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for irrigation purposes. During the rule of the Greeks Egypt was divided into three parts : Upper, Central, and Lower Egypt; Central Egypt consisted of seven nomes, and was called Heptanomis.

LIST OF NOMES OF EGYPT-UPPER EGYPT.

Nome.

1. Ta-Kens.

2. Tes-Heru.

3. Ten.

4. Vast.

5. Herui.

Capital.

Divinity: Abu(Elephantine), in later Khnemu.

times Nubt (Ombos).
Țeb (Apollinopolis magna, Heru - Behu

Arab. Utfu or Edfu). tet.
Nekheb(Eileithyia),in later Nekheb.

times Sene (Latopolis),

Esneh.
Uast (Thebes), in later Amen-Rā.

times Hermonthis.
Kebti (Coptos).

Åmsu (or,

Menu).
Taenterer (Denderah). Hathor (Het

Hert).
Ha (Diospolis parva). Hathor.
Abtu (Abydos), in earlier Ánher.

times Teni (This).
Apu (Panopolis).

Amsu (or,

Menu). Țebu (Aphroditopolis). Hathor. Shashetep (Hypsele). Khnemu. Nen-ent-bak (Antaeopolis). Horus. Saiut (Lycopolis, Arab. Ap-uat.

6. Aa-ti.

7. Sekhem. 8. Abt.

9. Åmsu (or,

Menu). 10. Uatchet. II. Set. 12. Tuf. 13. Atefkhent.

Siat).

14. Atef-peh.

Kesi (Cusae).
Khemennu (Hermopolis).

Hathor.
Thoth.

15. Un.

[blocks in formation]

2. Aā 3. Ament.

9. Atchi.

I. Aneb-hetch. Men-nefer (Memphis). Ptah.

Sekhem (Letopolis). Heru-ur

Nenten-Hapi (Apis). Hathor-nub. 4. Sepi-res. Tcheka (Canopus).

Amen-Rā. 5. Sepi-emhet. Sa (Sais).

Neith. 6. Kaset Khesun (Xoïs).

Amen-Rā. 7.

Åment. Sent-Nefer (Metelis). Hu. 8. ... Abtet. Thukut (Sethroë).

Atmu.
Per-Åsår (Busiris).

Osiris.
10. Kakem.
Tahetheráb (Athribis).

Heru-khenti

khati. I. Kahebes. Kahebes (Kabasos).

Isis. 12. Katcheb. Tcheb-neter (Sebennythos). Anher. 13. Hakat. Ånnu (Heliopolis).

Rā. 14. Khent-ábet. Tchan (Tanis).

Horus. 15. Tehuti.

Pa-Tehuti (Hermopolis). Thoth. 16. Khar. Pabaneb-tet (Mendes). Ba-neb-tet. 17. Sma-behuțet. Pa-khen-en-Amen (Dios- Amen-Rā.

polis). 18. Amkhent. Pa-Bast (Bubastis).

Bast. 19. Am-peh. Pa-Uatchet (Buto).

Uatchet. 20. Sept. Kesem (Phakussa). Sept.

Lower Egypt is divided into six provinces :1. Baḥêrah, with nine districts ; capital, Damanhûr.

Population (including the Oasis of Siwa, 7,200),

631,225. 2. Kalyubiyah, with four districts; capital, Benha

Population, 371,465. 3. Sharkiyah, with six districts; capital, Zakâzik.

Population, 749,130. +. Daķhaliyah, with six districts; capital, Manşûrah.

Population, 736,708. 5. Manûfiyah, with five districts; capital, Menût.

Population, 864,206. 6. Gharbiyah, with eleven districts; capital, Tanța.

Population, 1,297,656. Upper Egypt is divided into eight provinces :-1. Gizah, with four districts; capital, Gizah. Popula

tion, 401,634 2. Beni-Suwêf, with three districts; capital, Beni-Suwéf.

Population, 314,454. 3. Minyah, with eight districts; capital, Minyah. Popu

lation (including the Oasis of Bahariyah (6,082), and

the Oasis of Farafra (542)), 548,632, 4. Asyllt, with ten districts; capital, Asyût. Popula

tion (including the Oasis of Dâkhlah (17,090), and

the Oasis of Khârgah (7,220)), 782,720. 5. Girgah, with five districts; capital, Sühag. Popula

tion, 668,011. 6. Ķenah, with seven districts ; capital, Ķenah. Popu

lation, 711,457. 7. Nûba, with three districts; capital, Aswân. Popu

lation, 240,382. 8. Fayyûm, with three districts; capital, Madinat al

Fayyûm. Population, 371,006.

Large towns like Alexandria, Port Said, Suez, Cairo, Damietta, and Al 'Arish are governed by native rulers.

In ancient days the population of Egypt proper is said to have been from seven and a half to nine millions; at the present time (1906) it is probably well over ten millions. The population of the provinces south of Egypt, which originally belonged to her, has never been accurately ascer tained. The country on each side of the Baḥr el-Abyad is very thickly peopled; it is generally thought that the population of this and the other provinces which belonged to Egypt in the time of Ismâ'il amounts to about eight millions.

The Revenues of Egypt in ancient days.-According to the Church historian Abû Şâliḥ (ed. Evetts and Butler, p. 80 ff.), the Armenian, who flourished in the 12th century of our era, the Land Tax of Egypt during the administration of Joseph, the son of Jacob, amounted to 24,600,000 dinars, i.e, £12,300,000. Al-Maķrîzî makes the sum to be 97,000,000 dînârs, i.l., £48,500,000, and says that according to the computation of Ibn Dahyah 99,000,000 Pharaonic dînârs were equivalent to 270,000,000 dînârs of his time, i.e., £135,000,000. In the reign of Al-Walîd ibn Mus'ab, the Pharaoh of the time of Moses, the revenue was 90,000,000 dînârs, or £45,000,000. The Romans derived a revenue of 20,000,000 dînârs, or £10,000,000 from Egypt, and Heraclius farmed the country to George the Mukauķis for 18,000,000 dinars, or £9,000,000 yearly.

‘Amr ibn al--Âşî received 1,000,000 dinârs from Egypt in A.H. 20, but two years later he received 12,000,000 dînârs, or £6,000,000. Later the revenue went down to 5,000,000, then to 4,000,000, and finally to 3,000,000 dinârs. Under Kâfûr al-Ustadh al-Ikhshîdî the revenue was at least 3,270,000 dinârs, or £1,635,000, but the expenditure exceeded the revenue by 200,000 dînârs, or £100,000. In A.D. 779 the revenue was 1,828,500 dinârs, or 6914,250.

According to Abû Şaliḥ the area of the cultivable land in Egypt was in the days of Hisham ibn 'Abd al-Malik (A.D. 724-744) 30,000,000 of faddâns. There must, however, be some error in this statement, for at the present time the cultivable land only amounts to 7,000,000 faddâns, or, let us say, acres.

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