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plete, some being caught in the open field, and others forced into their houses, which houses were first plundered of what was in them, and then set on fire by the Romans ; wherein no mercy was shewn to the infants, and no regard had to the aged; but they went on in the slaughter of persons of every age, till all the place was overflowed with blood, and fifty thousand of them lay dead upon heaps ; nor had the remainder been preserved, had they not betaken themselves to supplication. So Alexander commiserated their condition, and gave orders to the Romans to retire; accordingly these being accustomed to obey orders, left off killiog at the first intimation : but the populace of Alexandria bare so very great hatred to the Jews, that it was difficult to recal them, and it was an hard thing to make them leave their dead bodies.
9. And this was the miserable calamity wbieh at this time befel the Jews at Alexandria. Hereupon Cestius thought fit no longer to lie still, while the Jews were every where up in arms; so he took out of Antioch the twelfth legion entire, and out of each of the rest he selected two thousand, with six cohorts of footmen, and four troops of horsemen, besides those auxiliaries which were sent by the kings; of which * Antiochus sent two thousand horsemen, and three thousand footmen, with as many archers; and Agrippa sert the same number of footmen, and one thousand horsemen ; Sohemus also followed with four thousand, a third part whereof were horsemen, but most part were archers, and thus did he march to Ptolemais. There were also great numbers of auxiliaries gathered together from the [free] cities, who had not indeed the same skill io martial affairs but made up in their alacri. ty, and in their hatred to the Jews, what they wanted in skill. There came also along with Cestius, Agrippa himself, both as a guide in his march over the country, and a director what was fit to be done; so Cestius took part of his forces, and marched hastily to Zabulon, a strong city of Galilee, which was called the city of men, and divided the country of Ptolemais from our nation; this he found deserted by its men, the multitude having fled to the mountains, but full of all sorts of good things; those he gave leave
* Spanheim notes on the place, that this later Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, is mentioned by Dio, lix. page 645, and that he is mentioned by Josephus elsewhere twice also, B. v. cit. si. 9 3. vol. v. and Antiq. B. xix. ch. sjii. 1. vol. iv.
to the soldiers to plunder, and set fire to the city, although it was of admirable beauty, and had its houses built like those in Tyre, and Sidou, and Berytus. After this he overran all the country, and seized upon whatsoever came in his way, and set fire to the villages that were round about them, and then returned to Ptolemais. But when the Syrians, and especially those of Berytus, were busy in plundering, the Jews pulled up their courage again, for they knew that Cestius was retired, and fell upon those that were left behind unexpectedly, and destroyed about two thousand of them.
10. And now Cestius himself marched from Ptolemais and came to Cæsarea ; but he sent part of his army before him to Joppa, and gave order, that if they could take that city [by surprise] they should keep it; but that in case the citizeps should perceive they were comiog to aitack them, that they then should stay for him, and for the rest of the army. So some of them made a brisk march up the sea-side, and some by land, and so coming upon them on both sides, they took the city with ease: and as the inhabitants had made no provision aforeland for a flight, nor had gotten any thing ready for fighting, the soldiers fell upon them, and slew them all, with their families, and then plundered and burnt the city. The number of the slain was eight thousand four hundred. In like manner Cestius sent also a considerable body of horsemen to the toparchy of Narbatene, that adjoined to Cæsarea, who destroyed the country, and slew a great multitude of its people; they also plundered what they Bad, and burnt their villages.
11. But Cestius sent Gallus the commander of the twelfth legion into Galilee, and delivered to him as many of his forces as he supposed sufficient to subdue that nation. He was received by the strongest city of Galilee, which was Sepphoris, with acclamations of joy; which wise conduct of that city occasioned the rest of the cities to be in quiet; while the seditions part, and the robbers ran away to that moun, tain which lies in the very middle of Galilee, and is situated over against Sepphoris; it is called Asamon. So Gallus brought his forces against them : but while those men were in the superior parts above the Romans, they easily threw their darts upon the Romans, as they made their approaches, and slew about two hundred of them. But when the Romans had gone round the mountains, and were gotten into the
parts above their enemies, the others were soon beaten; npr could they who had only light armour on, sustain the force of them that fought them armed all over; nor when they were beaten could they escape the enemies' horsemen; insomuch that only some few concealed themselves in certain places hard to become at, among the mountains, while the rest, above two thousand in number, were slain.
CHAP. XIX. What Cestius dirl against the Jews; and how, upon his besieging Je.
rusalem, he retreated from the city, without any just occasion in the world. As also what severe calamities he underwent from the Jews in his retreat.
$ 1. And now Gallus seeing nothing more that looked towards an innovation in Galilee, returned with his army to Cæsarea: but Cestius removed with his whole army, and marched to Antipatris. And when he was informed that there was a great body of Jewish forces gotten together io a certain tower called Aphek, he sent a party before to fight them; but this party dispersed the Jews by affrighting them, before it came to a battle : so they came, and finding their camp deserted, they burnt it, as well as the villages that lay about it. But when Cestius had marched from Antipatris to Lydda, he found the city empty of its men, for the* whole multitude were gone up to Jerusalem to the seast of
• Here we have an eminent example of that Jewish language, which Dr. Wall truly observes we several times find used in the sacred writings; I mean where the words all or whole multiinde, &c. are used for much the greatest part only; but not so as to include every pers., without exception ; for when Josephus had said, that the whole multitude [all the males] of Lydda were gone to the feast of tabernacles, be immediately adds, that however, no fewer than fifty of them appeared, and were slain by the Romans. Other examples somewhat like this I have observed elsewhere in Josephus, but as I think, none so remarkable as this. Sce Wall's Critical Observations on the Old Testament, p. 49, 50.
We have also in this and the next section, two eminent facts to be observed, viz. the first example, that I remember in Josephus, of the onset of the Jews' enemies upon their country when their males were gone up to Jerusalem, to one of their three sacred festivals ; which, during the theocracy, God had promised to preserve them from, Exod. xxxiv. 24. The second fact is this, the breach of the Sabbath by the seditious Jews in an offensive fight, contrary to the universal doctrine and practice of their nation in these ages, and even contrary 10 what they themselves af erward practised in the rest of this war. See the note on Antiq. B. xvi. ch. ii. $ 4. rol. iii.
tabernacles; yet did he destroy fifty of those that shewed themselves, and burot the city, and so marched forwards ; and ascending by Beth-horon, he pitched his camp at a certain place called Gabao, fifty furlongs distant from Jerusalem.
2. But as for the Jews, when they saw the war approaching to their metropolis, they left the feast, and betook them selves to their arms; and taking courage greatly from their multitude, went in a sudden and disorderly manner to the fight, with a great noise, and without any consideration bad of the rest of the seveath day, although the Sabbath was the day to which they had the greatest regard; but that rage which made them forget the religious observation [of the Sabbath] made them too hard for their enemies in the fight: with such violence therefore did they fall upon the Romans, as to break into their ranks, and to march through the midst of them, making a great slaughter as they went, insomuch that unless the horsemen, and such part of the footmen as were not yet tried in the action; had wheeled round, and succoured that part of the army which was not yet broken, Ces. tius, with his whole army, had been in danger : however five hundred and fifteen of the Romans were slain, of which number four hundred were footmen, and the rest horsemen, while the Jews lost only twenty-two, of whom the most valiant were the kiosmen of Monobazus king of Adiabene, and their names were Monobazus and Kenedius; and next to them were Niger of Perea, and Silas of Babylon, who had deserted from king Agrippa to the Jews; for he had former. Jy served in his army. When the front of the Jewish army had been cut off, the Jews retired into the city ; but still Simon, the son of Giora, fell upon the backs of the Romans, as they were ascending up Beth-horon, and put the hipdmost of the army into disorder, and carried off many of the beasts that carried the weapons of war, and led them into the city. But as Cestius tarried there three days, the Jews seized upon the elevated parts of the city, and set watches at the entrances into the city, and appeared openly resolved not to rest. when once the Romans should begin to march. • 3. And now when Agrippa observed that even the affairs of the Romans were likely to be in danger, while such an immense multitude of their enemies had seized upon the mountains round about, he determined to try what the Jews would agree to by words, as thinking that he should either
persuade them all to desist from fighting, or, however, that be should cause the sober part of them to separate themselves from the opposite party. So he sent Borceus and Phebus, the persons of his party that were the best known to them, and promised them, that Cestius skould give them his right hand, to secure them of the Romans entire forgiveness of what they had done amis, if they would throw away their arms, and come over to them ; but the seditious, fearing lest the whole multitude, in hopes of security to themselves, should go over to Agrippa, resolved immediately to fall upon and kill the ambassadors : accordingly they slew Phebus before he had said a word, but Borceus was only wounded, and so prevented his fate by flying away : and when the people were very angry at this, they had the seditious beaten with stones and clubs, and drove them before them into the city.
4. But now Cestius, observing that the disturbances that were begun among the Jews afforded him a proper opportunity to attack them, took his whole army along with him, and put the Jews to flight, and pursued them to Jerusalem. He then pitched his camp upon the elevation called Scopus, (or watch tower,] which was distant seven furlongs from the city ; yet did not he assault them in three days time, out of expectation that those within might perhaps yield a little ; and in the mean time be sent out a great many of his soldiers into the neighbouring villages, to seize upon their corn. And on the fourth day, which was the thirtieth of the month Hyperbereteus (Tisri,] when he had put his army in array, he brought it into the city. Now for the people, they were kept under by the seditious; but the seditious themselves were greatly affrighted at the good order of the Romans, and retired from the suburbs, and retreated into the inner part of the city, and into the temple. But when Cestius was come into the city, he set the part called Besetha, which is called Cenopolis, for the new city, on fire; as he had also to the timber market: after which he came into the upper city, and pitched his camp over against the royal palace ; and had be but at this very time attempted to get within the walls by force, he had won the city presently, and the war had been put an end to at once; but Tyrannus Priscus, the muster master of the army, and a great pumber of the officers of the horse, had been corrupted by Florus, and diverted him from that his attempt ; and that was the occasion that this war last