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order that the seasons arriving at the proper time may agree, the intercalary months will be thirty-five more in the seventy years, and the days of these months will be one thousand and fifty. Yet in all this number of twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty days, that compose these seventy years, one day produces nothing exactly the same as another. Thus, then, O Croesus, man is altogether the sport of fortune. You appear to me to be master of immense treasures, and king of many nations; but as relates to what you inquire of me, I cannot say, till I hear you have ended your life happily. For the richest of men is not more happy than he that has a sufficiency for a day, unless good fortune attend him to the grave, so that he ends his life in happiness. Many men, who abound in wealth, are unhappy; and many, who have only a moderate competency, are fortunate. He that abounds in wealth, and is yet unhappy, surpasses the other only in two things; but the other surpasses the wealthy and the miserable in many things. The former indeed is better able to gratify desire, and to bear the blow of adversity. But the latter surpasses him in this; he is not indeed equally able to bear misfortune or satisfy desire, but his good fortune wards off these things from him; and he enjoys the full use of his limbs, he is free from disease and misfortune, he is blessed with good children and a fine form; and if, in addition to all these things, he shall end his life well; he is the man you seek, and may justly be called happy; but before he die we ought to suspend ourjudgment, and not pronounce him happy, but fortunate. Now it is impossible for any one man to comprehend all these advantages: as no one country suffices to produce every thing for itself, but affords some and wants others, and that which affords the most is the best; so no human being is in all respects self-sufficient, but possesses one advantage, and is in need of another ; he therefore who has constantly enjoyed the most of these, and then ends his life tranquilly, this man, in my judgment, O king, deserves the name of happy. We ought therefore to consider the end of every thing, in what way it will terminate ; for the Deity having shown a glimpse of happiness to many, has afterwards utterly overthrown them.”

pite of the precaution the seasons will be confused.—Wyttenbach alters

e number of intercalary months and days to make it agree with truth.

.archer.

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33. When he spoke thus to Croesus, Croesus did not confer any favour on him, and holding him in no account, dismissed him; since he considered him a very ignorant man, because he overlooked present prosperity, and bade men look to the end of every thing. 34. After the departure of Solon, the indignation of the gods fell heavy upon Croesus, probably because he thought himself the most happy of all men. A dream soon after visited him while sleeping, which pointed out to him the truth of the misfortunes that were about to befal him in the person of one of his sons. For Croesus had two sons, of whom one was grievously afflicted, for he was dumb ; but the other, whose name was Atys, far surpassed all the young men of his age. Now the dream intimated to Croesus that he would lose this Atys by a wound inflicted by the point of an iron weapon; he, when he awoke, and had considered the matter with himself, dreading the dream, provided a wife for his son ; and though he was accustomed to command the Lydian troops, he did not ever after send him out on that business; and causing all spears, lances, and such other weapons as men use in war, to be removed from the men's apartments, he had them laid up in private chambers, that none of them being suspended might fall upon his son. 35. While Croesus was engaged with the nuptials of his son, a man oppressed by misfortune, and whose hands were polluted, a Phrygian by birth, and of royal family, arrived at Sardis. This man, having come to the palace of Croesus, sought permission to obtain purification according to the custom of the country. Croesus purified him:—(now the manner of expiation is nearly the same among the Lydians and the Greeks :) and when he had performed the usual ceremonies, Croesus inquired whence he came, and who he was ; speaking to him as follows: “Stranger, who art thou, and from what part of Phrygia hast thou come as a suppliant to my hearth 2 and what man or woman hast thou slain ** The stranger answered, “Sire, I am the son of Gordius, son of Midas, and am called Adrastus: having unwittingly slain my own brother, and being banished by my father and deprived of every thing, I am come hither.” Croesus answered as follows: “You are born of parents who are our friends, and you are come to friends, among whom, if you will stay, you shall want nothing ; and by bearing your misfortune as lightly as posorder that the seasons arriving at the proper time may agree, the intercalary months will be thirty-five more in the seventy years, and the days of these months will be one thousand and fifty. Yet in all this number of twenty-six thousand two hundred and fifty days, that compose these seventy years, one day produces nothing exactly the same as another. Thus, then, O Croesus, man is altogether the sport of fortune. You appear to me to be master of immense treasures, and king of many nations; but as relates to what you inquire of me, I cannot say, till I hear you have ended your life happily. For the richest of men is not more happy than he that has a sufficiency for a day, unless good fortune attend him to the grave, so that he ends his life in happiness. Many men, who abound

in wealth, are unhappy; and many, who have only a moderate .

competency, are fortunate. He that abounds in wealth, and is yet unhappy, surpasses the other only in two things; but the other surpasses the wealthy and the miserable in many things. The former indeed is better able to gratify desire, and to bear the blow of adversity. But the latter surpasses him in this; he is not indeed equally able to bear misfortune or satisfy desire, but his good fortune wards off these things from him; and he enjoys the full use of his limbs, he is free from disease and misfortune, he is blessed with good children and a fine formjand if, in addition to all these things, he shall end his life well; he is the man you seek, and may justly be called happy; but before he die we ought to suspend our judgment, and not pronounce him happy, but fortunate. Now it is impossible for any one man to comprehend all these advantages: as no one country suffices to produce every thing for itself, but affords some and wants others, and that which affords the most is the best ; so no human being is in all respects self-sufficient, but possesses one advantage, and is in need of another ; he therefore who has constantly enjoyed the most of these, and then ends his life tranquilly, this man, in my judgment, O king, deserves the name of happy. We ought therefore to consider the end of every thing, in what way it will terminate ; for the Deity having shown a glimpse of happiness to many, has afterwards utterly overthrown them.”

pite of the precaution the seasons will be confused.—Wyttenbach alters

e number of intercalary months and days to make it agree with truth. .archer.

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| 33. When he spoke thus to Croesus, Croesus did not con| fer any favour on him, and holding him in no account, dis* missed him; since he considered him a very ignorant man, because he overlooked present prosperity, and bade men look to the end of every thing. 34. After the departure of Solon, the indignation of the gods fell heavy upon Croesus, probably because he thought fiimself the most happy of all men. A dream soon after visited him while sleeping, which pointed out to him the truth of the misfortunes that were about to befal him in the person of one “of his sons. For Croesus had two sons, of whom one was 4. grievously afflicted, for he was dumb ; but the other, whose name was Atys, far surpassed all the young men of his age. (Now the dream intimated to Croesus that he would lose this |Atys by a wound inflicted by the point of an iron weapon; * when he awoke, and had considered the matter with himself, dreading the dream, provided a wife for his son ; and 4though he was accustomed to command the Lydian troops, he did not ever after send him out on that business; and causing *: spears, lances, and such other weapons as men use in war, to be removed from the men's apartments, he had them laid up in private chambers, that none of them being suspended might fall upon his son. 35. While Croesus was engaged with the nuptials of his son, a man oppressed by misfortune, and 4. whose hands were polluted, a Phrygian by birth, and of royal family, arrived at Sardis. This man, having come to the palace of Croesus, sought permission to obtain purification according to the custom of the country. Croesus purified him:-(now the manner of expiation is nearly the same among the Lydians and the Greeks :) and when he had performed the usual ceremonies, Croesus inquired whence he came, and who he was ; speaking to him as follows: “Stranger, who art thou, and from what part of Phrygia hast thou come as a suppliant to my hearth 2 and what man or woman hast thou slain P’’ The

* stranger answered, “Sire, I am the son of Gordius, son of

Midas, and am called Adrastus: having unwittingly slain my own brother, and being banished by my father and deprived of every thing, I am come hither.” Croesus answered as follows: “You are born of parents who are our friends, and you are come to friends, among whom, if you will stay, you shall want nothing ; and by bearing your misfortune as lightly as pos

sible you will be the greatest gainer.” So Adrastus took up
his abode in the palace of Croesus.
36. At this same time a boar of enormous size appeared in
Mysian Olympus, and rushing down from that mountain, ra-
vaged the fields of the Mysians. The Mysians, though they
often went out against him, could not hurt him, but suffered
much from him. At last deputies from the Mysians having come
to Croesus, spoke as follows: “Oking, a boar of enormous size
has appeared in our country, and ravages our fields: though we
have often endeavoured to take him, we cannot. We therefore
earnestly beg, that you would send with us your son and some
chosen youths with dogs, that we may drive him from the coun-
try.” Such was their entreaty, but Croesus, remembering the
warning of his dream, answered, “Make no further mention of
my son ; for I shall not send him with you, because he is lately
married, and that now occupies his attention: but I will send
with you chosen Lydians, and the whole hunting train, and
will order them to assist you with their best endeavours in
driving the monster from your country.” 37. Such was his
answer; and when the Mysians were content with this, the
son of Croesus, who had heard of their request, came in ; and
when Croesus refused to send him with them, the youth thus
addressed him: “Father, in time past I was permitted to
signalize myself in the two most noble and becoming exercises
of war and hunting ; but now you keep me excluded from both,
without having observed in me either cowardice or want of
spirit. How will men look on me when I go or return from
the forum ? What kind of man shall I appear to my fellow
citizens? What to my newly married wife? What kind of
man will she think she has for a partner P. Either suffer me
then to go to this hunt, or convince me that it is better for
me to do as you would have me.” 38. “My son,” answered
Croesus, “I act thus, not because I have seen any cowardice,
or anything else unbecoming in you; but a vision in a dream
appearing to me in my sleep warned me that you would be
short-lived, and would die by the point of an iron weapon.
On account of this vision therefore I hastened your marriage,
and now refuse to send you on this expedition ; taking care
to preserve you, if by any means I can, as long as I live ;
for you are my only son ; the other, who is deprived of his
hearing, I consider as lost.” 39. The youth answered, “You

s

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