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bat ter y

sal a ble

tab er na cle

syn a gogue

pre cen tor

cer e mo ny

394

pau ci ty

ni tro gen

venge ance griev ance

cap il la ry Worces ter

395

am a teur

bill iards

per se vere

beau te ous

ac com plice

prej u dice

396

393-Review

league gui tar

im ag ine

niche

fric as see

sparse

cor nice

lat i tude

clique

fa cade

mul lein

na dir

ac crue

press ure

gor geous
tor toise

eye let
mi rage

cov ey

nui sance

sues

bou quet

ba zaar
vict uals

mar riage
Mec ca

route

Seine

Ra leigh

ra vine

bru nette drug get

ha rangue

rou tine

phy sique

pat ent

po rous plov er scep ter

cha rade

al lege

ax iom

whey vig or

pur lieu

vic ar

ter race

sol der

lar ynx tra che a

spig ot

bil ious

suc ceed

su mac

pit y

con duit

bre vier

siege

a byss

sol ace

col umn

wrin kle

brick kiln

tres tle

o gre trip le

Brit on

ban dan na

ten ant

sher iff

Brit ain

pam phlet

shud der

pal ace

re scind

cat er pil lar

res er voir

pi az za

af ghan

con ge ni al

wor shiped

qui nine

bi cy cle

chi rop o dist

chan de lier

fla grant

PART IV

WHY SOME WORDS ARE DIFFICULT

THE difficulty in spelling and pronouncing English words arises from the use of (1) silent letters; (2) the same letter to represent different sounds; (3) different letters to represent the same sound. Pupils, therefore, should be drilled thoroughly on a few representative words, with the view of training the faculty and forming the habit of closely observing these peculiarities wherever they meet with them. This exercise may be conducted in the following manner. The books being open at the lesson, the pupils, in the order of recitation, pronounce each word, read its spelling from the book, and analyze it thus:

Phlegm (flěm), p-h-l-e-g-m; it is a difficult word because it has six letters and only four sounds; g is silent, and the sound of ƒ is represented by the equivalent ph.

Věry, v-e-r-y; the spelling of this word is difficult to remember because most words similar in sound (fer'ry, ber'ry, mer'ry) have two r's; one r in very.

Co quětte', c-o-q-u-e-t-t-e; it is a difficult word because it has eight letters and only five sounds; the last t and one e are silent, the first sound of k is represented by the equivalent c, and the last one by the equivalent qu.

Sěp'a rate, s-e-p-a-r-a-t-e; it has eight letters and only seven sounds; e final is generally silent; the spelling of this word is difficult to remember because the sound of a in the second syllable is obscure and that letter becomes confused with the letter e, having an obscure sound in words somewhat similar; two a's in separate.

In applying the diacritical marks to combinations of let

ters representing a single elementary sound and including the represented letter itself, it is customary to give that letter the proper mark, and regard the other letters of the combination as silent; thus: beaū'tỹ.

EQUIVALENTS REPRESENTING ELEMENTARY SOUNDS.

The sound of a, as in ale, is represented in nine other ways: hal, day, they, val, stek, gauge, gol, Aaron, me l'.

The sound of ǎ, as in ådd, in three other ways: plaid, guar'an tor, Caʼnaan.

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The sound of ä, as in ärm, in five other ways:

ä

ä

ä

aunt, heart, guard, serʼgeant, ba zaar'.

The sound of a, as in all, in seven other ways: bawl, laud, morn, fought, brad, George, broad, George, ex tror'dina ry.

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The sound of à, as in fàre, in five other ways:

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hair, pray'er, where, pear, their.

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The sound of e, as in eve, in eleven other ways:

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meat, beet, chief, de ceive', po lice', key, Ca'sar, people,

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quay, Por'tu guese, Pha'bus.

The sound of ě, as in ěbb, in eleven other ways: bread, sad, di er'e sis, 'ny, hof'er, loop'ard, friend,

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ba'ry, guest, says, d'i pus.

The sound of i, as in ice, in nine other ways:

I I

I

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tie, gåde, haght, buy, aisle, rye, eye, aye, by.

The sound of i, as in ill, in eleven other ways: mith, du'ties, build, bar'gan, ba'sy, pret'ty, been, wom'en, for'aign, car'rage, tor'toise.

The sound of ō, as in ōde, in nine other ways:

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boat, glow, pour, foe, floor, haut'boy, sew, beau, yeo'man. The sound of Ŏ, as in odd, in two other ways: was, knowledge.

The sound of ū, as in use, in eight other ways:

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dew, hue, juice, neʼter, lieu, view, beauty, manʼtua-mak er. The sound of u, as in us, in seven other ways: son, touch, flood, does, por poise, cushion, gudʼgeon. The sound of û, as in ûrn, in eight other ways: her, thirst, heard, work, scourge, myr'tle, fri'år, går'.

don.

The sound of u, as in rule, in eight other ways:

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u

bröm, soup, dỗ, grew, ewe, true, frät, ma neu'ver.

The diphthongs oi and oy are used to represent the same sound, and ou and ow likewise.

The sound of v is represented by ph in Stephen.

Ill fares the land, to hastening ills a prey,
Where wealth accumulates and men decay.
Princes and lords may flourish, or may fade,
A breath can make them, as a breath has made;
But a bold peasantry, their country's pride,
When once destroy'd, can never be supplied.

-Goldsmith.

MISCELLANEOUS WORDS

I

çy'ele

groat

år'id

guess

ae'gis

ğim'bal

big'ot

gam'ut

bo hea'

gib'ber

bay'ou eo erçe'

gal'ley gun'wale

Ca lãis

hals'er

că liph

huş şär'

II

cai'tiff

hos'tler

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tit'tle

syn'od

shek'el

sub'tile

ty'phus

tru'işm

těr raçe

ton tïne'

trea'tise

tûr'ġid

tan'nin

trō'phy ves'tige

vis'çid Xerx es

van'quish

thrall'dom whōle'some

fief

pæ'an

Ar'a bie

fügue

pol'len

ap ro pōs'

fer'ret

prith'ee

ae cou'ter

fa'kir

rhythm

as perse'

fë'tich

skit'tish

fal'eon

subt'le

fis'süre

sci'on

flag'on

phe'nix

art'i şan as sign ee'

anʼno tate an'nu lar

flip'pant

pon'iard

an'te room

fop'pish

pot'shĕrd

at'tri būte

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