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The Anti-Popery agitation has greatly abated since our last number. The meetings have been less numerous, and their proceedings characterised by a much more moderate spirit. The counties of Oxford, Nottingham, Glamorgan, Huntingdon, Cornwall, Carmarthen, Suffolk, and Westmoreland, have held meetings, at each of which resolutions protesting against the Papal aggression have been passed, in most cases without any opposition. At the Cornwall meeting, however, Mr.J.W. Ellis moved an amendment deprecating any action, but it was lost by a very large majority. Amendments were also moved at the Suffolk meeting by Mr. R. 'Tacon, in favour of perfect religious liberty; and a second by Mr. Prentice, to the effect that no system of religion should be paid by the State ; both the amendments, however, were rejected, but advantage was taken of the opportunity given in proposing them of advocating the principles which they set forth. At a meeting held at Southwark, a resolution characterising the act of the Pope as insolent, dangerous, and insidious, but at the same time condemning all Papal endowments, was carried, but not without strong opposition; an amendment having been proposed by Mr. Thwaites, condemnatory of all State endowments of religion, and which was lost only by about thirty votes. The Town Council of Leeds has also formally protested against the aggression, though not without being opposed; and so has the city of Perth, at the same time that it equally protested against all pecuniary support of religion by the State.

On the part of Dissenters, action seems to have been exclusively confined to public bodies. The Yorkshire Baptist Association has met, and passed a series of resolutions, chiefly directed against a recognition of the ecclesiastical supremacy of the Crown, the Maynooth grants, and the union of Church and State. The Board of Baptist Ministers of London have also adopted a resolution

embodying similar sentiments. The Dissenting Deputies have likewise met, and at an adjourned meeting passed a resolution condemnatory of penal enactments, but expressing an intention of meeting again, to record their views on the recent aggressive policy of Rome, and to petition Parliament against pecuniary grants towards its support. "The resolution was carried with great difficulty, and not till after long discussion, a large minority being in favour of passing a resolution, moved by Mr. Cunnington, and seconded by Mr. E. Clarke, protesting against all State endowments of ecclesiastical bodies.

In connexion with the Established Church, meetings have been held at Liverpool, Ulster, Ipswich, and Southampton, at which the revival of Convocation, and the con demnation of Tractarian practices in the Church, have been the chief subjects both of resolution and remark. A special meeting of the clergy and laity of the Metropolis was held at Freemasons' Hall, on the 14th, to promote the former object; and resolutions passed in accordance therewith. An address on the Papal aggression, emanating from the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge, and bearing the names of 3,600 distinguished persons,' episcopal, clerical, and aristocratic, has also been presented to Her Majesty, as well as one from the prelates of the Church of England and Ireland' in Ireland, the chief purport of which, however, is to assert the rights of the Church in Ireland, and the paramount importance of

maintaining that portion of the "bulwark of Protestantism' intact from calumny and legislative meddlement.

The agitation has, besides, called forth a letter from Lord Camoys, a Roman Catholic nobleman, in which'he states his dissent from the recent address presented to Cardinal Wiseman by the Romish clergy and laity, and also a memorial to 'his Eminence' from the Catholic clergy of the diocese of Beverley, soliciting him to use his influence in moulding their ecclesiastical (and infallibles constitution more in harmony with the laws of England. A declaration condemnatory of all religious disabilities has been put forth by several Irish Roman Catholic Members of Parliament. In addition to the foregoing, the agitation has called forth no other fresh or important

REFORM IN TAXATION. Meetings have been held in various parts of London and its suburbs, during this month, as well as in several provincial towns, to support a movement in favour of the Abolition of the Window Duty. At Birmingham, Leeds, and other places, as well as in London, meetings have also been convened in favour of the abolition of the Excise Duty on paper, and the other. Anti-Knowledge' taxes.

THE ANTI-STATE-CHURCH MOVEMENT. Public meetings in connexion with the Anti-state-church movement have been held since our last at Romford, Gravesend, Daventry, and Willingham, and soirées


at Northampton and Kennington. At Romford, opposition was offered to the objects of the meeting by two clergymen; the Rev. S. Arnotte, Curate of Romford, and the Rev. E. A. Hill, Curate of Upminster, and a resolution in favour of the Union of Church and State pressed by them upon the meeting. It was lost, however, by a large majority; much, we are informed, to the 'evid nt surprise and mortification of the Church party.' The above meetings have generally been extremely well attended, and great interest has been excited by them. At the Northampton meeting, nearly 60.. was subscribed to the funds of the Anti-state-church Association. We observe that the new Publication Scheme of this Association is meeting with very satisfactory support, about 7801, having been already subscribed towards it.

THE BRIGHTON CHURCH-RATE CASE. This case has been tried before Sir H. J. Fust, in the Court of Arches, the Hon. Dr. Jenner and Dr. Harding in support of the resistants, and Dr. Curteis and Dr. Philli more against. After the case had been argued, the judge remarked that it was utterly useless to drive the parties to further litigation, unless he was quite satisfied that it was not distinguishable from the Braintree case. He must adhere to the principle laid down in that case until it was reversed, but he would take time to consider his judgment. It is not known when the judgment will be given.

EDUCATION. A meeting was held at Manchester, in the early part of the last month, to take measures for constructing an effective system of local education on the basis of plans now in operation. The principal features of the plan are, to make use of the un. occupied room in schools of the various religious denominations in Manchester and Salford ; to provide for the contingent expenses by a local rate not exceeding fivepence in the pound; and the management to be by committees elected out of their own members by the municipal councils of the two boroughs. The religious convictions of all parties are to be respected and equally protected, by a guarantee ; and no school is to be erected by the district committees, or land purchased, without the sanction of the Committee of Privy Council on Education.—Sir J. Kay Shuttleworth has written a letter on the new scheme, which is published in the newspapers. He gives a general approval of its leading features, and hints that the Government would possibly adopt it.- A meeting of the friends of the Voluntary School Association has also been held during the month at the Manor Rooms, Stoke Newington, G. W. Alexander, Esq., in the chair. The meeting was addressed by the Revs. H. Richard, S. Green, J. Jefferson, and J. Scoble, and J. Cooper, Esq.; and resolutions passed in favour of the objects of the society.- -We observe that a movement is on foot to establish in Birmingham a scholastic institution for the sons of ministers, no establishment of the kind existing in the midland counties. It is to be thoroughly unsectarian.

TESTIMONIAL TO DR. PYE SMITH, A public breakfast was given at the London Tavern, on Wednesday, the 8th, for the purpose of presenting a testimonial to the Rev. John Pye Smith, D.D, LL.D., F.R.S., &c. The chair was occupied by W. A. Hankey, Esq., treasurer to the fund. There were present a large number of the principal ministers and other members of the Congregational body. The testimonial amounted to 2,6002, invested in the Three per Cent. Consols, standing in the name of several trustees. After the doctor's decease, the sum will be appropriated to found a scholarship.


BROOKE's MARKET, HOLBORN.--A Mission Chapel was opened in the above district on Sunday evening, the 29th ult., and classes have been formed in connexion with it.

Ryde.- On the 1st January, a new Baptist Chapel was opened in John Street, Ryde. It is built to hold about 250 persons, and will cost 4001.

MINISTERIAL MOVEMENTS. East Dereham.—Mr. G. Y, Jeffreys, late of Glastonbury, has accepted an invitation to the pastorate of the Independent church in this town.

HINCKLEY.-W. Ray, late of Lichfield, has accepted the invitation of the Independent church at Hinckley, to become their pastor.

RYBcrofT.-The Rev. W. Thomas, late of Rotherham, has become the pastor of the new church in this district.

SHREWSBURY.-The Rev. James Smith, late of New Park-street Chapel, London, has accepted the unanimous invitation of the First Baptist Church, Shrewsbury, to become its pastor.


The actual intelligence from missionary stations abroad received during the past month is very scanty, but on the whole encouraging. From


Mr. Webley, of the Baptist Mission, writes detailing several instances of cases of inquiry after truth as well as of conversion. In the school, he says, the efforts of the teachers have met with great success, there being reason to believe that nine of the scholars have lately experienced a regenerating change. He mentions several cases of conversion occurring through the simple reading of the Scriptures. The hindrances to a public profession of religion in Haiti appear to be very great, from the adverse influence of the friends of those converted, but many are strong in the faith, and therefore overcome. Mr.

Webley, alluding to the instances of conversion from the reading of the Bible, says with emphasis – My humble opinion is, that whatever may be the auxiliary means employed by us for the conversion of this people, such as the preaching of the word and the distribution of tracts, the Bible, without comment, will be the grand and efficient agent.' No more powerful argument could be used for 'unfettering the Bible from the shackles of a disgraceful monopoly. It is said that the spread of Protestantism in Haiti is alarming the native government, and that it was lately discussed in the Chambers, but without any result.

SAMOA. Samoa has been visited with a destructive hurricane, which has been attended with great loss of property, but happily not of lives. Mr. Stallworthy, of the London Mission, writes that, out of more than thirty chapels, including those of the Weslegans, which were standing in the two districts before the gale, only one remains, and that is much shaken.' Nearly all the larger kinds of houses are down, so that in almost every village they were, for the present, without any place to assemble in. Mr. Mills adds further details, stating that both the Mission Store and the New Bethel Chapel stood out the hurricane. The New Testament, in the Samoan language, lately printed by the Bible Society, has arrived safely there, and some 15,000 copies are now in course of distribution.

CALCUTTA, Mission enterprise in India appear to be attended at present with not very encouraging success, but individual instances of conversion, it is stated, are not rare, nor the actual number of converts at all few. The Calcutta Christian Advocate' mentions a church of native Christians, at Bhowanipore, Calcutta, which a few years ago contained eight members, and now pumbers nineteen. Thirteen 'new members, it is stated, have lately been admitted to the churches at Hitian and Tiarei.

CEYLON, In a visit to Ceylon paid by Mr. Leechman (of Hammersmith), one of a deputation to India from the Baptist Missionary Society, he appears to have seen much to encourage further exertions there. It is well known that Christianity has been established in Ceylon for more than two centuries, and Protestantism has obtained a firm and deep hold on the people. Mr. Leechman says, progress is being made, especially in the villages, where the fields are white unto the harvest.' The schools also are doing great good.

The great scourge is ravaging this fine island, and upwards of 4,000 have died from it in Kingston alone. The Baptist Missionary Society, we observe, have formed

'a separate fund for the assistance of pastors of Baptist churches, and the relief of sufferers in their vicinity. They solicit subscriptions towards it.

KNAPP HOPE (KAFFRELAND). Mr. Kayser, of the London Mission, writes of two or three recent instances of conversion, and says that some inquiries are expected to come forward.

MADAGASCAR, Mr. Berheyer, of Mauritius, in a letter which appears in the ' Leeds Mercury,' sent by Mr.

Griffiths, of Hay, communicates the following intelligence from Madagascar, which he received through private letters from smerina : – Eight thousand Chrisexercises, were all arrested and condemned to death. Eighteen of them had been


says, 'being assembled one evening, in different places, engaged in religious executed, when all the rest found means of escape, fled to the palace of the prince, and implored his protection. The prince took them under his care.' The Queen appears


to have been enraged at this, but ultimately fearing a revolution in Imerina, quashed the affair, and the Christians are now in safety and assemble as usual. [There are evident improbabilities and exaggerations in this account, which, however, we have no doubt, has a certain foundation in truth. The Christians have clearly been in great danger. Further accounts may give more correct information ]



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MARCH, 4854.

Human Laturr—its Religious Deurlopment.

From the manifest and obvious diversity in the religious development of mankind, we proceeded, in a former number of this journal,* to inquire after the primitive power to which it would seem that all the phenomena must be referred; and we came to the conclusion that the religious element in human nature was one and simple-namely, a susceptibility of emotion from the idea of God. From the unity and simplicity of this primary power, or capacity for religion, in the human race, we now revert to the diversity of its religious development: a fact which meets us on every hand, and which is unquestionably worthy of more than a passing notice.

And, first of all, it may be worth while to endeavour to form some correct estimate of the fact itself, by noticing briefly its more promi

1. The diversities of religious development among mankind are immensely numerous. No justice is done to them by enumerating their principal forms – such as Paganism, Mahometanism, Christianity; since each principal form is minutely divided, and its name does but stand at the head of a long list of subordinate varieties. Of Paganism, for example, the kinds are all but endless; and even the Paganism of a single country, as of India for instance, breaks itself up into almost innumerable sects. It is the same with the Moslem and the Christian developments, in which varying shades of doctrine and

nent aspects.

Christian Spectator, No. I, p. 12.



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