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Moreover, it is difficult to create a feeling of pulse towards inequality is compelling the rich country in states which have no community of manufacturers and land-owners to mask their religion and of interests, which had their origin luxury and conceal their wealth for fear of being at various epochs, from various sources, which murdered by their neighbors. The executive auoccupy different soils and live under different thority is not recognized. The local authorities,
What connection can there be between a freely chosen, are displaced at pleasure, and othFrenchman of Louisiana, a Spaniard of Florida, erg substituted in their room. But all this does a German of New York, an Englishman of New not disturb public order. Democracy is mainEngland, Virginia, Carolina and Georgia, who tained in practice, while in theory they make fun are all accounted Americans ? One is frivolous of the laws imposed by democracy itself. The and a duelist; another is Catholic, lazy and proud; spirit of family hardly exists. No sooner is a another is Lutheran, cultivates his own ground son able to work, than, like a fledged bird, he must and has no slaves; another is Anglican, a planter fly with his own wings. These generations startand slaveholder, and yet another is Puritan and ing forth in all the freedom of premature orphancommercial. How many centuries will it re- age, their numbers swollen by emigrants from quire to render these elements homogeneous ? Europe, form themselves into romantic bands An aristocracy begotten of gold is upon the eve which, never forming for themselves fixed estabof appearing, greedy of distinctions and fond of lishments upon the soil, clear the wild lands, dig titles. It is supposed that a general level exists the canals, and go wherever there is a call for in the United States. This is altogether a mis- labour. They commence habitations in the wilds, take. There are circles which disdain each other to be abandoned, perhaps, by their transient proand hold no communication. There are saloons, prietors after an occupation of a few days. the haughtiness of whose masters exceeds that In the cities a cold and hard selfishness reigns. of a German prince of sixteen descents. These Dollars, bank-notes, money, the rise and fall plebeian nobles aspire to caste, in spite of the pro- of stocks, are the only subjects of conversation. gress of intelligence which has made them equal One might suppose himself upon change, or at the and free. Some of them can talk of nothing counter of an immense shop. The journals of else but their ancestors, haughty barons, in all huge size are filled with mercantile advertiseprobability bastards, and companions of William ments, or with the merest tittle-tattle. Are the the Bastard. They parade the coats-of-arms of Americans unconsciously obeying the law of clithe old world, bedecked with serpents, lizards, mate under the influence of which vegetable naand parroquets of the new. A younger son from ture seems to thrive at the expense of animated Gascony, landing upon the republican shores with nature ? This law has been combatted by disnothing but his cloak and umbrella, if he takes tinguished intellects; but refutation has not yet care to class Marquis to his name, is forthwith a put it utterly beyond dispute. One may well ask man of high consideration on board the steam- himself if philosophic liberty in America, as civboats. The enormous inequality of fortunes ilized despotism in Russia, has not been used too threatens still more seriously to extinguish the freely for the good of the people. spirit of equality. Certain Americans possess In fine, the United States present the idea one or two millions income. Already the Yan- of a colony and not of a mother-country. They kee of high life can no longer consent to live like have no past-manners are not formed there by Franklin. The true gentleman, disgusted with the laws. The citizens of the New World took his new country, comes to Europe in search of rank among nations at an epoch when political the old. You meet him in the hotels, making, ideas were entering upon an ascending pbase. like the English, full of extravagance and spleen, This explains the fact of their transformation the tour of Italy. These ramblers from Caroli- with such extraordinary rapidity. Permanent na or Virginia purchase ruined abbeys in France, society would seem to be impracticable among and plant English gardens with American trees them; because, first, of the extreme ennui which at Melun. Naples sends to New York her sing- seizes upon individuals; and secondly, from their ers and perfumers, Paris her modistes and opera- inability to be still; from the necessity of action dancers, London her boxers and jockeys. And which possesses them. Society can never be stawith all her exotic pleasures the Union is not gay. ble there, where the Penates are wandering. Har. The amusement there is plunging over the cata- ing position upon the high-way of the oceans, at ract of Niagara with the applause of fifty thou- the head of progressive opinions new as his counsand half savage planters, whom Death is hard try, the American seems to have inherited from put to it to make laugh.
Columbus the mission to discover new worlds And it is most extraordinary, that while ine- rather than to create them. quality of fortune is becoming general, and an aristocracy is springing up, the great external im
three successive times into a white china bowl, A RIDE TO GRACEHAM.
pronouncing the names of the trinity, and then
that of the infant, ended with prayer. Perhaps in this neglected spot is laid
It was now announced, that conformably to Some beart once pregnant with celestial fire; ancient custom, a procession to the grave-yard Hands that the rod of empire might bave swayed, Or waked to ecstasy the living lyre.- Gray.
would be formed. The pastor led. After him
came the musicians with trumpets and various Some years since, on the morning of Easter other instruments : then the members of the conSunday, I rode to the village of Graceham in gregation, and lastly the multitude. It remindthe upper part of Frederick county, Maryland. ed me somewhat of the march of the Israelites. I had beard of a sect of Moravians there, who At the grave-yard a hollow square was formed : bad for more than eighty years, with untiring a band of ladies clad in white, sung a German zeal, illustrated their faith to their surrounding hymn as the stanzas were read out by the preachneighbors, by holiness of life and devotion to the er. Never did I listen to such touching, melocause of the Redeemer. Curiosity prompted dious strains as now floated on the air. It seemme to spend a day among this singular and phi- ed like the voice of the angelic host. We were lanthropic people. On the road I overtook a reminded in strong, but solemn terms, of our venerable man whose manners and appearance frailty, and the necessity of preparation for the were very prepossessing, whose countenance be-spirit-land : the pastor significantly pointed to tokened profound reflection and intelligence, and the newly-made graves before our eyes, and read whom I afterwards found to possess great lite- from a paper the names of those who had been rary acquirements. He was a member of the laid there during the last year. Returning in Society. By him I was told, that the congrega- the same order to the church, we were dismissed. tion consisted of four hundred members : that I sought the spot we had just left. It was surmore than half a century had elapsed since a Mr. rounded by an enclosure painted black, and was Dulaney bad conveyed to the brethren several laid out like a garden. The graves were not acres of land on which their church was erected, mounded, but level, and raised about four inches. that at the dawn of the revolution he had fled to In one department lay the husbands, in another England and his immense real estate was con- the married women, and lastly the single of either fiscated by an act of Assembly because he was a sex. The few head-stones I saw, simply informtory.
ed us that the person had departed at a particular We arrived at the village. The church was a time. substantial building, and the adjacent grounds How different is this scene, I exclaimed, from were well enclosed. The Catoctin mountain is the pride and pomp of Westminster Abbey, close by on the west-a fine level country in front, where kings, statesmen, poets and writers, notvariegated by many beautiful farms and dwell withstanding their flattering epitaphs, are in no ing-houses, and several miles off, you may see the better condition than the tenants of these humCatholic chapel attached to Emmetsburg col- ble resting-places. “The cave of Machpelah lege, elevated to the clouds on a lofty hill, from before Mamre," was the last bed of the friend of which objects can be discerned in Pennsylvania God, and without any other monument than his as far as vision will extend. The sun was unob- faith and good deeds, his name has come down seared by a single cloud : a solemn silence reign- to posterity the pattern of perfect obedience to ed around, and the holy feelings excited by the the will of Heaven. anticipated pleasures of the sanctuary, subdued Just at this moment, the companion of my and tranquilized every passion of my soul. morning ride appeared. I asked him who was
We had hardly entered the house before the the founder of this order of Christians ? solemn tones of the organ, accompanied by the “Count Zinzendorf,” said he, "a nobleman of finest female voices, rivetted the attention of the Moravia, who owned a principality of perhaps half audience. Every countenance was thoughtful. the size of the Northern Neck of Virginia, origiThe pastor soon appeared with slow and solemn nated our sect. He was a man of distinguished step. He was tall, thin and pale ; his features literary attainments. Deeply imbued with the indicating intense study and unaffected piety. spirit of his Divine Master, he devoted his imHe ascended the pulpit and delivered a plain mense revenue to the spread of Christianity; esdiscourse. As he closed, an infant was present- tablished the system of missions, which Wesley ed for baptism by its parents, in front of the carried out and which yet prevails among the chancel
. Several of the most venerable mem-Methodists. After planting his standard in Eubers of the Society placed their right hands on rope, he crossed the ocean for the purpose of the head of the child. The minister explained teaching the way of salvation to the down-trodthe nature of the ordinance and pouring water den and benighted Indians, then very numerous,
but now waning away to small and dispirited for the savages who had just slaked their venbands. He founded Litiz and Bethlehem in geance in blood, told them to turn their eye to Pennsylvania where female seminaries of learn- •the Lamb slain from the foundation of the ing yet flourish. He despatched the servants of world,' who prayed for his foes on the cross, and the Most High to the desolate and frozen regions that the time had arrived when they were called of the Greenlander and Esquimaux, as well as on to follow his example in patience and sufferto the parched deserts of Asia and Africa. Hising. missionaries perforated forests where no white “He calmed the storm which otherwise would man had ever trod ; fearless of wild beasts and have burst on the guilty heads of those ruffians, savages ; exposed to peril and famine by day and the dead were interred with reverence and and night ; passing rivers and dangerous morass- submission. es where no help could be obtained; not knowing “Show me," said my companion, while the how soon their bones might be bleaching on the fire of enthusiasm flashed from his eye, “where, snow or sand; with no shield but the Gospel, out of the Bible, can be found a scene of so and no protector but its author, they planted many much forbearance and resignation amidst such churches in the old world as well as in America. unparalleled provocation! What the end of the By their meek deportment, the confidence and band was, I know not. It is to be hoped that love of the red men on either side of the Alle- ' repentance unto life' relieved them from the ghany were soon won.
deep-toned thunders of a guilty conscience ere “ So apt were these sons of the forest in learn- the final summons came which brought them ing the German language, that one of their num- into the presence of Him who will judge • both ber would translate into the Indian tongue the quick and dead.' About two months after the sermons as they were delivered. Thus a large massacre, Shabosch, one of our ministers, (whose congregation comprehended the words of the son also fell on that disastrous day) left that speaker with perfect facility. So they lived as country in order to memorialize Congress, which sheep with a kind shepherd.
was then sitting at York, Pennsylvania, con“ The revolutionary war, however, retarded cerning the recent outrage, and claim protection theirwork. The sound of arms illy accorded with from future aggression. It so happened that I the holy work of the ministry. And beyond this, met him in the ferry-boat near Pittsburgh and early in 1781, some of the inhabitants of Western travelled with him for some days. The oppoVirginia, under the command of a Colonel Wil- site bank of the river was covered with friendly liams, erroneously supposing that our settlements Indians, who had convened to bid him farewell. of friendly Indians at the mouth of Muskingum, His appearance was venerable, and as his disin what is now the State of Ohio, was favorable pirited and broken-hearted people crowded round to the British, resolved to spill their blood on bare him, the whole assembly was melted into tears suspicion. Their leader, like Cresap, who mur- and deep silence prevailed. They gazed after dered Logan's family, will descend to the latest him until we were hidden in the woods. Conages abhorred and scorned by the world. The gress did not interpose so far as I have heard." party in open day demanded that their vic- “Pray sir," said I, “can you inform me as to tims should be brought out for the sacrifice. Ar- the doctrines of a sect which has rendered such ranged in a line in the street of their little ham- signal benefits to the world ? I have somewhere let, and knowing that their end was at hand, they read that yours was the first Protestant sect which asked the privilege of singing and praying to- sent missionaries to instruct and civilize Pagan gether, ere they were hurried into eternity. Du- nations, that in both hemispheres and in the isles ring this solemn scene the hearts of the white men of the ocean, your schools and religious assemdid not relent, no sigh escaped from their bosoms; blies flourish abundantly; tell me what is your no tear moistened their eyes: revenge and cow- peculiar creed ?" ardice hushed the voice of nature. As these “We are distinguished,” he answered, “perfriendly natives of the West arose from their haps beyond any other denomination of chrisknees, ninety-one men, women and children were tians, in this that with limited means we have despatched and were soon dragged into one spread the word farther and wider and diffused pile of corpses. The surviving Indians were over society a greater moral influence under all sufficiently numerous and brave to have extermi- circumstances than any other religious order of nated the monsters who had perpetrated this foul men. We are characterized by our peaceful murder, but were restrained by Zeisberger, the habits, retirement from the world, 'its pomps and only preacher who beheld this awful spectacle. vanities,' refusal to hold civil offices, bringing With that mild and forgiving spirit which a true no law suits, nor being concerned in strife or christian only can manifest, he bade his weeping litigation, and enforcing upon children, strict atpeople follow him into their church. He prayed 'tendance on public worship and submission to
the laws of our country. We shun all theologi- feeling wherewith it overflows. America is to cal and political controversies—we publish no me a very Potosi of kindliness, and I am conpolemical works—we practise the principle of tinually finding the popularity to which you alcommunity in our villages so far as we can and lude, made manifest to myself, by letters full of cultivate peace and good will on earth. The love from many good people in your far-off states, Augsburg Confession is the acknowledged sym- to whom I can be known only in the spirit. I bol of our Church, and we contend that the need not say how glad I am to add your name to atonement of our Saviour is general in its extent the number; nor how heartily I rejoice in the and vicarious in its nature. We have no par- rich fund of (I may really call it) gratitude, which ticular theories relative to any aspect of this doc- God's blessing has added to my writings so well trine but abstain from all attempts to philoso- received among you. phize on this subject. As to the Eucharist we It is by no means impossible that, some day or differ from a majority of the Lutherans in Eu- other, I may pay America a visit, for so many rope and America, in still maintaining the doc- friends urge it, and there will be so much true trine of the real presence as taught in the Augs- pleasure in making their personal acquaintance, burg Confession. We have bishops but claim that I have not the stoical virtue to resist an infor them no jure divino authority. With us free clination so attractive. Not but that I hate, abtoleration is a cardinal principle. All are allowed jure and would go any distance to avoid lioniza* to worship under their own vine and fig tree,' tion, but that I hold to be a very different thing and in no instance did we persecute any one of from the hearty good will and christian love our fellow creatures for any cause whatever." wherewith I shall be greeted. The sun was now about to set. I bade the
Praise is a good thing when it comes from good holy man adieu and reached my residence pleased men, as honest guerdon for a good deed, and I with the novel and striking incidents of the day.
am far from the hypocrisy of pretending not to
appreciate the rich reward of commendation L.
from his servants, wherewith our Father has already blest me, as far as I trust I shall always be from seeking praise unworthily, in any manner irrespective of His work on earth, nor without a
willing eye and a covetous ear for his own MARTIN F. TUPPER, ESQ., M. A.
dovan ayaon.” Thus only do I wish to reap my
honors. And now, my dear sir, you ask me many Author of Proverbial Philosophy, 8c. An inter- questions which I really must not answer except
esting letter from him to an American Corres- by reference. There will shortly, I believe, be pondent; some allusions to his writings, char-emanating from a house in New York, a comacter, &c.
plete edition of all my works, prefaced by a life
of their author. My portrait-not entirely unMr. Editor,-My attention was first directed to the writings of Tupper some years since, when
like, though they tell me a little flattering, is in
your shop windows—and for the inner man, you the Messenger was under the control of your have my heart and mind pretty well laid bare in very esteemed predecessor, Mr. Minor. The
books. Editor, at that time, reviewed some of the wri
As to all else, I am blessed with
health, wealth, wife, children and honor. I am tings of this distinguished author in a highly favorable manner, and quoted some striking and inches are some 5 feet 6—you find me cordial, I
not bald, nor gray, nor crooked, nor a fright. My interesting passages from his Proverbial Philosophy and other works. After having read Pro
have no mysteries, and number many friends.
Several American gentlemen have visited my old verbial Philosophy several times, I felt an irresistible inclination to learn more of the history such visit published in your Literary World,
family house at Albury, and you will find one and character of the author, and with this view another in your Boston Atlas, and another in, (I as well as for the purpose of expressing the great think.) Mr. Bryant's paper.
Is not all this pleasure and benefit I had derived from his writings, I addressed to him a letter, in reply
enough to satisfy common curiosity? Still do
not suppose to which I received the following:
I set lightly by your kind enquiries;
as a proof of your esteem, if not of your affecAlbury, Near Guilford, England, tion, I thank you for them, and with you all like
June 20th, 1818. minded at Memphis. Have you a Thebes or a My Dear Sir and Unseen FRIEND,—After a Heliopolis ? how strange it seems to have a Memlong travel, evidenced by many post marks, your phian friend, - however, Tennessee-strange adcordial and therefore welcome letter has at last junct brings one hot-foot from Old Egypt to found me out. I hasten to respond to the friendly Young Columbia. Liked you my sonnets to Co
lumbia in “ Haetenus ?" Enquire for the booklet. and hope I am no mere words-penner, no hypoSoon you will see my loving ballad to Brother crite in prose or poetry, but a man who desires Jonathan and will not hate me for it. My high and attempts to illustrate all that I say by all errand as between mother and child (possibly that I do. You therefore all know me much truant-child, but there were many excuses) is better than you suspect, and I find that I can get peace; and I suspect I shall avail to do more on with my American friends with a more pleasthis way than all our diplomatists.
ing feeling of sympathy, than with many on this Let me know whether you get this letter, which, side of the Atlantic; for reserve and restraint after all contains nothing, and therefore will, I and the pompousness of empty dignity are as abhope, be stolen by no-body. Tell me in your horrent from my nature as from that of the gennext all about the many unseen friends of
uine Yankee.” Your unworthy
Mr. Tupper is a young man, (about 37,) for Martin F. TUPPER. one who has written so much. He is said to
possess a fine person ; his manners are described The following was rapidly sketched down not as elegant and eminently social, and he is relong since, in reference to Mr. Tupper's writings markably happy in his domestic relations. He and personal character, and may, perhaps, be is a retired, literary gentleman of splendid acread with some interest by his admirers.
quirements and eminent piety, residing on his This excellent and distinguished gentlemen has, paternal estates and finding happiness in his in a very short time, acquired great celebrity in home, his wife and children, books and writhe literary world. He has, for the last five or tings. I would take him to be a man of enlarged six years, been delighting and instructing the and liberal views on all subjects—quite withreading community on both sides of the Atlan- drawn from the politics and factions of his own tic. Some of the ablest reviewers have compli- or any other country, and free from that acerbity ✓ mented his productions as displaying great ge- of temper which so often characterizes the “genius, learning, power and passion. His Prover- nus irritabile.” He possesses overflowing wealth bial Philosophy struck with almost electric force without the accompanying curse of avariceand effect upon the minds and hearts of a large claims every blessing the human heart can declass of American readers, and at once rendered sire, and styles himself a happy man. His wrihis name and character famous and beloved in tings appear to be the offspring of a mind labor. this country. Of this work, it has been said by ing for usefulness and good to his fellow men, the editor of the Southern Literary Messenger, and are designed to act upon the heart and life. some years since, “ It abounds in gems and apt
You believe him always in earnest, and Carlyle, allusions, which display without an effort the with much truth and eloquence, places earnestdeep practical views and aesthetical culture of ness at the bottom of all true greatness. Tupthe author. His prose writings, chiefly in the per seems to write both from an earnest and form of moral fictions, have also won for their religious heart, and his warm and impressive author much credit. His • Booklet,' Hactenus, teachings are imprinted with more than ordinary contains some spirited and beautiful poems, in- effect and power upon the minds and hearts of dicating in the author a warm, pious, and patri- his readers. otic heart, and his Sonnets' to Columbia con
W. J. T. tained in this volume, contain a deep and earn
Memphis, Dec., 1848. est love and sympathy with our country which does great credit to the head and heart of the author. We believe that there has long existed an unfortunate and unreasonable prejudice between us and the mother country.
PROPHECY OF NAPOLEON. per seems far above all such narrow prejudices, and in his writings, has been exerting all his in- Mr. Thompson.—In January of last year
I fluence to break down such contracted prejudi- wrote, as you will remember, a notice of Monces, and affect a kind and fraternal affection be- tholon's Captivity of Napoleon, which appeared tween two great nations, both speaking the same in the Messenger for that month. Recent events language and claiming the same distinguished in France induced me to look over it again, as I ancestry."
remembered some quotations which struck me As an evidence, among many others, of Mr. as remarkable, and which I thought worthy of Tupper's kindly feelings to our country, he re- being looked at with reference to passing occurmarks in a letter received by the writer of this, rences. I have not now before me Count Mon“ Next, make my affectionate salutations wel-tholon's book, but I have copied one of the quocome to all who love me in my writings. I think, 'tations before alluded to. The remarks were