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was Jesse ; and he had eight sons : and the
man went among them for an old man in the 1 The armies of the Israelites and Philistines being days of Saul. ready to battle, 4 Goliath cometh proudly forth to
13 And the three eldest sons of Jesse went challenge a combat. 12 David, sent by his father to visit his brethren, taketh the challenge. 28 Eliab
and followed Saul to the battle : and the chideth him. 30 He is brought to Saul, 32 He names of his three sons that went to the battle sheweth the reason of his confidence. 38 Without were Eliab the firstborn, and next unto him armour, armed by faith, he slayeth the giant. 55 Abinadab, and the third Shammah. Saul taketh notice of David.
14 And David was the youngest ; and the Now the Philistines gathered together their
three eldest followed Saul. armies to battle, and were gathered together
15 But David went and returned from Saul at Shochoh, which belongeth to Judah, and to feed his father's sheep at Beth-lehem. pitched between Shochoh and Azekah, in 16 And the Philistine drew near morning Ephes-dammim.
and evening, and presented himself forty 2 And Saul and the men of Israel were days. gathered together, and pitched by the valley
17 And Jesse said unto David his son, of Elah, and 'set the battle in array against Take now for thy brethren an ephah of this the Philistines.
parched corn, and these ten loaves, and run 3 And the Philistines stood on a mountain to the camp to thy brethren; on the one side, and Israel stood on a moun- 18 And carry these ten cheeses unto the tain on the other side: and there was a valley captain of their thousand, and look how thy between them.
brethren fare, and take their pledge. 4 And there went out a champion out 19 Now Saul, and they, and all the men of of the camp of the Philistines, named Go- Israel, were in the valley of Elah, fighting with liath, of Gath, whose height was six cubits and the Philistines. a span.
20 | And David rose up early in the morn5 And he had an helmet of brass upon his ing, and left the sheep with a keeper, and took, head, and he was 'armed with a coat of mail; and went, as Jesse had commanded him; and and the weight of the coat was five thousand he came to the @trench, as the host was going shekels of brass.
forth to the "fight, and shouted for the battle. 6 And he had greaves of brass upon his 21 For Israel and the Philistines had put legs, and a target of brass between his shoul- the battle in array, army against army. ders.
22 And David left "his carriage in the 7 And the staff of his spear was like hand of the keeper of the carriage, and ran weaver's beam; and his spear's head weighed into the army, and came and saluted his six hundred shekels of iron : and one bearing brethren. a shield went before him.
23 And as he talked with them, behold, 8 And he stood and cried unto the armies there came up the champion, the Philistine of of Israel, and said unto them, Why are ye Gath, Goliath by name, out of the armies of come out to set your battle in array ? am not the Philistines, and spake according to the same I a Philistine, and ye servants to Saul ? choose words : and David heard them. you a man
saw the man, fled ''from him, and were sore 9 If he be able to fight with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants : but 25 And the men of Israel said, Have ye if I prevail against him, and kill him, then shall seen this man that is come up? surely to defy ye be our servants, and serve us.
Israel is he come up: and it shall be, that 10 And the Philistine said, I defy the the man who killeth him, the king will enrich armies of Israel this day; give me a man, him with great riches, and will give him his that we may fight together.
daughter, and make his father's house free in 11 When Saul and all Israel heard those Israel. words of the Philistine, they were dismayed, 26 And David spake to the men that stood and greatly afraid.
by him, saying, What shall be done to the 12 7 Now David was Sthe son of that man that killeth this Philistine, and taketh Ephrathite of Beth-lehem-judah, whose name away the reproach from Israel for who is 1 Or, the coast of Dammin. 2 Heb, ranged the battle.
4 Or, gorget.
Chap 16. 1. 6 Heb. cheeses of milk. 7 Heb. captain of a thousand. 8 Or, place of the carriage. 9 Or, batile-array, or, place of right. 10 Heb. the vessels from upon him. 11 Heb. asked his brethren of peace.
19 Heb. from his face.
3 Heb. clothed.
13 Josh, 15. 16.
this uncircumcised Philistine, that he should 40 And he took his staff in his hand, and defy the armies of the living God?
chose him five smooth stones out of the 27 And the people answered him after this 1*brook, and put them in a shepherd's ''bag manner, saying, Soʻshall it be done to the man which he had, even in a scrip; and his sling that killeth him.
was in his hand : and he drew near to the 28 And Eliab his eldest brother heard Philistine. when he spake unto the men; and Eliab's 41 And the Philistine came on and drew anger was kindled against David, and he said, near unto David; and the man that bare the Why camest thou down hither ? and with shield went before him. whom hast thou left those few sheep in the
42 And when the Philistine looked about, wilderness ? I know thy pride, and the naughti- and saw David, he disdained him: for he was ness of thine heart; for thou art come down but a youth, and ruddy, and of a fair counthat thou mightest see the battle.
tenance. 29 And David said, What have I now 43 And the Philistine said unto David, done? Is there not a cause ?
Am I a dog, that thou comest to me with 30 [ And he turned from him toward staves ? And the Philistine cursed David by another, and spake after the same manner : and the people answered him again after the 44 And the Philistine said to David, former manner.
Come to me, and I will give thy flesh unto the 31 And when the words were heard which fowls of the air, and to the beasts of the field. David spake, they rehearsed them before Saul : 45 Then said David to the Philistine, Thou and he is sent for him.
comest to me with a sword, and with a spear, 32 [ And David said to Saul, Let no man's and with a shield: but I come to thee in the heart fail because of him; thy servant will go name of the LORD of hosts, the God of the and fight with this Philistine.
armies of Israel, whom thou hast defied. 33 And Saul said to David, Thou art not 46 This day will the LORD 'deliver thee able to go against this Philistine to fight with into mine hand; and I will smite thee, and him; for thou art but a youth, and he a man take thine head from thee; and I will give of war from his youth.
the carcases of the host of the Philistines this 34 And David said unto Saul, Thy ser- day unto the fowls of the air, and to the wild vant kept his father's sheep, and there came beasts of the earth ; that all the earth may a lion, and a bear, and took a "lamb out of know that there is a God in Israel. the flock:
47 And all this assembly shall know that 35 And I went out after him, and smote the LORD saveth not with sword and spear : him, and delivered it out of his mouth : and for the battle is the LORD's, and he will give when he arose against me, I caught him by his you into our hands. beard, and smote him, and slew him.
48 And it came to pass, when the Philis36 Thy servant slew both the lion and the tine arose, and came and drew nigh to meet bear: and this uncircumcised Philistine shall David, that David hasted, and ran toward the be as one of them, seeing he hath defied the army to meet the Philistine. armies of the living God.
49 And David put his hand in his bag, and 37 David said moreover, The LORD that took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote delivered me out of the paw of the lion, and out the Philistine in his forehead, that the stone of the paw of the bear, he will deliver me out sunk into his forehead; and he fell upon
his of the hand of this Philistine. And Saul said face to the earth. unto David, Go, and the LORD be with thee. 50 So "David prevailed over the Philistine
38 [ And Saul "armed David with his with a sling and with a stone, and smote the armour, and he put an helmet of brass upon Philistine, and slew him; but there was no his head; also he armed him with a coat of sword in the hand of David. mail.
51 Therefore David ran, and stood upon 39 And David girded his sword upon his the Philistine, and took his sword, and drew armour, and he assayed to go; for he had not it out of the sheath thereof, and slew him, proved it. And David said unto Saul, I and cut off his head therewith. And when cannot go with these ; for I have not proved the Philistines saw their champion was dead, them. And David put them off him.
17 Heb. clothed David with his clothes. 18 Or, valley. 21 Ecclus. 47. 4. 1 Mac. 4. 30.
14 Heb. wurd.
15 Feb, took him.
16 Or, kid.
52 | And the men of Israel and of Judah captain of the host, Abner, whose son is this arose, and shouted, and pursued the Philis- youth?
youth? And Abner said, As thy soul liveth, tines, until thou come to the valley, and to O king, I cannot tell. the gates of Ekron. And the wounded of the 56 And the king said, Enquire thou whose Philistines fell down by the way to Shaaraim, son the stripling is. even unto Gath, and unto Ekron.
57 And as David returned from the slaugh53 And the children of Israel returned from ter of the Philistine, Abner took him, and chasing after the Philistines, and they spoiled brought him before Saul with the head of the their tents.
Philistine in his hand. 54 And David took the head of the 58 And Saul said to him, Whose son art Philistine, and brought it to Jerusalem ; but thou, thou young man ? And David answered, he put his armour in his tent.
I am the son of thy servant Jesse the Beth55 | And when Saul saw David go forthlehemite. against the Philistine, he said unto Abner, the
Verse 1. The Philistines gathered together their tory. It amounts to this :-having, as we apprehend, armies.'-Twenty-seven years had 110w passed since the placed Shochoh too far south, he then finds that the tradidefeat which, at the beginning of Saul's reign, this war- tional valley of Elah has become too far distant north like people had sustained at Michmash. During this long from his Shochoh (see the last note), and therefore fixes period they seem to have gradually recovered their upon a valley more to the south and nearer to that Shochoh, strength, and now deem themselves in a condition to wipe in order to bring about the necessary approximation. out the disgrace their arms had then incurred, and to re- 4. · Whose height was six cubits and a span’-See the gain their previous superiority over the Israelites.
note on Deut. iii. u. - Shochoh .... Azekah .... Ephes-dammim.'— These 5. "He had an helmet of brass upon his head, etc.three places were evidently at no great distance from each Here we have the first account of what we may call a other, the Philistines being encamped at the last of them complete suit of defensive armour, which naturally gives and between the first two. Shochoh is mentioned, in occasion to some remarks on the subject generally, and on Josh. xv. 35, among the towns of the tribe of Judah.in the several parts of armour which we find here specified. the valley; that is, in the western plains of that tribe. Sir Samuel Meyrick says that body-armour had its Jerome says that in his time there were two small villages origin in Asia. , 'The warlike tribes of Europe at first of this name, one on a mountain and the other on the contemned all protection but their innate courage, and plain, nine miles from Jerusalem, on the road to Eleu- considered any other defence but the shield as a mark of theropolis. Dr. Robinson thinks he has discovered this effeminacy. He adds that all the European armour, exsite under the name of Shuweikeh; but there is nothing cept the plate, which was not introduced till the fourteenth beside the resemblance of name to rest upon, and that is century, was borrowed from the Asiatics. This is of imscarcely sufficient to establish the identity of a site which portance, because it enlarges our range of illustration ; is nearly twice as far from Jerusalem as the distance as- since, the ancient armour being borrowed from the East, signed by Jerome. Azekah, in his days, was also a vil- its condition there is more distinctly illustrated by the lage on the same road. Ephes-dammim is evidently information we possess concerning the derived armour of between these two. In i Chron. xi. 13, it is mentioned the ancient European nations. The notice of a suit of under the name of Pas-dammim.
armour in the present text is the earliest on record, and, 2. · Valley of Elah?—Elah means an oak or terebinth. to those who feel interest in the matter, affords an importtree: wherefore Jerome renders it the valley of the oak;' aut indication of the period when armour had arrived at and the Vulgate, 'the valley of the terebinth, or turpen- a state of some completeness, though it does not enable us tine-tree. In the Targum, the valley is called Butma, to ascertain the period when its several parts were inwhich in the Arabic signifies a terebinth. Tradition vented. It is evident that armour had at this time become identifies it with the Wady Beit Hanina, a fine valley not uncommon. Saul himself had armour composed of which commences in the neighbourhood of Ramah and nearly the same articles as that of Goliath, the use of takes a south-westerly course till it comes nearly parallel which he offered to David, who, being, from his youth to Jerusalem, where it bends off westward and eventually and manner of life, unaccustomed to such warlike harness, opens into the great Wady Ismail. The point which tra- preferred to act without the defence it offered. This fact dition fixes upon as the scene of the combat is that where helps us to the conclusion that, as Saul was himself a giant, the valley comes nearest to Jerusalem, and is about six taller by the head and shoulders than any other Israelite, miles from it on the west. The scene is appropriate and while David was but a stripling, his intention to make picturesque. We entered,' says Dr. E. D. Clarke, the David wear his armour proves that the armour then in famous terebinthine vale, renowned for centuries as the use was not so nicely adapted to the size or form of the field of the victory gained by David over the uncircum- person destined to wear it as we find it to have been in cised Philistines. Nothing has occurred to alter the face later times. of the country. The very brook out of which David HELMETS.-Of all kinds of armour a strong defence chose the five smooth stones has been noticed by many a for the head was unquestionably the most common, and thirsty pilgrim journeying from Jaffa to Jerusalem, all of perhaps the most early. The shield and helmet have inwhom must pass it on their way. The remains of goodly deed formed the only defensive armour of some nations. edifices, indeed, attest the religious veneration entertained When men began to feel the need of a defence for the in later periods for this hallowed spot; but even these head in war, they seemed in the first instance merely to have now become so insignificant that they are scarcely have given a stronger make to the caps which they usually discernible, and nothing can be said to interrupt the na- wore. Such caps were at first quilted or padded with wool, tive dignity of this memorable scene.' Dr. Robinson has then they were formed of hard leather, and ultimately of endeavoured to assign the transaction to another valley, metal, in which state they gradually acquired various admuch more to the south. But the grounds on which this ditions and ornaments, such as embossed figures, ridges, conclusion is founded are peculiarly weak and unsatisfac- crests of animal figures, horsehair, feathers, etc.; and also flaps to protect the neck and cheeks, and even visors to only in the victor's hand. It seems that in these crests guard the face. Visors do not, however, appear to have the ridge was covered with hair from the mane of the been used by the ancient Orientals,
horse, while other and longer hair hung dependent from Of the Hebrew helmets (called upia koba, or ya ip the extremity behind; but the ridge often terminated in a qobu) we only know that they were generally of brass;
horse-tail when its surface had other ornaments. Meyrick and that the helmet of the king was distinguished by its
seems to think that the horsehair was sometimes gilt, and crown. It is, however, interesting to learn that metallic he also supposes this ornament was occasionally composed helmets were, so far as appears, exclusively in use among
of wires of gold. them. Homer's heroes have also, generally, helmets of
As we do not know the exact form of the Hebrew brass. Whether the Hebrews had crests to their helmets helmet, we shall add a few remarks concerning those of or not, it is impossible to say distinctly. We do not think the nations who either were their neighbours, or with that the crest was a characteristic of Oriental helmets ;
whom they were connected, or to whom they were subject but as the royal helmet in Egypt had a crest--as the hel
at the different periods of their history; and whose helmes of Asia Minor were sometimes crested—and as in the mets at such times they probably wore, or at least allowed Trojan war a crested helmet was worn by the Trojans,
the forms they exhibited to modify their own. They and also, it would seem, by the Greeks-it is not unlikely must certainly have been well acquainted with them. that the crest was known to the Jews. Plumes we are Egyptians.—The historians tell us that, among this not to expect; they were not used in the most ancient people, only the kings and nobles wore helmets of metal ; periods, and but sparingly in later antiquity. Homer
the common soldiers wore caps of woollen or of linen never mentions plumes, but often horsehair. So of Paris strongly quilted. The decisive authority of the sculptures it is said :
and paintings, however, intimates a much more general • He set his helmet on his graceful brows,
use of the caps than this information would suggest. They Whose crest of horsehair nodded to his step
were probably preferred because, being thick and well In awful state.'
padded, they afforded an excellent protection to the head,
without the inconvenience attending the use of metal in In the combat which followed, Menelaus was dragging so warm a climate. Our cut contains specimens of the bim along by this horsehair crest, when
Egyptian helmets : figs. c and e exhibit the more usual •The broider'd band,
forms. The padded helmets are usually represented as of That under braced his helmet at the chin,
a red, green, or black colour. Phrygians. The Phrygian Strain'd to his smooth neck with a ceaseless force,
bonnet in peace, and the helmet in war, formed the prevaChoked him.'
lent head-dress of the inhabitants of Asia Minor, and in
Meyrick's opinion the helmet is one of the most ancient, and Bat, fortunately for him, this band, though stubborn, by the same which was worn by the Trojan heroes in Homer. a slaughterid ox supplied,' snapped, leaving
the said helmet Its general form will be seen in our wood-cut; and the
a, b, c, d, e, Egyptian Helmets; J, 9, Persian; h, i, k, Syrian; l, m, », o, Phrygian ; P, 9, Dacian.
following particulars deserve attention, as they illustrate diffused by the conquests of the Persians, and must have our preceding observations concerning the transmutation been well known to the Jews during the captivity, and of a cap into a helmet. Its principal characteristics were while Palestine was a Persian province. Xenophon speaks those of a cap with the point beut forward, and with long of brazen helmets with white crests; but no crests appear flaps descending to the shoulders. It sometimes appears in the sculptures of the country. We need not particuas a mere cap of the most soft and pliable stuff, unable to larly dwell on the helmets of the Greeks and Romans. support itself, and hanging down in large wrinkles; at These were, indeed, well known to the Jews in the later others it appears to have formed a helmet of the most period of their history; but much that might be said conhard and inflexible substance-of leather, or even metal, cerning them has been anticipated in our first observations. standing quite stiff and smooth, and enriched with em- The Roman helmet was borrowed from the Greeks with bossed ornaments. To many of these there are four flaps, slight modifications. Of the more elaborate Greek helmet which would appear to have been made from the leg-skins our cut of a Greek warrior furnishes a very fine specimen, of the animals of whose hide the cap was originally which will be better understood by the eye than by techformed; but in the lighter caps there are only a single nical description. It has three crests of horsehair from pair of flaps, which are often tucked up, and confined by a the mane, cut short and square, with a dependent tail. string around the crown. A flap of mail frequently de- Some helmets had as many as five crests of this sort. The scended from under the helmet to protect the neck and more common helmet of both the Greeks and Romans shoulders. The Syrians seem to have adopted, with some was merely a scull-cap without ridge or crest, but having modification, the cylindrical helmet or cap of the Persians; at top a knob or button, and differing in no material rebut there is one, represented in our wood-cut, which is spect from that of the mounted Dacian below, except that considered more peculiarly Syrian, and the resemblance the latter has a spike instead of a knob. The helmets and of which to that of the modern Chinese is very great. caps of the figures in the cuts to Judges v. will very maThey have alike a high ornamental spike at the top: that terially assist in the illustration of the present note. which terminates the Syrian one is a lily, which, accord- - Coat of mail?—When men had realized the means of ing to Herodotus, was the ornament which the Assyrians protecting their heads by strong caps and helmets, they pabore on the tops of their walking-sticks.— The Assyrians turally began soon to think of extending the same protection had helmets of brass. The Medes and Persians.-As we to other parts of the body. It would be absurd to suppose are not stating minute distinctions, we may mention gene- that every nation adhered to the same rule of progression ; rally that the helmets, or impenetrable caps' as Xenophon but it may perhaps be stated as a general rule, with large rather calls them, of the Medes and Persians, exhibit four variations, that the progressive kinds of armour wereprincipal forms in the accounts of ancient writers and in 1. The skins of various animals, and even, in some counthe sculptures of Persepolis : these are cylindrical, hemi- tries, of birds and fishes. 2. Hides, mats, wood; linen or spherical, semi-oval, or conical. To these also applies the woollen padded or folded; strong twisted linen. 3. Leather remark conceruing the origin of the form of national bordered with metal. 4. Entire plates of metal; but, as helmets in that of national caps. The cylindrical cap these were heavy and inflexible, various contrivances were and helmet must, however, be particularly regarded as a resorted to in order to obtain the security which metal gives, national characteristic of the ancient Persians, the other without its rigidity, and without all its weight. For this forms being too general to be assigned as a national dis- purpose, the leather was covered with square pieces of metal, tinction. It is exhibited in the form of a cylinder of riveted on; or else, embossed pieces of metal were fastened various height, with a somewhat wider diameter at top on so as to protect the more vital parts of the body, than at bottom, aud resembling a hat without a brim and to serve at once for ornament and use. Sometimes also, particularly such hats with broad crowns as were iu use a the defence was formed of bands or hoops of metal, sliding few years since. It is either plain, or fluted, or otherwise over each other, and therefore yielding to the motions of ornamented ; and we see it exhibited either simply, or in the body. 5. We then come to what is properly mailed various combinations-sometimes as a diadem, often ra. armour, by which a higher degree of flexibility was obdiated at top, and variously embossed and ornamented, tained than a metallic covering might be supposed capable and encircling one of the round, semi-oval, or conical of affording. This armour was of several kinds. Leather, caps. This cylindrical cap or helmet became greatly | linen, or woollen, was covered with rings or with scales.