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Define polar triangles, logarithm. How is a logarithm determined?
2. When the three sides of a triangle are given, form the equations by which the three angles are found?
3. Prove that the co-tangents of the two sides are to each other as the cosines of the segments of the angle.
4. Give the six cases presented for the solution of oblique spherical triangles.
5. In an oblique angled triangle given A B 2163, B C 1672, and the angle C 112° 18′ 22", to find the other parts.
6. In a right angled spherical triangle ABC, given A B 121° 26′ 25′′ and the angle C 111° 14' 37", to find the other parts.
7. From two stations 300 feet apart,
the horizontal angles made with a distant church are taken 88° 19′ and 89° 40'. Find the distances from church to stations.
1. What are some of the common defects in teaching language?
2. What improvements have been suggested by the various committees of the N. E. A. in recent years?
3. Discuss briefly the topic: Sources of our English Speech.
4. Who are some of the great authorities on the origin and development of English?
5. Name the tests to be applied to any literary composition.
6. How are participles formed and governed?
7. Give a brief grammatical analysis of the first stanza of America.
8. Why is the case of a noun much more important than its other properties in determining what one's real knowledge of the sentence is?
9. Give a complete synopsis of write in the passive voice.
10. Construe the italicized words in the stanzas below. Give the sense of each in your own words. Name the author of the second, and the occasion of its being written
"What hand and brain went ever paired?
What heart alike conceived and dared? What act proved all its thought had been?
What will but felt the fleshy screen?" - ROBERT BROWNING. "New occasions teach new duties;
Time makes ancient good uncouth; They must upward still, and onward, Who would keep abreast of Truth; Lo, before us gleam her campfires!
We ourselves must pilgrims be, Launch our Mayflower and steer boldly Through the desperate winter sea, Nor attempt the future's portal,
With the Past's blood-rusted key."
Translate "Dum in his locis Cæsar navium parandarum causa moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati venerunt, qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent, quod homines barbari et nostrae consuetudinis imperiti bellum populo Romano fecissent, seque ea, quae imperasset, facturos pollicerentur. Hoc sibi Cæsar satis opportune accidisse arbitratus, quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere volebat, neque belli gerendi propter anni tempus facultatem habebat, neque has tantularum rerum occupationes Britanniae anteponendas iudicabat, magnum iis numerum obsidum imperat. Quibus adductis, eos in fidem recepit. Navibus circiter octoginta onerariis contractisque, quot satis esse ad duas transportandas
legiones existimabat, quod praeterea navium longarum habebat, quaestori, legatis praefectisque distribuit."
Give the construction of concilio, opportune, quibus adductis, transportandas and all the infinitives.
Give the principal parts of moratur, fecissent, accidisse and recepit.
Decline parte and bellum.
Give the reason for the case of navium, of temporis, of consuetudinis and Britanniae.
Write the following sentences in Latin:
(a) A very high mountain overhung, so that a very few could easily stop them.
(b) The Aedui thanked Cæsar because he had delivered them from danger.
(c) Having learned these things, he. sends forward scouts and centurions to choose a convenient place for the camp. Translate:
"Defessi Aeneadae, quae proxima litora, cursu
contendunt petere, et Libyae vertuntur ad oras.
Est in secessu longo locus: insula portum
efficit obiectu laterum, quibus omnis ab alto
frangitur inque sinus scindit sese unda reductos."
SCIENCE OF EDUCATION.
1. Make an outline of the conditions of good school government.
2. Make an outline of the arguments for and against the prize system in education.
3. State the relative value of love and fear as incentives. What rules should be observed in their use?
4. State the ends of school punishments; their true characteristics. Name the kinds of punishments that are improper or of doubtful propriety.
5. Define gymnastics. What the true aim of gymnastics? Make a gen
eral classification of gymnastic exercises.
6. Explain the various limits of education.
7. Show the place of family worship, religious ceremony, and membership with church in religious education.
8. Give a general outline of the psychological epochs in education, and indicate the leading characteristics of each epoch.
9. Show the comparative value of text-book and oral method of instruction.
10. Define education, attention, sense perception, creative imagination, and concept.
1. Distinguish between Political Economy and Civics. How are they closely related?
2. What fallacy, if any, in the doctrine that good business management for an individual is good business management for the public?
3. State the differences between direct and indirect taxation. Show by examples what you mean. State the advantages and disadvantages of both.
4. State the difference between cooperative and profit-sharing industries. 5. Define the principal terms used in Political Economy.
6. Is Protective Tariff a temporary expendient or a universal principle, theoretically?
7. Name the great writers on economics. What was the doctrine of Henry George, stated as an economic principle?
C. B. Rantz, of Colfax, Mass., is in the retail grocery business. On Tuesday, June 15, 1897, he opened his store with $28.75 cash in the drawer, and his stock invoiced $2,341.13. His entire sales for the day amounted to $178.42, including a bill of goods sold on credit to D. T. Lonroy, as follows: 10 lbs. of sugar at 7 cts. per lb.; 1 sack of flour,
$1.50; 2 lbs. of checse at 12 cts. per lb.; 4 doz. eggs at 15 cts. per doz.; 3 lbs. of crackers at 8 cts. per lb. Mr. Lonroy was already indebted to Mr. Rantz to the amount of $17.72, and he paid $10 on account, for which he took a receipt. Mr. Rantz paid a gas bill of $4.28 and paid a clerk $10. He sent a check of $201 to the Fulton Grocery Co., and gave his note for $100 to R. C. Gregg & Co., payable in 60 days with interest at 6 per cent. He deposited in the Second National Bank, where he kept his bank account, $150. In the evening his stock invoiced $2,204.27.
Rule and post his books for the day according to double entry methods, and write all the papers involved in the business of the day.
An den Fruehling.
Ei! Ei! da bist ja wieder!
Und bist so lieb und schön!
Denkst auch noch an mein Mädchen?
Und's Mädchen liebt mich noch!
Und du? du giebst es mir. - Schiller. 2. Give the construction of Wonne, Blümchen, Flur, fürs, und uns.
3. Decline Natur, Jüngling, du, mir, ich, Mädchen.
Entschlafen sind nun wilde Triebe,
5. Give the construction of Feld, Nacht, in, es, Menschenliebe, and sich. 6. Translate into German:
Alexander was only twenty years old when he became King, but he soon showed that he could manage his kingdom as well as he could manage his horses. Because the king was so young, the people that his father had conquered thought they could now win back their freedom. But Alexander marched swiftly from one end of the kingdom to the other, and everything was soon quiet again. The King then made ready to carry out his father's plans, and made war on the Persians. Soon he had an army of Macedonians and Greeks ready, and with this he crossed over into Asia.
7. Show what reading and study you have done in German.
8. Oral reading and questions.
1. Show the relation of Logic to Psychology.
2. What is a percept? A concept? Perception? Reasoning?
3. Explain the several kinds of definition.
4. State the rules for correct definition.
5. Define and illustrate disjunctive reasoning.
6. Define and illustrate the laws of identity, contradiction, excluded middle and sufficient reason.
7. Make a comparison between deductive and inductive reasoning.
8. What rules should be observed in forming hypothesis?
9. What is meant by formal fallacies? Give an illustration.
10. What is the general nature of the "Laws of Thought," and what are their divisions?
BY E. F. WARNER.
I shall embrace this opportunity to speak somewhat of the habits that the school should aim to produce in its pupils. The chief among these are: regularity, punctuality, cheerfulness, obedience, the habit of mastery, self-control, unselfishness.
The regular attendance of pupils is insisted upon, more and more, in all good schools; absences are carefully noted and reported to parents; many devices are resorted to,
to secure an attendance at school, equal to the number of days due. Many parents, and some teachers, see in this only an earnest effort to secure continuous interest in lessons, and diminish the friction incident to the running of a school. These are ends to be attained it is true, but it should never be lost sight of, that one great end is the begetting of a feeling of responsibility upon the part of the pupil, a
habit of strict and regular attendance upon his duties. He should be taught that, his desk is as much. his place of business as the father's desk in bank or counting room is his.
Closely related to the habit of regularity is that of punctuality. The pupil should be led to see that his teacher's protests against tardiness are not so much for the school's sake as the pupil's sake. That an effort is being made to help him in acquiring an invaluable habit, one that we all prize in our friends, the habit of being on time and doing on time. Teachers make a great mistake to our way of thinking, if they do not put this view of the case forcibly before the child in all discussions concerning tardi
I am well aware that prenatal influences as well as environment have much to do in giving or withholding that cheery spirit, that sheds. radiance upon all around; yet the schools can do much towards cultivating the habit. Nothing contributes more to this in children and young people than regular hours, steady employment, plenty of sleep. How many parents permit their children to violate all the known laws of health, keep all kinds of hours, attend parties and socials innumerable, indulge in pastries and sweetmeats, ad libitum, and then charge their moody, morose, sullen disposition to overwork in the schools.
School and home should heartily co-operate to secure this desirable habit of mind in our young people, especially when with Addison we realize that happiness is in us and not in the objects offered for our amusement. One's future may be happy or wretched as he has formed, or failed to form, this habit in early life.
A ready and cheerful obedience to constituted authority, is a fourth habit that should be secured through school life. Contributing to this end we have the drills, marches, gymnastics and other concerted exercises of the schools. Some critics failing to see the real end in view, have not been wanting in strictures upon what they have been pleased to call "the complicated mechanism of the school."
Every experienced teacher sees in these exercises a means of cultivating a habit that is vital to law and order in school, in the community. That school which does not secure from the great majority of its pupils a prompt and cheerful obedience to all reasonable and legitimate demands should be discontinued. Habits of disorder and inattention formed during a single term, under an incompetent teacher, have been known to curse the life of the child ever afterward.
The habit of mastery is another that should be cultivated early and persistently, all the more, because of the tendency seen on many hands to substitute the appearance of the