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ltero Syrians Adud; the Arabs Dionysus ; the Assyrians Be- the pre-existence of souls was the universal belief. Ha- HeroWorvip. lus; the Phænicians Saturn; the Carthaginians Her- ving proceeded thus far in the apotheosis of dead men, Worship.
cules; and the Palmyrians Elegabclus. Again, by the the next step taken in order to render it in some degree
state, to persuade an ignorant and barbarous people, that
23 hero-gods--those who were supposed to be supreme- This short sketch of the progress of polytheism and Vices of the were not of a human forin, but conical or pyramidal, idolatiy will enable the reader to account ter many cir- sagan gods. like those which in the earliest agez of idolatry were cumstances recorded of the pagan gods of antiquity, dedicated to the son and planets. Thus the scholiast whic! at first view seem very surprising, and which at on the respæ of Aristophanes tells us, that the statues last brought the whole system into contempt among the of Apollo and Bacchus were cons pillars or obelisks; philosophers of Aibens and Rome. The circumstances and Pausanias, that the statue of Jupiter Meilichius re- to which we allude are ihe immoral characters of those presented a pyramid; that of the Argive Juno did the divinities, and the abominable rites with which they
same, as appears from a verse of Phoronis quoted by were worshipped. Jupiter, Apollo, Mars, and the * Strom. l. 1. Clemens Alexandrinus *; and indevil the practice was whole rabble of them, are described by the poets as ra
universalas well amongst the early barbarians as amongst vishers of iromen and notcrious adulterers. Hermes or
gods, these latter bad succeeded to the titles, rights, and lionour and rectitude, that it was a common practice of 4 Tarbur. honours of the natural and celestial divinities t." the Romans, when besieging a town, to evocate the ton's Div But though it seems to be certain that hero-worship tutelar deity, and to tempt him by a reward to betray Leg. book zo was thus engrafted on the plunetary, and that some of his friends and votaries f. In a word, they were, in | T. Livii, those heroes in process of time supplanted the planets the language of the poet,
lib. v. c. 21. themselves, this was such a revolution in theology as
“ Gods partial, changeful, passionate, unjust, could not have been suddenly eflected by the united in
“ Whose attributes were rage, revenge, and lust." lib. iii
. c. 9. Progress of fluence of the prince and the priest. We doubt not this revolu- the fact that sol was believed to have reigned in Egypt, tion in theo
This was the natural consequence of their origin. Ha-Accounted. and was afterwards worshipped under the name Osiris; ving once animated human bodies, and being supposed for. but it was surely impossible to persuade any nation, still to retain human passions and appetites, they were however stupid or prone to idolatry, that a man, whoni believed, in their state of deification, to feel the same they remembered discharging the duties of their sovereign sensual desires which they had felt opon earth, and to and legislator, was the identical sun whom they belield pursue the same means for their gratification. As in the heavens. Osiris, if there was in Egypt a king the men could not well attempt to surpass the gods of that name, may have been deified immediately after in purity and virtue, they were easily persuaded by arthis death, and honoured with that worship which was ful and profligate priests, that the most acceptable worpaid to good damons ; but he must have been dead for ship which could be rendered to any particular deity ages before any attempt was made to persuade the na- was to imitate the example of that deity, and to indulge tion that he was the supreme Goll. Even then great in the practices over which he presided. Hence the address would be requisite to make such an attempt suc- worship of Bacchus was performed during the night by cessful. The prince or priest who entered upon it men and women mixing in the dark after intemperate would probably begin with declaring from the oracle, eating and drinking. Hence too it was the practice that the divine intelligence which animates and governs in Cyprus and some other countries to sacrifice to Vethe sun had descended to earth and animated the person nus the virginity of young women some days before of their renowned legislator; and that, after their laws their marriage, in order, as it was pretended, to secure were framed, and the other purposes served for which their chastity ever afterwards; and, if Herodotus
Ilero. it, has been regular; and after the enormous error of from which Sunday is derived, among the Latins dies IleroWorship. forsaking the worship of the true God was admitted, Solis, was placed in a temple, ard adored and sacrificed Worship.
every subsequent step appears to be natural. It would to; for they believed that the sun did co-operate with 25 Progress of
be no difficult task to prove that it has likewise been this idol. He was represented like a man balf naked, i lolatry re
universal. Sir William Jones, the learned president of with his face like the sun, holding a burning wheel gular and the Asiatic Society, has discovered such a striking re- with both hands on his breast, signifying his course universal. semblance between the gods of Ancient Greece and round the world ; and by its fiery gleans, the light and + Asiatic those of the pagans of Hindostant, as puts it beyond a heat with which lie warms and nourisheth all things.. Researches
, doubt that those divinities had the same origin. The 2. The idol of the moon, from which cometh our lllonvoi. i.
GANES A of the Hindoos he has clearly proved to be the day, dies Lunæ, anciently Algonday, appears strangely JANUs of the Greeks and Romans. As the latter was singular, being habited in a short coat like a man. Her represented with two and sometimes with four faces, as holding a moon expresses what she is; but the reason of emblems of prudence and circumspection, the former is her short coat and long-eared cap is lost in oblivion. painted with an elephant's head, the well-known sym- 3. Tuisco, the most ancient and peculiar god of the
bol among the Indians of sagacious discernment. The Germans, represented in his garment of a skin according Indian ido. SATURN of Greece and Rome appears to bave been the to their ancient manner of clothing, was next to the latry. same personage with the Menu or SATYAVRATA of sun and moon, the idol of bighest rank in the calendar Hindostan, whose patronymic name is VAIVASWATA, of northern paganism. To him the third day in the
resemble this divinity as he does Odin or Woden.
4. Woden was a valiant prince among the Saxons.
His image was prayed to for victory over their ene
mies ; which, if they obtained, they usually sacrificed
as a subordinate deity, and far inferior to the Indian earth; and that as he was pleased or displeased he could * Plate triad BRAHMA, Vishnou, and MAHADEVA or Siva*, send thunder, tempests, plagues, &c. or fair, seasonable ccccxxxv. who are three forms of one and the same godhead. weather, and cause fertility. From him our Thursdayde
The president having traced the resemblance between rives its name, anciently Thorsday; among the Romans
deities melt into each other, and at last into one that women as well as men sbould fight in time of need.
Nor is it only in Greece, Rome, Egypt, and India, Diana rather than Venus.
From him, or
from the Roman deity Saturn, comes Saturday. Tbat the Scandinavians and our Saxon ancestors had Such were the principal gods of the northern nations: Scandinavian and
the same notions of the gods with the other pagans but these people had at the same time inferior deities, Saxon ido- whose opinions we have stated, is evident from their who were supposed to have been translated into heaven latry. calling the days of the week by the names of their divi. for their heroic deeds, and whose greatest happiness
nities, and from the forms of the statues by which those consisted in drinking ale out of the skulls of their ene+ Plate divinities were represented t. 1. The idol of the sun, mies in the hall of iroden. But the limits prescribed
Brute- to the present article do not permit us to pursue this this view they would make it criminal to kill or even to Brute-
The attentive reader of the article MYTHOLOGY, of wage perpetual war upon the noxious animals and beasts
or so much as the wounding, of the ichneumon and ibis;
derful than any thing that has yet been mentioned, of enemy of the crocodile, and the latter of every species of Brute wor- which our readers will certainly expect some account. It serpents. The learned writer, however, observes, that in ship of the is the worship of brutes, reptiles and vegetables, among Egypt as in other countries, people would be tempted to Egyptians
the Egyptians. To the Greeks and Romans, as well sacrifice the good of the public to the gratification of their
tection of certain gods; that some of those animals had
To corroborate this hypothesis, he observes, that, & Lib. ii. We learn from Herodotus *, that in his time the besides the animals sacred over all Egypt, each pro65- number of useful animals in Egypt was so small as vince and each city had its particular animal to which
hardly to be sufficient for tillage and the other pur- the inhabitants paid their devotions. This arose from Itroduced rith a poli- poses of civil life; whilst serpents and other noxious the universal practice among idolaters of consecrating ical view; animals, such as the crocodile, wolf, bear, and hippo- to themselves Lares and Penates; and as the animals
potamus, abounded in that country. From this fact which were worshipped over the whole kingdom were Cudworth, Mosheim very naturally concludes t, that the founders considered as sacred to the Dii majorum gentium, so the intellect.
of society and government in Egypt would by every animals whose worship was confined to particular cities
art endeavour to increase the number of useful animals or provinces, were sacred to the Lares of those cities
(B) There is, however, another hypothesis worthy of some attention, if it were only for the learning and ingenuity of its author. The celebrated Cudworth infers, from the writings of Philo and other Platonists of the Alexandrian school, that the ancient Egyptians held the Platonic doctrine of ideas existing from eternity, and constituting, in one of the persons of the godhead, the intelligible and archetypal world. (See PLATONISM). Philo, he observes, did not himself consider those ideas as so many distinct substances and animals, much less as gods; but he mentions. others who deified the whole of this intelligible system as well as its several parts. Hence, when they paid their devotions to the sensible sun, they pretended only to worship the divine idea or archetype of that luminary: and hence, thinks our leared author, the ancient Egyptians, by falling down to bulls, and cows, and crocodiles, meant at first to worship only the divine and eternal ideas of those animals. He allows, indeed, that as few could. entertain any thoughts at all of those eternal ideas, there were scarcely any who could persuade themselves that the intelligible system had so much reality in it as the sensible things of nature; and hence he thinks the devotion which was originally paid to the divine ideas had afterwards no higher object than the brutes and vegetables of which those ideas were the eternal patterns.
This hypothesis is ingenious, but not satisfactory. There is no evidence that the mysterious doctrine of Plato concerning ideas bad anywhere been thought of for ages after brute-worship was established in Egypt. Of the state of Egyptian theology at that early period, Philo, and the other philosophers of the Alexandrian school, had no better means of forming a judgment than we have ; and they laboured under many Grecian prejudices, which must have prevented them from judging with our impartiality.
liest a yes.
Brule city called Lycopolis, because its inhabitants worshipped ting from such rude pictures, as those which were in use
paid their devotions to the eagle, which was probably of what he calls curiologic, tropiral, and symbolic biero-
mals and vegetables which those sculptures represented
learned friend, who perused the article in manuscript,
the objection. To which we reply, * Div. Leg.
That learned and ingenious author having proved *, That there is every reason to believe that brute-carried book iv. with great clearness and strength of argument, that bie- worship was introduced into India by a colony of E-from lite roglyphic writing was prior to the invention of alpha- gyptians at a very remote period. That between these
Indian betic characters; and having traced that kind of wri- two nations there was an early intercourse, is universal
(c) To prove that it was merely to preserve and increase the breed of useful animals in Egypt, that the prince and the priest first taught the people to consider such animals as sacred, he argues thus: “ Hæc ita esse, non ex co tantum liquet, quod paulo ante observasi, nullas bestias universo ÆLyptiorum populo sacras fuisse, præter eas, quæ manifestam regioni utilitatem comparent; sed inde quoque apparet, quod longe major ratio habita fuit famellarum inter anin.alia, quam mariun. Boves diis immolare licebat, vaccas nullo modo. Canes fæminæ contumulabantur, non item mares." Lege Herodot. Histor. lib. ii. cap. 41. & cap. 67.