated history and ge
man scholarship than of their own. ography from philology and criticism,
and A considerable portion of the work under Bentley, Taylor, Markland, Tyr- before us is taken up with a sketch whitt and others, English philology rose to such an eminence as to become the ad
of the German school, with specimiration of the learned of all countries. mens of its literary correspondence, and with biographical accounts in acted with mighty power on the the shape of notes of the more emi minds of those who thought at all; nent German scholars. This part and in Germany, where action is is executed by Dr. Sears, of the fettered, much of this excitement Baptist Theological Seminary at spent itself in speculation and in hisNewton; and no scholar in our coun. torical inquiry. A new literature, try, exclusively devoted to teaching too, was rising in Germany ; the the classics, could have shown more language began to be regarded as familiarity with this subject, or giv- fit for something else than to talk to en better proof that he understood horses in ; the chords of the nationthe progress of classical study in al mind were moved by lyric and Germany and the respective merits dramatic poets. Lastly, philosophy of the German scholars. We must appeared under a new form; a rev. acknowledge ourselves his debtors olution in opinion took place, and for much useful information, and aroused multitudes of minds to vig. can vouch for the great accuracy orous action, calling forth talent in and judgment of those parts which every department of thinking, just are not new to us.
as a revolution in government, in. Dr. Sears dates the improvement volving strife and war, calls out milof German scholarship from Wink. itary talent. elmann and Heyne, the former of One of the first characteristics of whom, first of the moderns, under the modern German scholar, which stood and appreciated ancient art; developed itself was literary skepti. and the latter, forsaking the dull cism. Emancipated by the spirit of plodding manner of earlier German the times from ihe restraints of aulecturers, first felt the soul of an. thority, he trampled it in the dust, and cient poetry. To Winkelmann cer- took delight in setting it at naught. tainly great praise is due, and yet There are not many ancient authors the discovery of Pompeii and Her the integrity of whose works was culaneum, and the rise of the new not now attacked. Wolf, a man of school of sculpture, ought not to be powerful mind, led the way, and overlooked, as causes which turned soon a person needed courage to the mind of Europe to the charac- avow his belief that Homer knew teristics of ancient art, and awaken. how to write, or had any thing to ed a general sense of the beautiful. write with, or wrote if he knew how, With regard to Heyne we are dis. or that there was any personal Hoposed to be more in doubt. He mer. It is needless to go into parmay have been as a one-eyed man ticulars : such an epidemic fever of among the blind, and in a certain skepticism is not deep seated in the sense have been the first name on human mind, and can not last long. the list of the age; but he was not It passed away therefore like a mist, a very great scholar. His Latin and left clear sky behind. Good was style, it is known, is but indifferent. done by it. The close examinations His critical powers are not of a very of style and siftings of evidence to high order, and if he is alive to the which it called, showed some passabeauties of poetry, we are not aware ges to be interpolations and some that his remarks show any profound works to be spurious, but showed sense of the laws of taste.
likewise that tradition was right in The true causes of the excellence the main, as to the genuineness of of the German scholars must be found ancient works. And it is not likely in the history of the times, and the that, for several generations to come, rise of a new literature and a new there will be another ebullition of philosophy. The times, by their this skeptical spirit. The danger changeful and wonderful events, now lies rather in the other direction.