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perform the covenant he had made with those that surrendered the citadel, he let them go, and restored Eleazar to them.
5. When Bassus had settled these affairs, he marched hastily to the forest of Jarden, as it is called; for he had heard that a great many of those that had fled from Jerusalem and RIacherus formerly, were there gotten together. When he was therefore come to the place, and understood that the former news was no mistake, he, in the first place, surrounded the whole place with his horsemen, that such of the Jews as had boldness enough to try to break through, might have no way possible for' escaping, by reason of the situation of their horsemen ; and for the footmen, he ordered them to cut down the trees that were in the wood Whither they were fjed. So the Jews were under a necessity of performing some glorious exploit, and of greatly exposing themselves in a battle, since they might perhaps thereby escape. So they made a general attack, and with a great shout fell upon those that surrounded them, who received them with great courage ; and so, while the one side fought desperately, and the others would not yield, the fight was prolonged on that account. But the event of the battle did not answer the expectation of the assailants; for so it happened, that no more than twelve fell on the Roman side, with a few that were wounded; but not one of the Jews es-. caped out of this battle, but they were all killed, being in the whole not fewer in number than three thousand ; together with Judas, the son of J aims, their general, concerning whom we have before spoken, that he had been a captain of a certain band at the siege of Jerusalem, and by going down into a certain vault under ground, had privately made his escape.
6. About the same time it was, that Caesar sent a letter to Bassus, and to Tiberius Maximus, who was the procurator [of Judea,] and gave order that all Judea should be exposed to sale :* for he did not found any city there, but reserved the country for himself. However, he assigned a place for eight hundred men only, whom he had dismissed from his army, which he gave them for their habitation; it
* It is very remarkable that Titus did not people this now desolate country of Judea, but ordered it to he all sold; nor indeed is it properly peopled at this day, but lies ready for its old inhabitants the Jews, a; their future » restoration. See Literal Accomplishment of Prophecies, pag? 77.
is called Emmons* and is distant from Jerusalem threescore furlongs. He also laid a tribute upon the Jews wheresoever the)' were, and enjoined every one of them to bring two drachma; every year into the capitol, as they used to pay the same to the temple at Jerusalem. And this was the state of the Jewish affairs at,this time.
Concerning the calamity that befel Antiochus king of Commagene. As also concerning the Alans, and what great mischiefs they did to the Medes and Armenians.
§ 1. And now, in the fourth year of the reign of Vespasian, it came to pass, that Antiochus, the king of Commagene, with all his family, fell into very great calamities. The occasion was this: Cecennius Petus, who was president of Syria at this time, whether it were done out of regard to truth, or whether out of hatred to Antiochus, (for which was the real motive was never thoroughly discovered,) sent an epistle to Caesar, and therein told him, That "Antiochus, with his son Epiphanes had resolved to rebel ** against the Romans, and had made a league with the king "of Parthia to that purpose: that it was therefore fit to "prevent them, lest they prevent us, and begin such a war "as may cause a general disturbance in the Roman empire." jNow Caesar was disposed to take some care about the matter, since this discovery was made; for the neighbourhood, of the kingdoms made this affair worthy of a great regard; for Samosata, the capital of Commagene lies upon Euphrates, and upon any such design could afford an easy passage over it to the Parthians, and could also afford them a secure reception. Patus was accordingly believed, and' had
* That the city Emmaus or Ammaus in Josephus and others, which w as the place of the government of Julius Africa mis, in the beginning of the third century, and which he then procured to be rebuilt, and after which rebuilding it was called Nicopolis, is entirely different from that Emmaus which is mentioned by St Luke, xxiv. 17. See Reland's Palestina, lib. ii. 'page429. and under the name Ammaus also. But he justly thinks that that in St. Lnke may well be the same with this Ammaus before us, especially *ince the Greek copies here usually make it 60 furlongs distant from Jerusalem, as does St Luke, though the Latin sopies say only 30. The placs also allotted for these 800 soldiers, as for the Roman garrion, in this place, would most naturally be not so rennte from Jeru?al°ra, as Wis the other Etvjjius ar Nicopolis.
authority given him of doing what he should think proper in the case; so he set about it without delay, and fell upon Commagene, before Antiochus and his people had the least expectation of his coming; he had with him the tenth legion, as also some cohorts, and troops of horsemen. These kings also came to his assistance, Aristobulus, king of the country called Chalcidene, and Sohemus, who was called king of Emesa. Nor was there any opposition made to his forces when they entered the kingdom; for no one of that country -would so much as lift up his hand against them. When Antiochus heard this unexpected news he could not think in the least of making war with the Romans, but determined to leave his whole kingdom in the state wherein it now was, and to retire privately, with his wife and children, as thinking thereby to demonstrate himself to the Romans to be innocent as to the accusation laid against him. So he went away from that city as far as an hundred and twenty furlongs, into a plain, and there pitched his tents.
2. Petus then sent some of his men to seize upon Samosata, and by their means took possession of that city, while he went himself to attack Antiochus with the rest of his army. However, the king was not prevailed upon by the distress he was in to do any thing in the way of war against the Romans, but bemoaned his own hard fate, and endured with patience what he was not able to prevent. But his sons, who were young, and unexperienced in war, but of strong bodies, were not easily iuduccd to bear this calamity without fighting. Epiphanes, therefore, and Callinicus, betook themselves to military force: and as the battle was a sore one, and lasted all the day long, they shewed their own valour in a remarkable manner, and nothing but the approach of night put a period thereto, and that without any diminution of their forces: yet would not Antiochus, upon this conclusion of the fight, continue there by any means, but took his wife and his daughters, and fled away with them to Cilicia, and, by so doing, quite discouraged the minds of his own soldiers. Accordingly, they revoltedj and went over to the Romans, out of the despair they were in of his keeping the kingdom; and his case was looked upon by all as quite desperate. It was therefore necessary that Epiphanes and his soldiers should get clear of their enemies, before they became entirely desti»
tute of any confederates: nor were there any more than ten horsemen with him, who passed with him over Euphrates, whence they went undisturbed to Vologeses, the king of Parthia, where they were not disregarded as fugitives, but had the same respect paid them, as if they had retained their ancient prosperity.
3. Now, when Antiochus was come to Tarsus, in Cilicia, Petus ordered a centurion to go to him, and send hint in bonds to Rome. However, Vespasian could not endure to have a king brought to him in that manner, but thought it fit rather to have a regard to the ancient friendship that had been between them, than to preserve an inexorable anger upon pretence of this war. Accordingly, he gave orders that they should take off his bonds, while he was still upou the road, and that he should not come to Rome, but should now go anii live at Lacedemon: he also gave him large revenues, that he might not only live in plenty, but like a king also. When Epiphanes, who before was in great fear for his father, was informed of this, their minds were freed from all that great and almost incurable concern they had been under. He also hoped that Csesar would be reconciled to them, upon the intercession of V ologeses; for although he lived in plenty, he knew not how to bear living out of the Roman empire. So Cfesar gave him leave, after an obliging manner, and he came to Rome; and as his father came quickly to him from Lacedemon, he had all sorts of respects paid him there, and there he remained.
4. Now there was a nation of the Alans, which we have formerly mentioned * somewhere as being Scythians, and inhabiting at the lake Moeotis. This nation, about this time, laid a design of falling upon Media, and the parts beyond it, in order to plunder them; with which intention they treated with the king of Hyrcania; for he was master of that passage which king Alexander [the Great] shut up with iron gates. This king gave them leave to come through them: so they came in great multitudes, and fell upon the Medes unexpected!), and plundered their country, which they found full of people, and replenished with abundance of cattle; while nobody durst make any resistance against them; for Pacorus, the king of the country, had fled away for fear iuto places where they could not easily come at
* This is now wanting.
him, and had yielded up every thing he had to them, and had only saved his wife and his concubines from them, and that with difficulty also, after they had been made captives, by giving them an hundred talents for their ransom. These Alans therefore plundered the country without opposition, and with great ease, and proceeded as far as Armenia, laying all waste before them. Now Tiridales was king of that country, who met them, and fought them, but had like to have been taken alive in the battle: for a certain man threw a net over him from a great distance, and had soon drawn him to him, unless he had immediately cut the cord with his sword, and ranaway, and prevented it. So the Alans, being still more provoked by this fight, laid waste thq country, and drove a great multitude of the men, and a great quantity of the other prey they had potten out of hoth kingdoms along with them, and then retreated back to their own country.
Concerning Massada, and those Sicarii who kept it: and how Silva betook himself to form the siege of that citadel. Eleazar's speeches to the besieged.
§ 1. When Bassus was dead in Judea, Flavius Silva succeeded him as procurator there; who, when he saw that all the rest of the country was subdued in this war, and that there was but one only strong hold that was still in rebellion, he got all his army together that lay in different places, and made an exj edition against it. This fortress was called Masada. It was one Eleazar, a potent man, and the commander of these Sicarii, that had seized upon it. He was a descendant from that Judas who had persuaded abundance of the Jews, as we have formerly related, not to submit to the taxation when Syrenius was sent into Judea to make one; for then it was that the Sicarii got to. gether against those that were willing to submit to the Romans, and treated them in all respectg as if they had been their enemies, both by plundering them of what they had, by driving away their cattle, and by setting fire to their houses; for they said that they differed not at all from foreigner^ by betraying in so cowardly a manner, that free