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with religion, was not to be begun, pursued, bave been generally supbut only extended ; its moral effects plied with a clergy, not deficient in had not to be referred to the class of learning, but greatly defective or probable results, but to be appealed erring, as theologians, (the doctrines io as facts of history. Instruction in of their own Church being judges,) religion by an ample catechism, (the and criminally negligent of the great Assembly's,) which, whatever objec- duties of the pastoral office. From tion may be taken to some of its doc- the proneness of men to fall into extrines, must be acknowledged to be tremes, Preaching itself, which had drawn up with great ability, and well been made every thing during the calculated to lead to the knowledge of reign of Presbyterianism in this the Scriptures, had been more extend- country, fell into contempt, and ed in that than any other Protestant till lately seems not to have made country; the pastoral office had been any progress in the opinion of the more diligently fulfilled ; preaching, clergy themselves, as the main inas an ordinance of God, bad been more strument by which their ministry encouraged, and practised; respect was to be effectual to the conversion to the Sabbath, and attendance at pub- of men. If, therefore, we have not lic worship, had been formed more ef- seen more clearly marked the defectually into the general habit of the pendance of education upon relipeople; and a knowledge of the Scrip- gious influence for its efficiency, tures had been more extensively dif- and have been more liable to think fused. The consequence had been, and act with too great a laxity on that whilst England presented a this subject, a reason is not wanting. population sunkin ignorance and vice, And yet the example of Scotland was Scotland had exhibited, in her ho- not too far off for observation ; exnourable moral story, a race, intelli. ceptions of a very striking kind gent, industrious, observant of the have occurred in our country; and forms of religion, and io no inconside- the abstract truth itself, founded on rable degree under their moral influ- the doctrines of the Bible, was not ence. With these familiar facts, it very recondite. Some of the errors would indeed have been very inex- on the subject of education, however, cusable in the Autborto have diverged bave had their day; and we are glad into theory on the subject of national to remark an altered tone of sentieducation. England has made some ment in many persons, which will progress, of late years, towards these prepare them to receive the greater advantages. But the population of benefit from such a work as that Scotland has now outrun the range of before us, both as it tends to arouse a good system, and the case needed endeavour, and to give to it a right all the zeal, and all the talents of Dr. direction. CHALMERS to awaken attention to the We have just adverted to the nufact, and to call forth a commensurate ierous Sunday-Schools established effort; and in no period of our bis, within the last thirty years in this tory has the population of England country, as supplying, though not been placed within the reach of adequately, yet to a very gratifying adequate, or nearly adequate in- extent, the national destitution; and struction. Our national catechism, too much cannot be said in praise of excellent in many particulars, is the zeal and liberality with which too brief and defective to convey they have been conducted and supeven the outline of the doctrine of ported. It is indeed a reflection Christ; it has been, too, very par. calculated to convey the richest tially taught. The great body of the pleasure to every pious beart, that poor, before the institution of Sunday. in these institutions a countless numSchools, were unable to read the ber of children have, within the Scriptures, and in many counties period of their operation, been qualistill remain so; and above all, (and fied to read the Scriptures, imbued we mention it with sorrowful regret, with the elements of religious know. and not for the purpose of detraction,) Jedge, habituated to respect the the churches, from the Restoration, Sacred Day, and its sacred ordiand through the blind policy then nances, and prepared to derive an advantage from the ministrations of carefully to form their habits, from the word of God, which they had their first exercise, to reverence the not otherwise possessed. Sunday- Sabbath, and to feel the obligations Schools bave made a powerful moral of public worship. This, it has been impression upon great masses of the thought, would'follow in time from populace, whatever ignorance and education ; and therefore the great vice may, after all, remain. But effort has often been to crowd as their very efficiency has been derived, much education into that “sweet not from the circumstance of their hour of prime," as its short duragiving mere elemental and useful tion would admit ;-as though a scholarship, but, from their intimate religious future habit could flow connection with religion. The con- from any thing but a religious early ductors have been, in, we hope, the habit ; and the corruption of the majority of instances, pious; excel. heart be more easily conquered by lent catechisms have been taught in the pulpit, if left unchecked by the many of them; much truth bas been discipline of the school. Hence treasured up in the minds of the much of golden opportunity has been children, by the psalms, hymns, lost, and much of the very time of and spiritual songs, which they have Sunday secularized, and desecrated. joined in singing, and committed In some schools, the process of to memory; many affectionate ex- tuition has been going on in the very hortations have been given them; hours of divine service on the Sabbath their parents have been songht out, forenoon, and both children and and invited to places of worship; and teachers, (often serious young people, thus various means of direct moral who most needed the instructions influence, springing from the warm and influence of the pulpit,) kept charity of those who have loved them away from it. Here, then, educafor Christ's sake, and which could tion has not merely been unconnected not fail to make a strong impression with religion ; but conducted under upon their hearts, have been applied, circumstances calculated to impress to promote ends higher than cold the young with an opinion, that the institutions for elementary education public worship of Almighty God was alone could either propose or reach. but a secondary concern, to be neg
It must bowever be confessed, lected not only with inpunity, but that the very advantages produced with applause! Nor is this the by these institutions have been often worst of those errors in practice misleading They have been de- which have crept in. The principle fended, too, against their adversaries, of the superior importance of secular on principles which are not, in their education to every thing beside, has full extent, tenable. Education, in led to the neglect, in many schools, the opinion of many who forgot how of catechetical instruction; writing, much religious influence had been and even accounts, have had their brought to bear upon these institu- portion of the Sacred Day assigntions, was to effect every thing whiched to them; the school-room has either the Philanthropist or the been turned into a bazar for the Christian could require. The mind Sunday sale of copy-books, slates, would be awakened from its torpor, and pencils, and perhaps, under the and the character would be elevated, idea of sanctifying the whole, of by the process of stringing syllables, Bibles and Testaments; and further, and mastering the “ Reading made that nothing might be wanting to Easy!” The capacity to read being exhibit the evil in its strongest light, given to the children, it was con- the Sunday-school circulating library cluded that the Bible, of course, has, in a few instances, also been would become their companion, and opened on the Sabbath for receiving the House of God, in maturer years, and returning books, with their hire their constant resort. These notions and fines, under the plea of greater have, in many schools, insensibly convenience! These are lamentable led to the neglect of direct and patient facts, as they have argued great endeavours to fill the minds of the laxity of religious principle, or the scholars with religious truth, and presence of very pernicious errors of judgment. That something may be to be heard or seen, in Institutions said in defence of these practices is which profess to give a right bias allowed; for there is no evil for which to the youthful mind on subjects of the human heart, and the Father of infinite importance. For who has Lies, do not weave its veil of sophis- given the right to the conductors try: but there is no plausible argu- of Sunday-schools, to repeal God's ment in favour of any branch of this everlasting law of the Sabbath ; or secularity, which would not justify to substitute empty pleas of “ necesthe establishment of Sunday-schools sity” or “charity against bis defor teaching boys to make shoes, clared and explicit will? The value and girls to knit. This would be we set upon these institutions, and a great charity; and we know of no the happy effects which we have seen better reason urged for the practices result from them, when conducted we have just censured. The fact, as so many of them are,ếour very however, is, that the time which can anxiety for their success, and that be lanfully occupied by a Sunday- they should not employ themselves school does not admit of these secular in undoing their own work, by appendages ; and if it did, they breaking the sanction of God's word would be unlawful. Only out of the whilst they profess to recommendit,hours of divine service, Schools on have drawn from us these remarks. the Sabbath ought to be held; other. When disobedience stalks abroad wise, they become a moral nuisance, under the garb of charity, it becomes and ought to be abated ; no Christian most infectious and dangerous; but man has any right to absent himself the charity is false :-it is charity to habitually from the public worship the body, and cruelty to the soul; it of God, thus to employ his time; looks at the lower interests of the no young persons, acting as teachers, children, but displaces or enfeebles ought to place themselves in these that pious care for their religious incircumstances, so perilous to the struction, and for their being trained soul; and all the time which the to sanctifying habits, which is the intervals of worship can allow, will only efficient agent of Sundaybe fully occupied in teaching the school instruction. As for all the children to read the Scriptures, in rest it may be said,
" Who hath recatechetical exercises, and in fami- quired this at your hands ? » liar exbortations, beyond which, and singing and prayer, nothing ought
(To be continued.)
MENTAL Discipline; or, Hints on the Cultivation of Intellectual Habits :
addressed particularly to Students in Theology and Young Preachers. By HENRY Forster 'BURDER, M.A. Royal 8vo. pp. 94. 45. 6d. boards. London. 1821.
The name of BURDER has long pages; for it contains much importbeen associated, by the Christian ant instruction in a small compass, Public, with sentiments of respectful and is one of those volumes which veneration, as that of the excellent make us deeply regret, when we Secretary of the London Missionary examine them, that the space is so Society, and the writer of several limited which can be afforded in this volumes of “ Village Sermons," and Magazine to the review of theoloother works of general utility. The gical books. This regret is, howSon of that Gentleman is the Author ever, mitigated, in the present inof the publication now before us; and stance, by the hope that all young we rejoice to find him walking in the Ministers, and other religious persteps of his Father, and consecrating sons just entering on a course of his talents and labours to the best of study, whom our recommendation causes,
can influence, will be induced to The value of this work is not to purchase it for themselves, and to be estimated by the number of its peruse it with that attention which it will well repay. We are happy to attainment of intellectual excellence, announce that a second edition, in and for the successful pursuit of 12mo., will be published in a few useful knowledge, as that with which days, the price of which will be only Mr. Burper has now furnished us. 3s. 6d. The cultivation of mental At the same time, we are aware that habits, favourable to the acquisition it is presented merely as containing and proper use of knowledge, is “ Hints” and “ Outlines ;” and we unquestionably the better half of certainly are decidedly of the opi the labour incumbent on the young nion, that “more extended illustrastudent; and in such efforts this tions would have rendered the work volume may render him essential more interesting and acceptable,”— service. It is from the want of that especially to such as have not the “Discipline” which is here described advantage of a Tutor to aid them in and enforced, that so many great their studies. The aphoristic form, readers have read to so little purpose, however, in which they are offered, and remain, after considerable sacri- is perspicuous and impressive; and fices of time and toil, mere smatterers the book is a Manual of important in the crudities of learning, or be principles on the subject of Intelleccome disgustingly pedantic and con- tual Discipline. To this small volume ceited. We are aware that authors
we may apply the remark which MR. of great name have treated on “the Burder has quoted from DR. THOMAS conduct of the understanding,” and Brown in reference to some philosohave endeavoured to facilitate “the phical questions of difficult solution : improvement of the mind." Many " In the discipline of reason, as in the valuable suggestions on these sub- training of the Athletæ, it is not for jects are also to be found scattered in a single victory, which it may give works on the Pastoral Character and to the youthful champion, that the Office, in Ordination-Charges, and combat is to be valued, but for that in standard works on the Principles knitting of the joints, and hardening, of Criticism, Rhetoric, &c. But we of the muscles, that quickness of know no one publication which has, eyes, and collectedness of effort, with so much elegance, judgment, which it is forming for the straggles and brevity, furnished so large a col- of more illustrious fields." lection of useful directions for the
(To be continued.)
SELECT LIST OF BOOKS RECENTLY PUBLISHED, CHIEFLY
(N. B. The insertion of any Article in this List is not to be considered as plexiging us to the approbation of its contents, unless it be accompanied by some express notice of our favourable opinion. Nor is the omission of any such notice to be regarded as indicating a contrary opinion; as our limits, and other reasons, impose on us the necessity of selection and brevity.)
a Set of Tunes col- A Preservative against the Errors of lected by the late Rev. John Wesley, Socinianism. By the late Rev. EDWARD M. A. ;
new Edition, revised, and Hare. 2d Edition, 8vo. pp. 428. 9s. bds. figured for the Orga, Harpsichord, or -If this work, or any considerable porPiano Forte; by his Nephew, CHARLES tion of it, had been now for the first WESLEY, Esq. Organist to His Majesty. time offered to the public, we should pp. 158. 48.-We cordially hail the re- have thought it our duty to recommend appearance, in an improved form, of this it, as far as our influence may extend, Collection of “good old Tunes ;” and by a detailed review of its multifarious refer our Readers to the interesting Pre- and important contents. On the subjects face by the Rev. R. WATSON; which we involved in the Socinian Controversy, have inserted entire, at p. 30 of our last that is, on the principal doctrines of Number
Christianity, it is a treasury of just reasoning, and of acute and discrimi- by persons under their pastoral charge,) pating observations. Tbe circumstances on particular duties, and adınunishing in which it originated, naturally gave them, distinctly and somewhat at large, to some portions of it a controversial against particular vices. But such subforin, of which the excellent author was jects should always be anxiously conDot spared to divest it in a subsequent nected with evangelical truths, and made edition. Notwithstanding this partial to bear on the religious state and attaindisadvantage, it is, as to its substance, ments of the hearers. This is done, in a book of rare and permanent value, the Sermon now announced, with conwhich no Student of Theology can peruse siderable success. If such a connexion without great benefit. As its original between christian morals and christian circulation was very local, we rejoice to faith and experience, be not very promisee it re-published, with a copious index nent, both in the general structure, and of subjects, and another of texts of especially in the application, of diseourses Scripture, illustrated in the volume. of this class,-if they be not so managed
Advice to Young Men : a Sermon as to conduct men directly to Christ preached at Belmont-Row Chapel, in Bir- our Redecmer, and the Holy Ghost mingham, August 19, 1821. By Jona- our Sanctifier,--they are of little evenTHAN EDMONDSON. 8vo. pp. 24. 6d.- tual utility. Merely ethical discussions This is an excellent Sermon on Ps. cxix. of such points, however clear and able, 9, which Parents will do well to put are, ordinarily, a culpable waste of into the hands of those members of their pulpit-time and opportunities. families who are rising into life, and Notes of Conversations with Three Youths, which includes many topics interesting executed at Edinburgh in 1812. By to young women, as well as to “young William Innes. 8th edition. 24mo. men.” The rules of conduct, which stitched, 9d.-These “Notes" appear occur in the latter division of the Dis- to us to have deserved the large circulacourse, are eminently judicious; and tion which they have obtained. The forin a brief, yet comprehensive manual particular case which they record was of practical wisdom, which the juvenile interesting; but the pamphlet derives a classes of society may study with the permanent value from the Author's greatest advantage.
observations on the close connexion beA Protestant Historical Catechism; tween evangelical truths and motives, being a concise View of the Commencement and that repentance which is unto salvaand Decline of Christianity ; with the Rise tion. All who have to deal with souls," and Establishment of the Reformation, $c. may learn from it a lesson essential to By Josiah H. WALKER. 18mo. pp. 112. their success. ls. 3d. boards.
Domestic Religion : or, an Exposition The Preacher; or Sketches of Sermons of the Precepts of Christianity regarding chiefly selected from the MSS. of two Di- the Duties of Domestic Life. By William vines of the last century: with an Essay INNES, (f Edinburgh.) 12mo. pp. 214. or the composition of a Sermon. 12mo. 4s. 35. 6d. boards.-The relative Duties here -Vol. II. is in the press.
treated are those of Husbands, Wives, DR. CHALMERS's Civic Economy.- Children, Parents, Servants, and MasNo. X. On Pauperism, Is.
ters. The scriptural precepts, concernA Key to the Critical Reading of the ing each of these relations, are judiciFour Gospels. 8vo. 48. bds.
ously explained, and impressively enA Guide to Communicants in Self- forced. What is didactic is admirably Examination. By the Rev. W. Trail. intermixed with interesting examples, With a Life, by the Rev. R. BURN, of and forcible illustration, and some Paisley. 18mo. 9d.
cases of perplexity, which often occur The Proud Abased : a Sermon on the in religious society, are ably resolved on Scripture History of Nebuchadnezzar: sound and convincing principles. The preached in the Methodist Chapel, South- Author's skill as a Christian Casuist, wark, Nov. II, 1821, by EDMUND has evidently been greatly assisted by GRINDROD. Published at the request of his experience as a Pastor; the fruits of the Leaders' Meeting. 8vo. pp. 32. Is. - which, in an accurate knowledge of the We have read this Sermon with much circumstances, temptations, and diffi satisfaction. It is judicious, impressive, culties of domestic life, are very apand practical. The nature and various parent in his work. We announce it workings of pride are well illustrated; with cordial satisfaction. and its folly, criminality, and danger, A Grammar of the Sanscrit Language, forcibly exposed.—We think that Minis- on a New Plan. By the Rev. WILLIAM ters act perfectly in character, as under- Yates. Printed at Calcutta, and dedicashepherds of the flock of Christ, in ted, by Permission, to the MARQUIS occasionally discoursing (especially in OF HASTINGS. 8vo. 21. 10s. those services which are chiefly attended Paper, 4l. Vol. I. Third Series. FEBRUARY, 1822.