« PreviousContinue »
earthqnake in, 1667 —revolt of Ali Pasha many, 1291-elected and crowned, Aug. in, 1820.
24, 1298 - oppresses the Swiss, 1304ALBANIANS, of Epirus, defeated by Andro- assassinated, 1308.
nicus II1., 1337 —under Scanderbeg, sup- ALBERT, of Mecklenburg, son of Magnus port Ferdinand in Naples, 1461.
Smek's sister, invited by the Swedes, ALBAN's, St., Abbey built by Offa, 793– 1363-k. of Sweden, 1364-1389-defeats
battle of;' the Lancastrians defeated, Haco VIII. of Norway, and takes his May 23, 1455—they conquer in the se- father prisoner, at Enkiöping, 1365 — cond battle, Feb. 17, 1461 – borough dis- defeated by Margaret, at Falkiöping, franchised, for bribery, 1852,
captured, and loses his crown, 1389. ALBAN'S, ST., Hall, Oxford, founded, 1547. ALBERT the Younger, of Mecklenburg, son ALBANY, the duke of, brother of Robert, of Margaret's sister, aspires to the
k. of Scotland, puts to death his nephew, throne of Denmark, 1375. David, 1405-regent, 1406.
ALBERT, duke of Austria, assists Fran ALBANY, John, duke of, escapes from his cisco da Carrara against Venice, 1373
brother, Jas. III., into England, 1479— ALBERT II., of Austria, marries Elizabeth, invades Scotland with an English army, daughter of Sigismund, 1422_k. of Hun1482.
gary, Germany, and Bohemia, 1437 ALBANY, duke of, regent of Scotland, 1514 crowned, and defeats Casimir of Poland,
-war against England, and truce, 1522 at Tabor, 1438---his expedition against -killed at the battle of Pavia, Feb. 24, the l'urks stopped by his sudden death, 1525,
Oct. 27, 1439. ALBANY, duchess of, natural daughter of ALBERT III., duke of Bavaria, 1550–1579. the Pretender, d. 1789.
ALBERT of Brandenburg, Culmbach, Teu. ALBATEGNI, Arab. astron., observes the tonic grand-master in Prussia, 1512-autumnal equinox, Sept. 19, 882.
embraces Lutheranism, and becomes ALBEMARLE, earl of, defeats David I., k. of duke of Prussia, 1525 — marries the
Scotland, in the battle of the Standard, princess Dorothea, of Denmark, 1527– Aug. 22, 1138.
is put to the ban of the empire, 1532– ALBEMARLE, duke of, d. 1670. See Moxk. d. 1568. ALBEMARLE, lord, commanding part of ALBERT the Younger, margrave of Bran
prince Eugene's army, defeated by Vil- denburg, defeated at Sievershausen, 1553. lars, at Denain, July 24, 1712.
ALBERT, made by the pope marquis of TusALBEMARLE, lord, and admiral Pococke,
cany, 1127. conquer the island of Cuba, 1762. ALBERT, count of Biandrate, leads his cruALBERADA, wife of Robert Guiscard, di- sade, 1100. vorced, 1058.
ALBERT, brother of the emperor Frederic Alberche, a river of Spain; battle near IV., rebels, 1460. it, 832.
ALBERT, archduke of Austria, surprises ALBERGATI, Nicholas, cardinal, opens the Calais, 1596-marries Isabella, daughter council of Ferrara, Jan. 8, 1438.
of Philip II., who resigns the sovereignty ALBERIA, daughter of Alfonso VII., k. of of the Netherlands to them, 1598-de
Castile, married to Roger, count of Si- feated by prince Maurice, 1600--besieges cily, 1120.
Ostend, 1601-negotiates for peace, 1607 ALBERIC, son of Marozia, expels ler hus- - unable to continue the war, he con
band, Hugh, and governs Rome, 932 cludes a truce with the United Provinces, they are reconciled, and he marries Alda, Mar. 30 (Apr. 9, n.8.), 1609-d. 1621. daughter of Hugh, 936 — again recon- ALBERT, prince of Saxe-Coburg Gotha, b. ciled, 939—d. 954.
Aug. 26, 1819-marries Queen Victoria ALBERICO, marquis of Camerino, first bas- Feb. 10, 1840—lays the first stone of the band of Marozia, 925.
Infant Orphan Asylum, at Wanstead, ALBERICO, count of Tusculum, purchases 1841; and of the new Royal Exchange, the papal chair for his son, 1033.
Jan. 17, 1842-embarks at Woolwich for ALBERONI, b. 1664 — prime minister ia Scotland ; returns, Sept. 17; embarks at
Spain, 1714 – intrigues against Great Southampton, and visits Falmouth, Aug. Britain, 1716 — fails in his attempt to 28, 1843 — visits the royal family of prolong the war between the Turks and France, and lands again at Brighton, the empire, and in a plot against the Sept. 9-visits the king of the Belgians duke of Orleans, 1718 dismissed, 1719 at Ostend, Sept. 13-elected chancellor -d. 1751.
of Cambridge, Feb. 28, 1847--installed ALBERT I., made duke of Austria, by his at Buckingham Palace, Mar. 25, and at
father, the emperor, Rudolf, 1282-re- Cambridge, July 6–lays the first stone jected as emperor by the nobles of Ger- of the Grimsby docks, April 18, 1849—
opens the new Coal Exchange, London, Ganl, 196 – is defeated and slain by
destroyed by fire, Mar. 3, 1791. ALBERT, a leader of the Parisian Commu- Albius. See TIBULLUS.
nists, arrested, May 15, 1848—condemned ALBOin, chief of the Longobardi, subdnes by the tribunal of Bourges to transpor- the Gepidæ, kills their king Cunitation for life, April 2, 1849.
muud, and marries his daughter RosaALBERT the Bear, created margrave of mund, 567—invades Italy and founds Brandenburg, 1142.
the Kingdom of Lombardy, 568-takes ALBERT the Great, teaches at Cologne, 1249 Milan and conquers Liguria, 569–Pavia -d. 1280.
besieged, 570-surrenders, 571-grants ALBERT Azzo of Canossa, protects Ade- to his chief captains lands and titles,
laide, widow of Lothaire, 951-besieged 572-murdered by Rosamund, 573.
ALBORNOZ, Cardinal, restores order in
sister of Guelph III., duke of Carinthia, --again legate at Rome, 1358—Bologna 1047-d. 1097.
given up to him, 1360-d. 1367. ALBIGENSES, heretics in the south of ALBRET, John D', in right of his wife
France, first persecuted as Manicheans, Katharine De Foix, k. of Navarre, 1483
Muret, 1213-close of the Crusade, 1229. Francis I. to retain Lower Navarre, with
Pavia, 1525-marries Margaret, sister of
B.C. 321 ; surrounded by the Samnites at ALBRET, Jane D’, daughter of Henry, mar-
ried to Antony de Bourbon, 1548--her ALBINUS, A. Postumius, consul of Rome, son Henry born, 1553- Queen of Lower B.C. 242.
Navarre, 1555-encourages the Refor-
Calvinism, 1567 -- poisoned, June 10,
ALBUERA, Alfonso V. of Portugal, de-
B.c.180—151, II., writes history in Greek. Portugal, d. at, Sep. 14, 1495-battle of; ALBINUS, L. Postumius, consul of Rome, Soult defeated by Beresford, May 16, B.C. 173.
1811. ALBINUS, L. Postumius, consul of Rome, ALBUQUERQUE, & Portuguese commander, B.C. 154.
discovers Zanzibar, 1503 – founds a ALBINUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, settlement on Ormus, 1507 --sends the
B.c. 110–commands in Africa, where he Abyssinian envoy to Lisbon, 1509-su-
ALBUS, Aulus Postumius, consul of Rome,
ALBUS, Aulus Postumius, consul of Rome, ALBINUS, Clodius, gen. to Commodus,
B.C. 464. settles commotions in Dacia, 183-gov. ALBUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, of Britain, 192 - proclaimed emperor, B.C. 466. 193-receives the title of Cæsar, and is ALBUS, Sp. Postumius, consul of Rome, made consul, 194-takes his forces into B.C. 432.
ALCADIR, k. of Valencia, slain, 1092.
vited to France by Charlemagne, 782Alcxus I., Athenian archon, B.C. 537. writes against Felix of Urgel, and EliAlcxus II., Athenian archon, B.C. 422. prand, abp. of Toledo, 794obtains the ALCÆus, the lyric poet, fl. B.C. 611 - ba- release of the Saxons from slavery, 796
nished by Pittacus, from Mitylene, 589. -d. 804. ALCÆvs of Messenia, poet, f. B.C. 197. ALDA. See ALBERIC, 936. ALCALA de Henares (olim Complutum), ALDERMEN first elected in London, 1242.
taken by the Moors, 1197—Birth-place ALDERSON, Amelia (afterwards Mrs. Opie), of Katharine, afterwards Qu. of England, b. 1769 d. 1853. 1485 – university founded, 1510_Com- ALDHELM, abbot of Malmsbury, bishop of plutensian polygot, 1517-Loyola studies Sherborne, 703- d. 709. there, 1526.
ALDRED, bp. of Worcester, brings Edward, ALCAMENES, Agidan king of Lacedæmon, son of Edmund Ironside, from Cologne, B.C. 783.
1054-abp. of York, accompanied to kome ALCANTARA taken by the earl of Galway, by Tostig, earl of Northumberland, 1061 1706.
-d. 1069. ALCASIM, put to death by his father Ab- ALDROVANDINO, marquis D'Este, 1212-d. dallah, 902.
1215. ALCASIM, brother of Ali Ben Hamud, ALDROVANDINO III., marquis D'Este, 1852
opposes Abderahman IV., 1017-driven -d. of the plague, 1361. from Cordova by Yahye, 1019-agrees ALDRUDA, countess of Bertinoro, relieves to share the kingdom with him, 1020- Ancona, 1174. See ADELARD. expelled by the people of Cordova and ALDUS MANUTIUS sets up his press at Veimprisoned Yahye, 1021.
ice, 1494. ALCAZARQUIVIR, battle of, Sebastian of Por- ALDWICH, bp. of Sidnaceaster, 733. tugal killed, 1578.
ALDWULF, k. of East Anglia, 664-713. ALCETAS, king of Macedon, B.C. 572. ALDWULF, bp. of Rochester, 727. ALCHAMA or Alhadr, a Saracen commander AL EDRISI, writes his Nubian geography,
in Spain, 718_dereated by Pelayo and 1153. slain, 719.
ALEMANNI. See ALLEMANNI. ALCIBIADES, saved by Socrates, B.C. 429- ALEMBERT, D', b. 1717 -- commences the
takes part in public affairs, 423-nego- publication of the “Encyclopédie," 1751 tiates an alliance between Athens and -d. 1783. Argos, 420-leads an Athenian expedi- ALENÇON, duke D', taken prisoner, 1424tion into the Peloponnesus, 419 — to revolts against Charles VII., 1440 --Sicily; recalled and takes refuge in arrested, 1473. Sparta, 415-adviser of the Lacedæmo- ALENÇON, Francis, duke D', joins the Hunians; 413--negotiates an alliance be- guenots, 1574-created duke d'Anjou, tween them and Persia, 412---recalled 1578. See ANJOU. by the Athenians and placed at the ALEPPO, the ancient Bercea, surrenders to head of the army in Samos, 411-defeats the Mohammedans, 638 — attacked by the Lacedæmonians near Cyzicus, 410 Baldwin 11., 1127 — taken by Saladin, takes Selymbria and Byzantium, 408- 1193-sacked by Timour, 1400—battle of; again banished, 407-killed by Persian Khansou Ghori, sultan of Egypt, desoldiers, 404.
feated and killed, 1516—plague at, 1797 ALCIDE and Lys, two French frigates, cap- -earthquakes at, 1822-1820---massacre tured by admiral Boscawen, 1755.
of the Christian inhabitants at, Oct. 16, ALCISTHENES, Athenian archon, B.C. 372. 1850. See BERCEA, ALCMÆON, Athenian archon, B.C. 754. ALESSANDRIA, founded by the Lombard ALCHAN, the Lydian poet, fl. B.C. 671. league, 1168—repels the emperor FredALCOBAÇA, royal sepulchre of Portugal. eric I., 1174-submits to Frederic II.,
See PETER I. of Portugal, and INEZ DE 1240-taken, 1274--capture of William, CASTRO.
count of Montferrat, 1290-taken by the ALCOBRIGA, taken by Almansor, 987. papal legate, 1923-by the French, 1527. ALCOCK, John, bishop of Ely, founds Jesus A LETES, k. of Corinth, v.c. 1068. college, Cambridge, 1496.
ALEXANDER, k. of Corinth, B.C. 783. ALCORAN. See KORAN and MOHAMMED. ALEXANDER I., k. of Macedon, B.C. 500_454 ALCORAZA, defeat of the Mohammedans ALEXANDER II., k. of Macedon, B.C. 369– by the Cid, 1087.
367. ALCRED, king of Northumberland, 765— ALEXANDER III.(the Great), k. of Macedon, expelled, 774.
6. B.C. 356–Aristotle his preceptor, 342-Alcuix, born, 735— studies at York, 760— his accession, 536- his tirst conquests in
teaches theology in England, 768-in- 'I hrace and Thebes, spares the orators
of Athens, 335-crosses the Hellespont, | ALEXANDER JANNÆUS, k. of the Jews B.C. battle of the Granicus, May 22, 334-re- 105-irritates the Jews by his cruelty, duces Lycia and Syria, Damascus taken, 97--massacres 1000 Pharisees, 95—uses besieges Tyre, defeats Darius near Issus, great cruelty in quelling a sedition of Nov., 333—takes Tyre, conquers Phæ- the Jews, 86-d. 79. nicia, Jerusalem, and Egypt, and founds ALEXANDER SEVERUS, emperor (See ALEXAlexandria, 332—crosses the Euphrates, IANUS), succeeds Elagabalus, 222 — is penetrates into the interior of Asia, guided by his mother Julia Mamæa, battle of Arbela, Oct. 1; flight of Darius, selects for his counsellors Ulpian, Julius extinction of the Persian empire, 331– Paulus and other eminent senators, 223conquers Parthia, Media, Bactria, to the marries Sulpitia Memmia, 225--repairs borders of the Caspian sea, 330-crosses the baths of Nero, thenceforth called the Oxus and Jazartes, drives back the Alexander's, 226-at Antioch prepares Scythians and founds new cities, 329– to resist the Persian demands by arms, Sogdiana occupies his seventh campaign, 231--after a campaign in Mesopotamia, 328-marries Roxana, invades India and without any decisive results, claims a defeats Porus, builds ships on the Hy- victory, and returns to Antioch, 232daspes to facilitate the return of his celebrates a triumph at Rome, and disarmy, 327 - descends to the mouth of tributes money to the people, 233 — the Indus, and marches overland to Car- musters his forces in Gaul to repel the mania, 326–passes through Gedrosia, to German invaders, 234—murdered with Susiana, where Nearchus joins him with Mamæa by his soldiers, Feb. 10, 235. the feet, 325-returns to Babylon, allow8 | ALEXANDER, proclaimed by the army in all Greek exiles to return to their homes, Africa, 308 — plunders Cartbage, and builds cities, plants colonies, and pro
falls, 311. motes intermarriage between Greeks ALEXANDER, brother of Leo VI. and coland Persians, 324-d. April 21 (May or league of Constantine X., emperor of the June, Cl.), 323-his body is entombed east, 911-d. 912. at Alexandria, 322 - his sarcophagus ALEXANDER I., k. of Scotland, 1107-1124.
brought thence by Dr. E. D. Clarke, 1806. ALEXANDER II., k. of Scotland, 1214 ALEXANDER Ægas, son of Alexander the marries Jane, daughter of k. John, 1221.
Great, murdered with Roxana, B.C. 311. ALEXANDER III., k. of Scotland, 1249--1286 ALEXANDER, son of Cassander, disputes the -his only child Margaret married to
throne of Macedon with his brothers, Erik, k. of Norway, 1281. B.C. 296-invites the aid of Demetrius ALEXANDER I., Newski, made grand duke
Poliorcetes, 295-killed by him, 294. of Russia by the Golden Horde, 1252ALEXANDER (of Pheræ), succeeds Poly- intercedes with them for the people of
phron, B.C. 369 — treacherously makes Novogorod, d. on his journey homeward, Pelopidas prisoner, 368 - attacked by 1263. Pelopidas, 364 – unsuccessfully resists ALEXANDER II., grand duke of Russia, 1327 the Athenians, 362-lain, 359.
-offends the Golden Horde, and is exALEXANDER I. of Epirus, called into Italy pelled, 1328.
by the Tarentines, B.C. 337-makes a ALEXANDER I., emperor of Russia, March treaty with Rome, 335-slain at Pando- 23, 1801 – concludes a friendly treaty
sia by the Lucanians and Bruttians, 332. with England, June 17; appoints the ALEXANDER II. of Epirus, B.C. 272-his duke of Richelieu governor of Odessa,
attempts on Macedon defeated by Anti- 1803 - urges the German states to degonus Gonatas, 266.
mand satisfaction for the violation of ALEXANDER BALA, overthrows Demetrius the territory of Baden, May 7, 1804
Soter and ascends the throne of Syria, requires the French to evacuate B.O. 150--defeated and slain by Deme- Hanover and Naples, and make comtrius Nicator, 146. See BALA.
pensation to the k. of Sardinia, July ALEXANDER ZEBINA, overcomes Demetrius 21 ; his ambassador leaves Paris, Aug.
Nicator and claims the throne of Syria, 28; joins the third coalition against B.C. 125--slain, 123.
France, April 11, 1805--War with TurALEXANDER, k. of Egypt, B.C. 107-puts key, 1806 – meets Napoleon at Tilsit,
his mother Cleopatra to death, is ex- July 2, 1807— breaks off all intercourse pelled from Egypt, 89.
with Great Britain, Sep. 28; meets NaALEXANDER II., k. of Egypt, B.C. 81 — poleon at Erfurt, Sep. 27, 1808–offers to killed, 80.
treat for peace, which England refuses, ALEXANDER III., k. of Egypt--a compe- Oct. 12; alienated from Napoleon, 1809
titor of Ptolemy Auletes, assumes this -his contingent arrives too late to assist title, without real power-d. B.c. 65. in the Austrian war; his army is de
feated by the Turks near Silistria, Sep. VII., 1161-escapes to France, 1162-be 26 : breaks up the continental system,
declares void all the acts of his opponents, admits colonial produce and excludes and fixes his residence at Sens, 1163French manufactures, 1810-relaxes in condemns the “Constitutions of Clarenhis operations against Turkey, to collect don," 1164--returns to Rome, 1165-his his forces for war with France, 1811; Sicilian auxiliaries defeated by the em(for the events of this war, see FRANCE peror, 1167 — Alessandria named in and Russia) - makes peace with Turkey, honour of him, 1168 — joins the LomMay 28, 1812-visits the prince regent bards against Frederic, rejects his pain London, June 7; departs, 27, 1814- cific overtures, 1170 -— inquires into persuaded by the baroness Valerie de Becket's death, 1171-meets the emperor Krudener to form the “Holy Alliance,” at Venice, concludes a treaty of peace, Sep. 26, 1815 – obtains the duchy of 1177—returns to Rome, allows the senate Warsaw, calls it the kingdom of Poland, to remain, but subordinate to him, 1178 and gives it a new constitution, Nov. 27; urges a new crusade, 1180-d. 1181. prohibits almost all British manufac- ALEXANDER IV. (Kolando di Segna, bp. of tures, 1816-establishes schools through- Ostia), pope, 1254-refuses to ratify the out Russia, 1817-visits Louis XVIII. peace with Manfred, and offers Sicily Oct. 28, 1818-convokes the Polish diet to Edmund, son of Henry III. of England, and closes the session abruptly, 1820— 1255-condemns William de St. Amour's having no issue, he gives the succes- book against the Dominicans, 1256 sion by a secret family treaty to his places Portugal under an interdict, 1257 second brother Nicholas, 1822-recalls -mediates a peace between Genoa, Vehis ambassador from Madrid, 1823-d. at nice, and Pisa, 1258 -- excommunicates Taganrog, Dec. 1, 1825.
Manfred, 1259 -dispenses Henry III. LEXANDER II., emperor of Russia, March from observing the “Provisions of Ox2, 1855, adheres to the policy of his ford," 1260-d. May 25, 1261. father Nicholas; accepts the terms pro- ALEXANDER V.(Pietro Filargo da Candia, posed as the basis of peace, and sends abp. of Milan), pope, elected by the councount Brunow to the congress of Paris, cil of Pisa, and obeyed as the true pope Feb. 16, 1856.
by the greater part of Europe, 1409ALEXANDER, k. of Poland, 1501-1506. obtains possession of Rome, encourages ALEXANDER de' Medici, expelled with the Louis of Anjou to revive his claim to
family from Florence, 1527 – restored Naples, d. 1410.
cally, 1535-assassinated, Jan. 6, 1537. the Spaniards and the Portuguese, 1493 ALEXANDER FARNESE, son of Octavius -quarrels with Ferdinand of Naples,
duke of Parma and Margaret of Austria, 1493 - confines Zizin in St. Angelo,
Rouen, 1591-d. at Arras, Dec. 2, 1592. Louis XIV. 1662-1663-he submits to all
the demands of Louis, and hostilities are ALEXANDER II. (Anselmo da Badagio, bp. averted by the treaty of Pisa, Feb. 12,
of Lucca), pope, elected without the 1664-d. May, 1667.
dons the empress Agnes, 1062–d. 1073. 1690-d. 1691.
cellor of the church), pope, 1159-excom- the council against Arius, 321-attends