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Such progress is seen in the his- trumpet in their bosoms.” This tory of the past. " What now is to may be owing, in part, to their strict come? By what future events and military discipline, which requires changes shall the work go on to its implicit obedience, and subjects ev. completion ?” of the forces that ery action to rigid law: in part, also, have been at work some were tem- to their religion which acknowledged porary in their effects, as the Goth- gods that kept their integrity,"and ic irruptions, the crusades, the feu- “ erected temples to the mere ideals dal system, the free cities, and their of virtue, Faith, Concord, Modesty, commerce : but there are three oth- Peace.” The sobriety, frugality, er forces which still continue to act, and all the rigid virtues of rural ag. and will ever act; namely, the ricultural life, in the intervals of Greek æsthetic discipline, the Ro. war, conduced to the same end. man law, and the Christian faith. Witness Cato, the Censor. “ These must always work on to- man virtue, therefore, became a gether, as they have done up to this proverb, to denote that strength of time, to assist the triumph of the principle which can bend to no outmoral element.”
, ward obstacle or seduction." The Greek character lacked a her civil code she has erected the moral tone. The best of her phi- mightiest monument of reason and losophers were charmed with vir- of moral power that has ever yet tue, rather as the fair than as the been raised by human genius." right.”
" At the same time, their Such is the moral value of the sense of beauty in forms, their fac. Greek art and literature, such of the ulty of outward criticism is perfect." Roman law-one as a contribution Hence, everything they do or to the outward form of virtue, the write, “ is subtle, ethereal, beautiful, other to the authority and power of and cold ;" they were “blind to the moral sentiment itself.” “It rethe real nature and power of the mains to speak of a third power,
de. moral element. And yet this peo- scending from above, to bring the ple have done a work in their way, Divine life into history and hasten which is essential to the triumph of that moral age, towards which its virtue. Their sense of beauty, their lines are ever converging." nice discriminations of art and po- ligion, in Christianity, we view God etic genius, are contributions made himself as coming into mental conto the outward life and law of vir- templation, as objective to the inteltue.” For, “to mature the code of lect and heart, and operating thus as action, and finish its perfect adapta. a moral cause. Here he shows, tion to the expression of virtue, and above us an external government of render it the ornament of life, re. laws and retributions connected with quires a power of form, or of outward the internal law of the conscience; criticism in full development. Con- opens worlds of glory and pain bcsidered in this view it is impossible yond this life; presents himself as to overrate the value of the Greek an object of contemplation, fear, art.”
love, and desire ; reveals his own in. “ As the ideal of the Greeks was finite excellence and beauty, and beauty, so that of the Romans was withal, his tenderness and persuasive law and scientific justice.” “ It was goodness; and so pours the Divine a distinction of the Roman people, life into the dark and soured bosom that they had a strong sense of mor. of sin." But Grecian æsihetic crit. al principle. They would feel the icism and Roman enthronement of authority of what some call an ab- law were necessary, to render the straction, and suffer its rigid sway. great excellence and beauty of Their conscience had the tone of a Christianity intelligible. And hence
- In re
Jesus Christ did not make his ap- will be discontinued. Temperance pearance, “till the Greek letters and better habits will much improve and the Roman sovereignty were ex- the physical man, and the comforts tended through the world.”
of life will be multiplied. And the “I will not trace the historical ac. era of genius will begin." The old tion of Christianity, or show how it leaden atmosphere of a physical age has subordinated and wrought in all will be displaced by an intellectual other causes, such as I have named.” atmosphere." “ But what is the Every one knows that it has perva. greatest pre-eminence, it shall come ded and moulded every department to pass, that, as the ideal of the of society, and, after reigning for Greeks was beauty, and that of the eighteen hundred years,
“ has made Romans law, so this new age shall us what we are in art, literature, embrace an ideal more comprehen. commerce, law, and liberty.” “I sive, as it is higher than all, namely, will only point you to a single symp. Love: a love embracing all that is tom of the times: all the old rules beneficent, pure, true, beautifulof morality which hung upon the God, man, eternity, time.” colder principle of justice, are suf- The discourse concludes with an fering a revision, to execute the address to the Alumni, exhorting principle of love, and every thing them to have faith in the future, to in public law and private duty is look away from the past, to foster coming to the one test of beneficence.” all attempts to improve our race;
“Here I will rest my argument. and, as scholars, to strive“ to be I undertook to show you that human lawgivers, bringing forth to men the history ascends from the physical to determinations of reason, and assistthe moral, and must ultimately issue ing them to construct the science of in a moral age. What stupendous goodness." events and overturnings are, here- This brief summary of the lead. after, lo come pouring their floods ing positions in the discourse, can into the currents of human history, give but an imperfect view of its we can not know or conjecture :" many new and original thoughts, but the "three great moral forces which, whatever may be thought of already described—the Greek, the the correctness of a portion of them, Roman, and the Christian, being in- must be acknowledged to be exdestructible, must roll on down the pressed with all the fascinations of whole future of man, and work their style for which the ingenious author effects in his history.” “I anticipate is distinguished. no perfect state, such as fills the overheated fancy of certain dream Pictorial History of the United ers. The perfectibility of man is for.
States, from the discovery of the ever excluded, here, by the tenure
Northmen in the Tenth Century, to of his existence." “ But a day will come when the dominion of igno.
the present time. By John Frost,
A. M., Professor of Belles Letters rance and physical force, when dis. tinctions of blood and the accidents
in the High School of Philadel.
phia. Embellished with three of fortune will cease to rule the
hundred engravings, from original world. Beauty, reason, science,
. personal worth and religion will
drawings, by W. Croome. Pubcome into their rightful supremacy,
lished by E. H. Butler, Philaand moral forces will preside over
delphia. physical, as mind over the body." The typographical execution of Then liberty and equality will be this work is very neat, and the picgreatly advanced. Policy will give torial embellishments as far as we place to equity and reason. Wars have examined them, are well designed. The only part of the his- chusetts." This is a mistake. It
. tory, which we have read, is that in was the object of these colonists, which an account is given of the when they left Massachusetts, to esfirst settlement of the colony of tablish themselves without the jurisNew Haven. It is contained in the diction of any previous English settwo following paragraphs:
tlement; and neither they nor the
people of Massachusetts, ever sup“ Settlements were constantly forming, and new emigrants arriving from Eng.
posed that Quinnipiack was within land. In the summer of 1637, John Dav.
is the limits of that colony's patent.” enport, a celebrated London minister, ar- So far were the colonists at New rived at Boston, accompanied by several Haven from acknowledging the aumerchants and other persons of respectabilily. But they did not find in Massa- thority of Massachusetts, that they chusetts sufficient room for the many em
maintained an entirely independent igrants they expected to follow them, and government from the first planting therefore requested of their friends in of their colony till a tardy acknowlConnecticut to purchase for them, from the natives of the soil, all the land lying edgment of Charles II, after his between the Connecticut and the Hudson restoration. We are told, that “the rivers. This purchase was in part effect- colonists received the land from Moed, and in the autumn a journey was
manguin, sachem of the country, in made to Connecticut by some of the com. pany, who erected a hut at Quinnipiack, consideration of being protected by where several men passed the winter. the English from hostile Indians.” The rest of the company sailed from Bog. This consideration is, indeed, men. ton in the spring following, and soon reached the desired port. They kept
tioned in the deed conveying the their first Sabbath under a large spreading territory of Quinnipiack to the col. oak, April 18th. In November,' the colonists; but what the Indians probaonists received the land from Momanguin, bly considered as a substantial part sacher of the country, in consideration of being protected by the English from
of the compensation, consisted of hostile Indians. Davenport promised to
articles of clothing, and various protect him and his tribe, and obtained a utensils to be used for domestic pursufficient quantity of land to plant, on the poses, or in agriculture.
The name east side of the harbor. The next month, the colonists purchased another tract to the of the sachem was not Momanguin, north of the former; and soon after laid but Momauguin, or Momaugin. out a town in squares, on the plan of a The historian says, that “Davenspacious city, to which they gave the port promised to protect him (the name of New Haven.
“ The colonists at New Haven at first ac. sachem) and his tribe, and obtained knowledged the authority of Massachu. a sufficient quantity of land to plant, setis : but as they were evidently without on the east side of the harbor." the limits of thăt colony's patent, they The fact is, that the colonists cove. convened an Assembly early the next year, (1639,) and established a constitution nanted, that “if at any time here. of independent powers. The same year, after, they [the Indians) be affrightthe colony at Hartford formed a constitu; ed in their dwellings assigned by the tion similar to that of New Haven : and the two colonies remained distinct until English unto them as before, they 1661, when they were united under the may repair to the English plantation new charter. The union thus effected for shelter ; and that the English rendered the colonies formidable to the
will there, in a just cause, endeavor Dutch, and the Indians, and also secured greater harmony and peace among them.
to defend them from wrong. But in selves.” Vol. I, pp. 202, 203.
any quarrel or wars which they
shall undertake, or have with other This short narrative is somewhat Indians upon any occasion whatever, remarkable for the number of errors they will manage their affairs by which it contains ; some of which themselves, without expecting any we will notice. It is said, that “the aid from the English.” This was colonists of New Haven at first ac- all the protection promised. It was knowledged the authority of Massa- the Indians, not the English, who Vol. I.
were to have land to plant “ on the worship him with sincerity. Ac. east side of the harbor." The land ceptable worship not only includes acquired by the English was west of these distinguishing views and affec. the river Quinnipiack. We are told, tions, but excludes every species of
“ that the colonists“ kept their first superstition,” as that “ of place, of Sabbath under a large spreading oak, forms, of priestly intervention, and
, April 18th.” April 18th, 1638, was of the substitution of offerings, and Wednesday. There is in Trum- bodily sufferings for moral quali- . bull, in the account of this fact, a ties.” “ The simple words of the typographical error. It should be text, received by the church, would April 15th.
sweep away at once every form and It is further stated, that "the two vestige of superstition, and all hycolonies (Connecticut and New Ha. pocrisy. Superstition and hypocven) remained distinct until 1661, risy--these have always been the when they were united under the great sources of corruption to the new charter." The charter was not church." Such being the characgranted till April, 1662, and the teristics of spiritual worship, how union took place in 1665. Judging may it be best promoted ? “ 'The from this specimen of the history, answer to this question,” says Dr. we should infer, that in the compo- Hopkins, “must be drawn either sition of it, the proper authorities from the Bible, or from the constituhad been but rarely and very imper. tion of man. But these conspire fectly consulted.
in teaching us that the worship of
God in spirit and in truth, can be A Sermon delivered before the Pas promoted only by presenting to the toral Association of Massachu
mind the character of God, as a setts, in Park street Church, Bos- spiritual and holy being, as a Father, , ton, May 30th, 1843. By Mark a Redeemer, and Sanctifier, in such HOPKINS, D.D., President of affecting lights as to call forth suitaWilliams College. Published by ble emotions, and a right course of request of the Association. Bos. moral action toward him. All truly ton, Tappan & Dennet, 1843. religious emotion must be called
forth in view of some manifestation The terms of high commendation of the character of God, and it is in which this discourse was spoken only as that is presented either di. of by those who heard it, and by recily or indirectly, that any thing the press, was not an extravagant can be done to improve the religious tribute to the taste, wisdom, and pi- character, or to promote acceptable ety which beam out on every page. worship. " “But here the question After explaining with much simpli- arises, are we required by the Bible, city and truthfulness the meaning of or by the nature of man, to address his text—God is a Spirit; and they these faculties alone ? May not other that worship him, must worship him faculties and principles of our nain spirit and in truth—Dr. Hopkins ture be cultivated in connection with proceeds to exhibit the characteris. them, not merely incidentally, as tics of acceptable worship, and the many of them must be, but systembest means of promoting it. To atically?” May not religion be proworship God acceptably, we must moted" by addressing the senses worship him in spirit, and in truth. and the imagination by means of To worship him in spirit, we must forms and ceremonies; or secondly, worship him as a Spirit--we must by an appeal to the imagination, and worship him as a holy God and to taste, through the fine arts; or we must worship him with the spirit. thirdly, by an appeal to the princi. To worship him in truth, we must ple of association; or fourthly, to
the social principle and the affec- and the results where this has been tions?” How Dr. Hopkins treats attempted, are such as to make us these inquiries may be seen from feel, that though it may be somethe following specimen: “We next times innocent, it is always dangerinquire whether we may not take ous, and to lead us to observe only advantage of the principle of asso- those forms which the Savior insti. ciation to aid devotion, and espe. tuted as necessary to the visibility cially of that well-known fact, that of his church. When we see at this our ideas of things invisible, become day, a whole city moved because more vivid and affecting, when they a bone of a good man who died are associated with sensible objects. some 1400 years ago, is, or is sup. Has not our Savior himself, taken posed to be found; and when we advantage of this principle in insti- see the dignitaries of a church per. tuting the sacraments? and may we forming over it ceremonies, and car. not follow his example and carry rying it in pompous procession; and out the same principle in other when we see the same people burnthings ? Will not a cross, erected ing Bibles, and persecuting those or represented in the church, re- who would enlighten the people, we mind us of our Savior's sufferings? feel that we can not be too careful Will not consecrated water at the how we take the first step towards a door, remind us of our need of pu- degeneracy, and a perversion of the rification ? Will not incense as- gospel so awful. The question is, cending, give us an affecting sense not whether the principle of assoof the efficacy of prayer? Will not ciation shall operate in connection a relic of some ancient saint, re- with religion. It will, and must do mind us of his virtues, and lead us so in connection with the visibility of to imitate them ? May we not use- the church in any form, and around fully set apart, as they did under that church associations the most the old dispensation, a particular tender, and hallowed, and enduring, form of vestment in which the min. will cluster. But it is, whether we isters of religion shall officiate, and are to adopt the principle and act which shall be associated in the upon it as a system. No doubt it minds of the people only with the gives the church a strong hold upon solemn services of religion ? May the people. It enables her to fix a we not in these and many more stamp early and firmly on the minds ways, employ this principle to aid of the young; but that stamp is the true devotion ? It is not surprising mark of the beast, and not the seal that this should have been attempted. of the spirit. It is one great in. Probably it has been done in most strument by which the systems of instances from good motives, but the heathen superstition are sustained result has shown that the foolish. and riveted. It always has led to ness of God is wiser than men.' It superstition, and it always will." might have seemed to the wisdom of This discourse can not have too wide man that to have the body of their a circulation-it ought to have the great prophet buried among them, widest. It is emphatically a "word and a monument erected over it, in season”-an able and well-timed would remind the ancient Isralites of argument in favor of spiritual Christheir deliverance from Egypt, and tianity. of the law he gave. But God buried him where no man knoweth of his Travels in Egypt, Arabia Petræa, sepulchre till this day. He left no and the Holy Land. By Rev. relic or vestige of him to be a source STEPHEN OLIN, D. D., President of superstition in other days. This of the Wesleyan University.shows his estimate of the principle, With twelve illustrations on steel,