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there a verdant youth has been been so ill taught as to say that he wrought upon by these representa could receive the decrees of the tions, and has actually gone over to Council of Trent, the damnatory the Episcopal church as a haven clauses excepted—the man who has of rest where no din of controversy studied to so little purpose that he is was ever to disturb him. Few, how. not prepared either to deny or posi. ever, have been thus imposed upon. tively to affirm the "grave doctrines” The speculative have known that in which the standards of the church there must be--and the observing of England differ from the solemn have seen that there were diversis decisions and established formulaties of opinion among Episcopalians, ries of the church of Rome-the on questions of doctrine and ques- man whose four years of theological tions of policy, diversities not un. study have left him in doubt whethattended with various degrees of er the story of Bel and the Dragon, alienation and mutual dislike, and or that of Tobit and the fish, may which in due time, must needs take not be a veritable piece of inspired wind and blaze forth into conirover. Scripture—the man who, after all sy. The present controversy may his studies believes that the souls of be got under; and the thin veil may the faithful departed are to be pray. again be spread over the elements ed for by the faithful on earth, and of division, but those elements will may be benefited by the “sacri. be there still, ready to blaze outfice of the altar,” and who at the again when some free wind shall same time would not deny, that de. blow upon them.

parted saints may also be prayed Our next observation is, that to, as intercessors before God, with Drs. Smith and Anthon, considered the petition, “pray for us,”—that as ministers of the gospel, were man, though he were more learned clearly right in opposing the intro- than Baronius, more profound than duction of Mr. Carey to the office Thomas Aquinas, more eloquent and work of a religious teacher. than Peter the hermit, and more We do not charge Mr. C. or his saintly than Simeon Stylites, is not friends with Romanism. So far as fit to be entrusted with the function we recollect, every doctrine which of preaching the gospel of the grace they hold, offensive to the protesters, of God. is as much a doctrine of the Greek Another point equally clear, if church as of the Latin. We doubt we rightly understand the consti. not that they sincerely reject what tution, history and position of the they recognize as the errors and church of England, and of the An. abuses of Rome,—and first and glican church in the United States, chiefly, the claims of the Pope to be is, that as ministers of that church, recognized as Christ's vicar, the Drs. Smith and Anthon have been center of unity to the universal greatly in the wrong. church, and the infallible arbiter of (1.) The theory of that church controversies. Mr. C.'s saying that is, that the entire power of ordainif he were refused admission to the ing men to the work of the ministry, ministry of the Protestant Episcopal is with the bishops. In practice, the church, he “might possiblybecome exercise of that power is limited by a Papist, is far from making him a constitutions and canons, each dioPapist now. It is little more than cesan church having a constitution saying that he could not tell what and canons of its own, additional to course his mind would take, in cir. those of the national church or concumstances of unexpected and pe- sociation of dioceses.

It appears culiar trial. But we are clear in that, by the canons, Bishop Ondere the opinion that the man who has donk was forbidden to ordain Mr. Carey, without a certificate, in a As to that call in the form of orcertain form, subscribed by the rec. dination, to which these two gentletor and vestry of his own or of some men responded with their protests, other parish. When Dr. Smith had we have only to say, that most pal. arrived at the conclusion that Mr. pably it is a call for information. Carey was holding opinions contra. Certainly it is not a call for protests ry to the doctrine of the Protestant founded on alledged facts which the Episcopal church, it was right for Bishop has already investigated to him to refuse the certificate, which his own satisfaction, and on which

, no canon required him to subscribe he has formed a definitive judgment. contrary to his own conviction in re. The bishop is the ordaining power, gard to the facts. When he had re- and from his decision in a case of fused the certificate, it seems to have ordination there is no appeal. A been proper to communicate the fact protest, therefore, against his pro. of his refusal and the reasons of it ceeding to carry into effect his own to the Bishop. But there his re- decision in a case which he had de. sponsibility appears to have ended. liberately and formally investigated, When Dr. Smith applied to his friend was a mere impertinence. The min. Dr. Anthon for advice, it was right ister of the Gospel who consents to for Dr. A. to give advice according exercise his ministry under the reg. to his best judgment, and there ulations of the Episcopal church, his responsibility ended. When the does so with his eyes open.

He Bishop determined to hold a special goes into that connection for the examination in the case of Mr. Ca. very reason that there the Bishop of rey, and invited those two presbyters the diocese is the sole ordainer of to be of the council that was to ad. inferior ministers. He goes thither vise him on that occasion, then a for the very reason that there he, as new responsibility was imposed on an inferior minister, is to have no them by the act of the Bishop. In potential voice and no responsibility that examination, it was right for in determining who shall take part them to do their utmost towards with him in that ministry. His probringing out palpably before the test then, in a case which happens to Bishop those opinions of Mr. Carey's be determined contrary to his judg. which they deemed contrary to the ment, is only a blotting of paper doctrine of the church ; and then it which a more considerate man would was right for them, as members of have saved for some better use. the council, to give their opinion and If the Bishop, in the exercise of his advice when called for. But when ordaining power, violates the constithis had been done, and the council tution and canons of the church, he (which was created only to give its is of course responsible for that viadvice to the Bishop) had ceased olation. He may be regularly prosto exist, their responsibility ceased. ecuted; he may be brought to trial What more had they to do in the before a council of neighboring Bishmatter? Was it their duty to over- ops; he may be judicially censured, see the Bishop, and make him do or even deposed, according to the right? Should he do wrong, would extent of his delinquency. Such is they be answerable for that wrong, the course which these gentlemen either to the church or to God? ought to have taken with their BishThey seem to have supposed that op, if they considered him guilty of they were members of a presbytery, a violation of the compact between or at least to have supposed that him and his diocese. Their protest, some portion of the ordaining power their publication, their statement of was directly or indirectly in their 6 the true issue for the true church. hands.

man,”- -we can make nothing of all


that, but an appeal against their bishop Abbott was succeeded by the Bishop to the people. As if the Catholic Archbishop Laud; and the people had any thing to do or to say moderate and evangelical Archbish. in a question of ordination.

op Usher was contemporary with (2.) There is another view which both. After the restoration, Arch. is to our minds equally conclusive. bishop Leighton was contemporary The reformation of the Anglican with ever so many Bishops and Archchurch, as completed and establish- bishops of the Laudean school. How ed under Queen Elizabeth, was is it with the church of England now? distinctly designed not to expel or Does the avowal of such opinions as exclude from the ministry of the Mr. Carey's operate either to deprive church such men as Mr. Carey. A a clergyman of his preferments, or strong infusion of sound evangelical to prevent the ordination of a candidor Protestant doctrine was put into ate? To come nearer home, how is the articles and the homilies, and it-how has it always been with the evangelical preaching was tolerated, Anglican American church? Was provided the preacher would closely not Bishop Seabury its first bishop? conform to the canons and the ru- And was not the church constituted brics. On the other hand, the litur. and organized as one church by a gy, and to some extent the homilies, compromise between opinions as vaand even the articles, were-we do riant as those of Bishop Seabury and not say Popish or Romish, but, those of Bishop White? Is not the “Catholic;" and no pains were spar- most catholic Bishop Doane contemed to conciliate and retain in the porary with the evangelical Bishop church every man who was willing McIlvaine ; and in the house of Bishto renounce the Pope's supremacy, ops, has not one of these prelates as to subscribe the articles, to obey the many rights as the other ? Nay, canons, and to perform the worship what opinion has Mr. Carey been of the liturgy as purified and trans- proved to hold, which can not be lated. Thus the reformation of the found plainly asserted in that standEnglish church was essentially a ard work, edited by Bishop Whitcompromise, or an attempted com- tingham, Palmer on the Church ? promise, between opposite opinions. We

say then, in conclusion, that It was designed to include on the Drs. Smith and Anthon, in protesting one hand the most extreme Protes. against the ordination of Mr. Catantism short of that which rejected rey, and in appealing to the public the hierarchy, the vestments and the against the action of their Bishop, ceremonies, and on the other hand have forgotten their position, and the most extreme Catholicity short have acted more like free ministers of Romanism. And from the age of the gospel of Christ, than like of the Reformation to the present Episcopalian presbyters. The reday, nothing in the history of the sult will therefore be, that they will Anglican church is more striking find the Bishop and the church too than its great toleration, to say the strong for them. The protests and least, towards such opinions as Mr. appeal will react against their auCarey's. Queen Elizabeth herself thors. Mr. Carey, instead of being was so much of a Catholic, that she put down, as a Papist obtruding himhad a crucifix to aid her devotions, self among Protestants, will be honand would never consent to legalize ored and esteemed as almost a conthe marriage of the clergy. In the fessor, and, if he lives long enough, following age, the Calvinistic Arch- will be a Bishop.



Discourse before the Alumni of Yale on account of the endless complex

College, August 16, 1843. By ity of the forms and relations of huHORACE BUSHNELL, D. D., Pas- man actions, it is often difficult to tor of the North Congregational distinguish what forms are “ useful, Church, Hartford, Conn. New equal, true, beautiful,” in a word, Haven, published by A. H. Malt- what forms best express the idea of by; pp. 39, 8vo.

right. And hence the rules for vir.

tuous action are indefinite, obscure, The professed subject of this mere approximations to a perfect splendid effusion of genius, is "the code, and liable to change according moral Tendencies and Results of to the state of society in which men Human History.” A more appro- are placed. priate title, perhaps, would be the According to the twofold nature Natural History of Morality, consid- of virtue, “there are two ways in ered both as an ideal principle, and which it may possibly advance its as a practical law. The author's power, and only two;” viz. by infirst position is, that “the order of vigorating the conscience, or the donature is, what is physical first, what minion of the idea which is the in. is moral afterwards.” This he il ternal principle of virtue ; and by lustrates with his usual felicity, in quickening and disciplining the pow. the progress of the new-born infant, er of discriminating those forms of the natural world, language, reli- action which best display the beaugion, and civil government. His tiful characteristics of virtue. We next and main position is, “ that it will, therefore, first, show, in a genis the great problem of human his. eral way, that the moral element in tory to enthrone the moral element- man is actually subject to these two that is, the element of virtue.” Af. laws of advancement; and then ter a passing remark on the great describe three distinct forces the aim and object of the institution, Greek, the Roman, and the Christwhose Alumni he was addressing, ian, entering most vigorously into he proceeds to illustrate his main this progress. position, by showing how the moral In the infancy of the race, as in element of our being may be strength that of an individual, the reflective ened and made predominant. habit is deficient; and virtue is im.

“ Virtue,” he says, “is twofold. pulsive, or the result of feeling, It includes an inward principle, and rather than the result of delibera. an outward conduct or manifesta- tion. But as the mind becomes retion.” As an inward principle, it is flective in its habit, it perceives dis"an idea of the mind--a simple, tinctly the imperative law of right, eternal, immutable idea, viz. right.and “ discovers remorse coiled up All virtue, and all religion, consist as a wounded snake and hissing unin obedience to the law of this one der the hrone of the mind.” The idea. As an outward conductor cultivation of mathematics and of manifestation, virtue is a mere form the exact sciences, likewise, “ gives of action, representing and exhibit- greater verity to ideas and to laws ing the eternal and immutable idea of mental necessity, and so to the law which is the substance of virtue; of the conscience.” “Next, public just as the mathematician's diagrams law becomes a rigid science,” esare forms and representations of his tablishing rules of right and wrong, ideal right lines, circles, &c. But and weighing merit and demerit in

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her balance. And if a condition of to distinguish it as a savage people's liberty be achieved, the tone of mor- code. So with that of a civilized. al obligation is the more strength. The very changes and inventions of ened. Such are some of the stages society necessitate an amplification of advance in the moral tone of and often a revision of the moral the conscience."

code. Every new state, office, art, But the outward code of virtue and thing, must have its law.” “If must also be perfected, or virtue bills of exchange are invented, if can not enjoy vigorous health. Of money is coined, if banks are escourse, this code is continually re- tablished, and offices of insurance, vised, refined, and enlarged. For, if great corporate investments are as an outward code, “it is no fixed introduced into the machinery of immutable thing, as many suppose. business, it will not be long before a Custom is its interpreter, and it body of moral opinions will be gen. grows up in the same way as the erated, and take the form of law common or civil law, or the law over these new creations. Fire merchant, by a constant process of arms, also, printing, theaters, distiladditions and refinements." Not led spirits, cards, dice, medicinethat virtue itself is a mutable thing. all new products and inventions must But as it is a mere idea of the mind, come under moral maxims, and crecommanding the right and forbido ate to themselves a new moral jurisding the wrong, it lies not in the prudence. The introduction of popoutward actions themselves, any ular liberty makes the subject a new more than time in the clock that man, lays upon him new duties, measures it, but only in the form of which require to be set forth in new actions as manifesting its eternal and maxims of morality.” New arts immutable laws. The statutes of and inventions often so change the the revealed law of God are of two relations of old things and practices, kinds, positive and permissive. The as to require a revision of their laws. former are eternal and immutable The Jew may rightfully take his inin their obligation; but the latter terest money now; for he lives in a change with the advancement of so. new world, and sustains new relaciety. “ Angelic law is possible tions. And we are now “revising only to angelic advancement.” God the moral code in reference to must train man gradually, and wait three very important subjectslong for his advancement to such wine, slavery, and war.” Look also perfection, that his moral taste shall at the international code, the law of " approximate to a coincidence with nations. It originated with Hugo the perfect moral taste of God him. Grotius, about two centuries ago, self.” If we look at the faults of and how has it changed the whole Noah, Abraham, Jacob, &c., “it intercourse of nations ! Commer. was not so much sin as barbarism, cial and municipal law, too, have that marred their history.” And the made equal advances. “ The world harsh features of the Jewish moral has become another world. An. code gradually became more mild, archy and absolute will are put till at length Christianity infused in. aside, to suffer the dominion of sci. to it“ benevolence and forbearance,' entific justice. The nations are be. and “the Jew is lost in the man, and come to a great extent, one empire. the man becomes a brother of his The citizen of one country may race."

travel and trade in almost every What we see in sacred history, is other. Wars are mitigated in fe. equally visible in the general history rocity, and military preparations beof man. “ The moral code of a gin to wear the semblance of anti. savage people has always something quated usages."

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