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4. They also chose other generals for Idumea, Jesus the son of Sapphias, one of the high priests, and Eleazar the son of Ananias, the high-priest; they also enjoined Niger, the then governor of * Idumea, who was of a family that belong ed to Perea, beyond Jordan, and was thence called the Peraite, that he should be obedient to those forenamed commanders. Nor did they neglect the care of other parts of the country ; but Joseph the son of Sinion, was sent as general to Jericho, as was Manasseh to Perea, and John, the Essene, to the toparchy of Thamna ; Lydda was also called to his portion, and Joppa, and Emmaus. Bat Joha the son of Matthias, was made governor of the toparchies of Gopbuitica, and Acrabattene, as was Josephus, the son of Matthias, of both the Galilees. Gamala also, which was the stropgest city in those parts, was put under his command.
5. So every one of the other commanders administered the affairs of his portion with that alacrity and prudence they were masters of; but as to Josephus, when he came into Ga lilee, his first care was to gain tlie good-will of the people of that country, as sensible that he should thereby have in ger neral good success, althoush he should fail in other points. And being conscious to himself, that if he communicated part of his power to the great men, he should make them his fast friends; and that he should gain the same favour from the multitude, if he executed his commands by persons of their own country, and with whom they were well acquainted; he chose out fseventy of the most prudent men, and those elders
• We may observe here, that the Idumeans, as having been proselytes of justice since the days of John Hyrcanus, during about 195 years, were now esteemed as part of a Jewish nation, and here provided of a Jewish commander accordingly. See the note upon Antiq. B. xiii. ch. ix. § 1. vol. iii.
+ We see here, and in Josephus' account of his own life, $ 14. vol. iv. how exactly he imitated his legislator Moses, or perhaps on. ly obeyed what he took to be his perpetual. law, in appointing seven lesser judges, for smaller causes, in particular cities, and perhaps for the first hearing of great causes, with the liberty of an appeal to seventy-one supreme judges, especially in those causes where life and death were concerned; as Antiq. B. iv, ch, viii $ 14. vol. i. and of his life, f 14. See also of the War, B. iv. ch. v. § 4. vol. . Moreover we find, S 7. that he imitated Moses, as well as the Romans, in the number and distribution of the subaltern officers of his army, as Exod xviii. 25. Deut. i. 15 and in his charge against the aftences common among soldiers, as Deut. xxiii. 9 in all which lie Aliewed his great wisdom, and piety, and skilful conduct in martial
in age, and appointed them to be rulers of all Galilee, as he chose seven judges in every city to hear the lesser quarrels; for as to the greater causes, and those wherein life and death was concerned, he enjoined they should be brought to bim, and the seventy elders.
6. Josephus also, when he had settled these rules for determining causes by the law, with regard to the people's dealings one with another, betook himself to make provision for their safety against external violence; and as he knew the Romans would fall upon Galilee, he built walls in proper places, about Jotapata, and Barsabee, and Salamis; and besides these about Caphareccho, and Japha, and Sigo, and what they call mount Tabor, and Taricheæ, and Tiberias. Moreover, he built walls about the caves near the lake of Gennesar, which places lay in the Lower Galilee: the same he did to the places of Upper Galilee, as well to the rock called the rock of the Achabari, and to Seph, and Jamneh, and Meroth; and in Gaulapitis he fortified Seleucia, and Sogane, and Gamala; but as to those of Sepphoris, they were the only people to whom he gave leave to build their own walls, and this because he perceived they were rich and wealthy, and ready to go to war, without standing in need of any injunctions for that purpose. The case was the same at Gischala, which had a wall built about it by John the son of Levi himself, but with the consent of Josephus: but for the building of the rest of the fortresses, he laboured together with all the other builders, and was present to give all the necessary orders for that purpose. He also got together an army out of Galilee of more than an hundred thousand young men, all of which he armed with the old weapons, which he had collected together and prepared for them.
affairs. Yet may we discern in his very high character of Ananus the high-priest, B. iv. ch. v. § 2 who seems to have been the same who conducted St. James, bishop of Jerusalem, to be stoned, under Albinus the procurator, that when he wrote these books of the war, he was not so much as an Ebionite Christian ; otherwise he would not have failed, according to his usual custom, to have reckoned this his barbarous murder, as a just punishment upon him for that his cruelty to the chief, or rather only Christian bishop of the circumcision. Nor, had he been then a Christian, could he immediate. ly have spoken so movingly of the causes of the destruction of Jerusa. lem, without one word of either the condemnation of James or crucifiction of Christ, as he did when he was become a Christian after: ward.
. 7. And when he had considered that the Roman power be. came invincible, chiefly by their readiness in obeying orders, and the constant exercise of their arms, he despaired of teaching these his men the use of their arms, which was to be ob. tained by experience; but observing that their readiness in obeying orders was owing to the multitude of their officers, he made his partitions in his army more after the Roman manner, and appoioted a great many subalteros. He also distributed the soldiers into various classes, whom he put under captains of tens, and captains of hundreds, and then under captains of thousands; and besides these he had commanders of larger bodies of men. He also taught them to give the signals one to another, and to call and recall the soldiers by the trumpets, how to expand the wings of an army, and make them wheel about, and when one wing hath had success, to turn again and assist those that were hard set, and to join in the defence of what had most suffered. He also continually instructed them in what concerned the courage of the soul, and the hardiness of the body; and above all he exercised them for war, by declaring to then distinctly the good order of the Romans, and that they were to fight with men who, both by the strength of their bodies, and coul'age of their souls, had conquered in a manner the whole habitable earth. He told them, that he should make trial of the good order they would observe in war, even before it came to any battle, in case they would abstain from the crimes they used to indulge themselves in, such as theft, and robbery, and rapine, and from defrauding their own countrymen, and never to esteem the harm done to those that were so near of kin to them to be any advantage to themselves; for that wars are then managed the best when the warriors preserie a good conscience; but that such as are ill men in private life will not have only those for enemies which attack them, but God himself also for their antagonist.
8. And thus did he continue to admonish them. Now he chose for the war such an army as was sufficient, that is, six. ty thousand footmen, and* two hundred and fifty horsemen : and besides these, on which he put the greatest trust, there were about four thousand five hundred mercenaries : he had
* I should think that an army of 60,000 footmen should require many more than 250 horsemen; and we find that Josephus had more horsemen under his command than 250 in his future hisiory. I suppose the number of the thousands is dropt in our present copies.
also six hundred men as guards of his body. Now the cities easily maintained the rest of his army, excepting the mercenaries, for every one of the cities enumerated above, sent out half their men to the army, and retained the other half at home, in order to get provisions for them : ipsomuch that the one part went to the war, and the other part to their work, and so those that sent out their corp were paid for it by those that were in armis, by that security which they enjoyed from them.
CHAP. XXI. Concerning John of Gischala. Josephus uses stratagems against the
plots John laid against him; and recovers certain cities which had revolted from him.
§ 1. Now as Josephus was thus engaged in the administration of the affairs of Galilee, there arose a most treacherous person, a man of Gischala, the son of Levi, whose name wis John. His character was that of a very cunning, and very koavish person, beyond the ordinary rate of the other men of eminence there, and for wicked practices he had not his fellow any where. Poor he was at first, and for a long time his wants were an hindrance to him in his wicked designs. He was a ready liar, and yet very sharp in gaining credit to his fictions; he thought it a point of virtue to delude people, and would delude even such as was the dearest to him. He was an hypocritical pretender to humanity; but where he had hopes of gain, he spared not the shedding of blood; his desires were ever carried to great things, and he encouraged his hopes from those mean wicked tricks which he was the author of. He had a peculiar kpack at thieving; but in some time he got certain companions in his impudent practices; at first they were but few, but as he proceeded on in his evil course they became still more and more numerous. He took care that none of his partners should be easily caught in their rogueries, hut chose sucli out of the rest as had the strongest constitutions of body, and the greatest courage of soul, together with great skill in martial affairs, so he got together a band of four hundred men, who came principally out of the country of Tyre, and were vagabonds that had run away from its villages; and by the means of these he laid waste all Galilee, aud irritated a considerable number, who were in great expectation of a war then suddenly to arise among them.
2. However, John's want of money had hitherto restrained him in his ambition after command, and in his attempts to advance himself. But when he saw that Josephus was highly pleased with the activity of his temper, he persuaded him, in the first place to intrust him with the repairing of the walls of his native city (Gischala,] in which work he got a great deal of money from the rich citizens. He after that contrived a very shrewd trick, and pretending that the Jews who dwelt in Syria were obliged to make use of oil that was made by others than those of their own nation, he desired leave of Josephus to send oil to their borders : so he bought four amphoræ with such Tyrian money as was of the value of four Attic drachmæ, and sold every half amphora at the same .price. And as Galilee was very fruitful in oil, and was peculiarly so at that time, by sending away great quantities, and baving the sole privilege so to do, he gathered an immense sum of money together, which money he immediately used to the disadvantage of him who gave him that privilege; and, as he supposed, that if he could once overthrow Josephus, he should himself obtain the government of Galilee, so he gave order to the robbers that were under his command to be more zealous in their thievish expeditions, that by thie rise of many that desired innovations in the country he might either catch their general in his snarcs, as he came to the country's assistance, and then kill him ; or if he should overlook the robbers, he might accuse him for his negligence to the people of the country. He also spread abroad a report far and near, that Josephus was delivering up the administration of affairs to the Romans; and many such blots did he lay in order to ruin him.
3. Now at the same time that certain young men of the village Dabaritta, who kept guard in the great plain, laid spares for Ptolemy, who was Agrippa's and Berenice's sterard, and took from him all that he bad with him, among which things there were a great niany costly garments, and no small number of silver cups, and six hundred pieces of gold, yet were they not able to conceal what they had stolen, but brought it all to Josephus, to Tarichea. Hereupon he blamed them for the violence they had offered to the king and queen, and deposited what they brought to him with Æneas, - the most potent man of Taricheæ, with an intention of send. ing the things back to the owners at a proper time; which act of Josephus brought him into the greatest danger; for those