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be very conformable to the stile of this Evangelif. Thus he tells us (my that men's hearts shall fail them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth (*), that is, on Juden, as is evident from the 23d verse. It is also much more probable that when he tells us, in another place (n), that Agabus had foretold there should be great dearth throughout all the world, he understood thereby only all Judea. It is true fome historians (o) mention a famine that happened at Rome in the time of the emperor Claudius; but Rome was not the whole world; and this dearth was neither in Egypt nor Cypris, fince according to Josephus (P), queen Helena fent for provisions from thence to relieve the inhabitants of Jerusalem, which were ready to perish for want of fuftenance. You
may observe here, that Josephus mentions only Jerusalem, and therefore it may from hence be inferred that the famine was not universal. This way of speaking was not peculiar to St. Luke, for the Sacred writers of the Old Testament often give Judea the name of the whole earth (9), which the seventy most commonly render by the habitable world (r); and they call lo not only Judea, which was looked upon as the earth by way of eminence, but any other country they are speaking of, as St. Jerome hath observed (s).
In the mean while, Herod-Antipas and Philip were in peaceable poffeflion of their Tetrarchies. As mention is often made of these princes in the gospel, it will be proper to give some account of them. Jofephus (*) seems not to be confiftent with himself, when he speaks of the mother of Herod-Antipas; he calls him sometimes the fon of Cleopatra, and at other times of Malthace, which were two of Herod's wives; but this is a matter of a very little consequence to our present purpose. He cannot but very improperly be called a king (t), since he never was fo. Herod had indeed in his first will nominated him his fucceffor to the kingdom; but he altered it afterwards, and conferred that dignity upon Archelaus, who notwithstanding had it not. Antipas is represented in the New Testament as a very vicious prince, who added the death of John the Baptist to all the evils which he had done (u). Jofephus gives him no better character (x). He plainly discovered his incontinence by marrying Herodias, his brother Philip's wife. It must be observed, by the by, that this Philip seems not to have been the Tetrarch of Ituræa, and Ton of Cleopatra; for, according to Josephus (y), he, whose wife Antipas
(m) Luke xxi. 26.
(*) Thi cixspívny the same word as is used chap. ii. p. 1. See Dr. Hammond in loc.
(*) Acts xi. 28. () Dio Caffius, p. 60. Sueton. Vit. Claudii, p. 18. (D) Jofeph. Antiq. l. xx. C. 2. (a) puan: Deut. xxix. 23. Josh. xi. 23. Jer. i. 18. iv. 20. viii. 16.
(o) Oivertim. Ifajah xiii. 5. xiv, 26. &c. (s) Hieronym, in Esai. xiii. 5o (*) De Bello Jud. 1. i. c. 20, 21, (6) Matt. xiv. 9.
(u) Luke iii. 19, 20. (*) Joseph. Antiq. Jud. l. xix. c. 7. () Id. Antiq. 4. xviii. c.7. de Bell. Jud. l. i. c. 19.
married, was the son of Mariamne, the daughter of the high-priest Simon: Josephus does not indeed call this fon of Mariamne, Philip; but all the Evangelists give that name to him, whose wife Antipas married (2). That historian stiles him only Herod the brother of Herod (Antipas), bg another mother. And therefore in the note on that place we have chose rather to follow the Evangelists, who lived in those days, than Josephus, who might easily be mistaken in a fact. so long before his time, and besides of very little consequence. There is certainly a vast deal of confusion in the genealogies of Herod's family, given us by Josephus (a). However this be, such a vile thing as the debauching his brother's wife, and bafely putting away his own, which was the daughter of Aretas king of Arabia, manifestly thews the character of Herod-Antipas was but very indifferent. The death of John the Baptift, of which he was the author, was a complication of crimes ; for he could not commit this murder without great impiety, because John was looked upon as a prophet, and Hered himself seems not to have been ignorant of it. However, he was severely and justly punished for this wickedness: for Aretus, to revenge the injury done to his daughter, denounced war against Herod, and utterly routed his army: the generality of the Jesus, if we may believe Josephus (6), were of opinion that this was a jutt judgment of God upon that prince, and his army, for the murder of John the Baptift; but it is doubted whether this paffage be genuine. În what year the death of John the Baptist happened, is not well known; but it is certain, that Jesus Christ had then preached a considerable time, and done many miracles in Galilee. It may therefore seem' ftrange, that Herod-Antipas should have so little knowledge of what passed in his dominions, as never to have seen Jesus Chrift, as the Evangelists tell us (c). But it may be Herod was abfent while our blessed Saviour preached in Galilee ; accordingly Jofephus makes mention of his taking a journey to Rome, before he married Herodias. After his return from thence, he had not the satisfaction of seeing Jesus Christ, though he was very desirous of it. This was indeed a very suspicious kind of curiosity in a prince, who well knew how to difguise his ill designs with a fair outlide, and draw the innocent into his snares, as well as oppress them by open force. Jesus Christ was so far from gratifying his desire, that he went away into another place, that he might elude and defeat the craftiness and devices of that fox, as he is pleased to stile him (d). Herod could not therefore obtain his desires in this refpect, till the time of our Saviour's arraignment and condemne ation, when Pilate knowing that Jesus was a Galilean, and, confequently belonged to Herod's jurisdiction, fent him to him, intending thereby to do him a pleasure, and also that he might at the same time get rid of the trouble of judging him. In what a ridiculous and indecent manner he treated him, we are told by St. Luke, who adds, that at that time Pilate and Herod were made friends together, when before they had
The (*). Matt. xiv. 3. Mark vi. 17. Luke iii. 19. (a) Jofeph. Antiq. 1, xvii. c. 1. (6) Id. ibid. 1. xviii. c. 7, () Luke xxiü. 8. (d) Luke xiñ. 32.
ce) Luke xxiii. S. 11/12
been at enmitgR).
The, unlawful marriage which this prince contracted with Herodias, was the cause of his ruin. For that ambitious woman, out of the pride of her heart, not being able to bear that her brother Agrippa, the son of Ariftobulus, and nephew of Antipas, fhould be advanced to the throne, and excel her in splendor, dignity, and power, compelled, in a manner, her husband to go to Rome, and get the like honour and preferment for himself (F). But Agrippa countermined him, by giving Caligula, who was then emperor, just reason of suspecting his loyalty to him(8); so that instead of making him king, he banished him to Lyons, and afterwards to Spain. This Herod built or repaired fome cities, as Sephoris (h); which he named Tiberias in honour of Tiberius, and another in Perxa, which was by him called Julias, in memory of Julia the daughter of Auguftus. He enjoyed his Tetrarchy forty-three years.
As for his brother Philip, who was Tetrarch of Ituræa, and Trachomitis, mention is made of him only in St. Luke (i). It is true that St. Matthew and St. Mark (k) speak of one Philip, the brother of Herod; but, as hath been already observed, Josephus gives us reason to doubt, whether this was Philip the Tetrarch, or another Herod, that had also the name of Philip (?). This historian represents Philip as a meek, just, and peaceable prince; and therefore Jesus Christ was wont to retire into his dominions, in order to secure himself against the insults and attacks of the Jews (m). He also built or beautifyed and enlarged some cities, as Paneas for instance, to which he gave the name of Cæfarea () (and which is commonly called Cæsarea Philippi (c), that it may thereby be distinguished from another Cæfarea or Turris Stratonis, which lay on the sea-coast;) Bethsaida was likewise enlarged by him, and named Julias. He reigned thirty-seven years; and as he died without issue, Tiberius annexed his dominions to Syria. It remains now to give some account of the grandsons of Herod the Great, as far as is requisite for the understanding of some parts of the New Testament. Of the grandsons of
ARISTOBULUS, who was put to death by his fa
ther's orders, left behind him two fons, of whom Herod the Great,
mention is made in the Acts of the Apoftles and the history of-Josephus. The first of them was Agrippa surnamed the Great, the son of Mariamne, a princess of the Afmonæan race: to him Caligula gave the kingdom of Judea, Idumea, and Samaria, with the Tetrarchy of Antipas, which was approved of and confirmed by the emperor Claudius, who moreover added to his dominions the territories which had belonged to Philip (p). This is the fame Agrippa who in the Afts is named Herod the king (9), and who, to please
the Jews, killed James the son of Zebedee with the sword, and cast St. Peter into prison. Like his grandfather, he was cruel, effeminate, and impious; and he met also with the same unhappy end, for he was smitten by the hand of God for his crimes (r).
(f) Joseph. Antiq. l. xviii. Co 9.
(3) Id. Ibid. (b) Joseph. Antiq. 1. xviii. c. 3.
(C) Luke iii. 1. k) Matth. xiv. 3. Mark vi. 17. (1) Joseph. Antiq. I. xviii. c. 6. (m) Id. Ibid. (n) Joseph. Antiq. 1. xviii. c. 3. (c) Matth, xvi. 13. () Jofeph. Antiq. l. xviii. c. 9. & de Bell. Jud. I. ï. c. 8. (9) A&s xii. 1.
(r) Ibid. c. 23.
After his death, which occasioned great joy to all his people, Judea became again a province to the Roman empire, and was governed by Curpidius Fadus ; the son of Agrippa being then too young to be entrusted with the government of a kingdoin (s). The other son of Ariftobulus was Herod king of Chalcis, commonly known by the name of Claudius's favourite ; from whom he obtained the privilege of chusing and deposing the high-priests (t), together with the charge of the temple, and the holy treasure; though, in other respects, he had no manner of authority or power in Judea. We find no mention at all of him in fcripture.
After the decease of Herod king of Chalcis, Agrippa the Younger, the son of Agrippa the Great, was put in possession of that little kingdom ; the situation whereof, historians are not well agreed about. The most probable opinion is, that it lay between Libanus and Antilibanus. To this prince was likewise committed the keeping of the temple, the holy treasure, and the priefly garments. Before this Agrippa it was that St. Paul made that noble defence for himself which we read in the xxvith chapter of the Axis of the Apostles ; where he is always stiled king, either upon the account of his being king of Chalcis, as he actually was, or else because he had a great power in Judea, though he was not invested with the supreme authority, since we find that it was in the hands of governors appointed by the Romans, as Feftus, Felix, Albinus, and Gessius Florus (u). The last of whom was the occasion of those grievous disturbances and troubles in that province, which in the end proved the cause of its total ruin and destruction. Agrippa is well known in history by his criminal, or, at least, his too free conversation, with Berenice, the daughter of Agrippa the Great, and consequently his own lifter, which before had been the wife of Herod king of Chalcis, his uncle, and was after married to Polemo king of Cilicia (x), whom the soon forsook, being drawn away by her immoderate and exceffive luft. This is the same with him in the Acts of the Apostles (). Agrippa was the last king of Herod's race. In what
year he died is uncertain : Some imagine that he lived till the time of Trajan. Thus much we know, that he survived his country, and endeavoured to prevent the fall of it by his wife counfels, and prudent administration (z). But the time appointed for the deftruction of that impenitent people was come; they were now become their own enemies, contriving, as they did, their own ruin, by repeated seditions, and continual revolts.
Thus have we brought down the history of Herod and his posterity, to the downfall of the Jewish commonwealth, which happened in the 70th year of the Christian æra, and 40 years after it had been foretold by Icsus Christ.
To finish the account of the state of the Jewish Of those Jews who nation as far as it relates to the New Testament, were dispersed in seve. it will be necessary to speak of the Jews that were ral parts of the world. dispersed in several parts of the earth. There were great numbers of
thein (s) Jofeph. Antiq. I. xix. C. 7.
(t) Id. ibid. 1. xx. C. 1. (u) Jofeph. Antiq. I. xx. c. 8, 9.
(*) Id. ibid. c. 5. (y) Acts XXV. 13.
(z) Joseph, de Bello Jud. l. ii. p. , & 24. VOL. III.
them in Greece, and all the other parts of the Roman Empire, which had at that time no other bounds, but those of the then known world. It is of the Jews dispersed among the Gentiles, that the Jews of Jerusalem speak, in the seventh chapter of St Jolin's gospel (a). Jesus Christ likewise seems to allude to them, when he faith, he hath yet other peep (b); without excluding nevertheless the Gentiles, who were also to enter into his sheepfold, or to be admitted into his church. Let this be as it will, some of the dispersed Jews were inet together from all parts of the world at Jerusalem on the day of Pentecost, after our Saviour's ascen. fion (c). It was then the critical time, in which the Jews openly professed they were in expe&tation of the coming of the Meffiah, God moreover ordered it so, (that they should now be at Jerusalem) to the intent that the miraculous effusion of the Holy Ghost might be made known to all nations, in order to convince them of the divine million of Jesus Christ, and the truth of the Christian religion.
To these dispersed Jews it was that St. James and St. Peter wrote their epiftles; the former to those of the twelve tribes which were scattered throughout the world ; the latter to those in particular that were in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia. We may judge of the prodigious number of them by what king Agrippa the Elder wrote to the emperour Caligula, to dissuade him from setting up the statue of Jupiter in Jerusalem, and from ordering that he himself should be wor. Thipped there as a god (d). “ Jerusalemn, faith he, is the metropolis not “ only of Judea, but of many other colonies that have been planted from 66 thence. In the neighbouring parts there are abundance of them, as « in Ægypt, Phænicia, Upper and Lower Syria, Pamphylia, Cilicia, and “ several parts of Asia, as far as Bithynia and Pontus : And so in Europe, " Thessaly, Baotia, Macedonia, Ætolia, Athens, Argos, Corinth, and the “ better part of Peloponnesus. And not only the continent, but the « Nands also of most eminent note, are filled with Jewish plantations ; as « Eubæa, Cyprus, Crete; to say nothing of those beyond the Euphrates."
These words of Philo give a great light to the second chapter of the A&ts. And that the case was the same even in the time of Josephus, appears from the speech which Agrippa the Younger made to the Jews, with a design to persuade them not to engage in a war against the romans; where, among other arguments, he offers this, that “ the Jews, “ who were scattered over the face of the whole earth, would be involved in " their ruin (e)." These dispersions of the Jews were owing to particular occasions and causes (), but they were undoubtedly the effect of the wonderful wisdom of God, who thereby gave the Apostles an opportunity of preaching the gospel to the Gentiles, because the Jews, who were mixed with, and resided among thein, professed to be in expectation of the Meliah. It cannot moreover be questioned, but that this
(a) John vii. 35
(6) Id. x, 16. (c) Acts ij. 5, &c. d) Vid. Philonis Legationem ad Caium, p. 16. (e) Joseph. de Bello Jud. I. ii. c. 16.
You may see an account of the several difperfions of the Jews, and the caufcs and occations of them, in the famous Nir. Balage's history of the Jews.