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offers of foreign service had been made, is dangerous and unconstitutional.” The and, if necessary, should be laid before Hanoverians, his grace observed, would not them. He assured them, that when the un- be under the command of any military law happy and deluded multitude, against whom in those garrisons, and the mutiny act could force was to be directed, should become not extend to them, being confined to those sensible of their error, he would receive troops only which are specified in it, or the misled with tenderness and mercy. An voted by parliament. There was no secuapology was made to the commons for the rity in putting fortified places of such imincreased demand of supplies, and it was portance into the hands of foreign troops, affirmed that the constant employment of and the king had no right to maintain, in his majesty's thoughts, and the most earnest any part of his British dominions, any troops wishes of his heart, tended wholly to the to which parliament had not given their safety and happiness of his people ; and that consent. On the other hand, the lords in his majesty saw no probability that the mea- administration said, that the clause in the sures which parliament might adopt would bill of rights, which is in question, is to be be interrupted by disputes with any foreign understood with the conditions annexed to power.
it, one of which relates to the bringing of The addresses, in answer to this speech, troops within the kingdom, and another contained the same sentiments, and the mentions the time of peace, and in the presefforts of opposition were powerfully di- ent case neither of those conditions was rected to avoid the imputation of those ad- violated. Nay, the bill of rights, it was dresses being the unanimous voice of the said, confirms to the king a power to raise house.
an army, in time of war, in any part of his GENERAL CONWAY AND THE DUKE OF dominions, both of natives and foreigners
GRAFTON JOIN THE OPPOSITION. a power wbich had been exerted on several
Their arguments were powerfully aided occasions, without the consent of parliament, by the defection of general Conway and the and was justified now by necessity. The duke of Grafton; who, in their respective opposition answered, that the words “withhouses, pleaded the cause of the injured col- in the kingdom," if confined to England onists with great ability, feeling, and cor-alone, would exclude Ireland, Scotland, and rectness. They gave it as their opinion, other places into which armies of foreigners that if ever a reconciliation could be effected, might be introduced. “ However the cirthis was the time to make the attempt, by a cumstantial quibbling of law might pretend repeal of every obnoxious act passed against to determine, the measure was certainly the Americans since the year 1763. The contrary to the spirit and intention of the addresses, however, passed in the original bill of rights, which particularly provides forms in both houses, by prodigious majori- against keeping a standing army without ties. The debates were unusually long, and the consent of parliament.” They mainthe questions attended to with unremitting tained that no foreign troops had been zeal. The duke of Richmond distinguished brought into the kingdom at any time since himself in the house of lords, and was one the revolution, without the previous consent of nineteen peers who signed a protest of parliament, either by an address, or by against the proceedings of that house. some former treaty which it had ratified'; What relates to the employment of Hano- and the hiring of foreign troops, and afterverian troops, conveys the following senti- wards prevailing on parliament to ratify the ments : "that Hanoverian troops should, at engagements, had always been censured as the mere pleasure of the ministers, be con- an unwarrantable step. In the late war, sidered as a part of the British military es- ministers were exceedingly cautious in this tablishment, and take a rotation of garrison respect, and even after the parliament had duties, through these dominions, is, in prac- agreed to the raising of 4000 Germans for tice and precedent, of the highest danger to American service, such effectual provision the safety and liberties of this kingdom, was made for the security of this kingdom, and tends wholly to invalidate the wise and that it was impossible any mischief could salutary declaration of the grand funda- ensue. With all the deference king Wil mental law of our glorious deliverer, king liam's parliament entertained for that prince, William, which has bound together the they never would consent to the admission rights of the subject, and the succession of of his Dutch guards into England. Notwiththe throne.” Upon this opinion, a few days standing these and other forcible arguments, after the address had been delivered, the the previous question was put, and the numduke of Manchester founded a resolution, bers were, 75 who voted against, and 32 who “That bringing into any part of the domin- supported the motion. ions of Great Britain, the electoral troops A further infraction on the constitution of his majesty, or any other foreign troops, presented itself at this time to the opposiwithout the previous consent of parliament, tion. A new militia-bill which was introduced, was said to be subversive of every authorized the crown to appoint commissionidea of a constitutional militia, as they were ers, who, over and above granting pardons not to be called out except in cases of in- to individuals, were empowered to inquire vasion or rebellion, pretences of which might into general and particular grievances, and at any time be made; a minister had it in to determine whether any colony, or part of his power to embody them, and in that case a colony, was returned to that state of obethey composed a standing army. The min-dience which might entitle it to be received istry endeavored to assure the house that within the king's peace and protection.” In their fears on this topic were groundless, and that case, upon a declaration from the comthat it was not to be supposed that any min- missioners, * the restrictions of the proposed ister would dare to abuse the power granted law were to cease.” to him, and that if he did, he was accounta- It was said, in favor of this bill, that as ble for it at the risk of his life. This apology, the Americans were already in a state of however, did not satisfy the opposition; part war, it became necessary that hostilities of the Devonshire militia had offered their should be carried on against them, as was personal service against all internal enemies; usual against alien enemies: That the more this was a specimen of what we had to ex- vigorously and extensively military operapect from the establishment of this new mi- tions were prosecuted, the sooner would litia, who were to obey any orders that might peace and order be restored : That as the be given, no matter by whom; and where commissioners went out with the sword in would they, who might differ from adminis- one hand, and terms of conciliation in the tion in matters of political opinion, find se other, it was in the power of the colonists curity against the undue exertion of this to prevent the infliction of any real or appower, or the misconstruction of the senti- parent severities in the proposed statute. ments of opposition ? On the contrary it was In opposition to it, it was said, that treatreplied, that the Devonshire militia, by this ing the Americans as a foreign nation, was address, only wished to give a proof of their marking out the way for their independence. attachment to the crown, and that it was One member observed, that as the indisproper for other societies to do the same, as criminate rapine of property, authorized by à counterpart to the addresses of London the bill, would oblige the colonists to coaand Middlesex, and to undeceive the people lesce as one man, its title ought to be, “A in the country, who dreaded that nothing bill for carrying more effectually into exeless than a revolution was meditated by the cution the resolves of the congress.' But present adverse proceedings of some bodies of all parts of this bill, none was so severely of men. The question being put, the bill condemned as that clause by which persons was carried by 259 to 50.
taken on board the American vessels, were These debates were followed by the aug- indiscriminately compelled to serve as commentation of the land-tax to four shillings mon sailors in British ships of war. This in the pound. · This passed with little oppo- was said to be “a refinement of tyranny sition, excepting some complaints about the worse than death.” It was also said, " that want of information.
no man could be despoiled of his goods as a PROHIBITORY BILL.
foreign enemy, and at the same time obliged No ministry had, in any preceding war, to serve as a citizen, and that compelling exerted themselves more to prosecute mili-captives to bear arms against their families, tary operations against alien enemies, than kindred, friends, and country; and after bethe present to make the ensuing campaign ing plundered themselves, to become acdecisive of the dispute between the mother complices in plundering their brethren; was country and the colonies. One legislative unexampled, except among pirates, the outact was still wanting to give full efficacy to laws and enemies of human society.” To the intended prosecution of hostilities. This all these high charges the ministry replied, was brought into parliament in a bill inter- " that the measure was an act of grace and dicting all trade and intercourse with the favor; for," said they, “ the crews of Amerithirteen united colonies. By it all property can vessels
, instead of being put to death, of Americans, whether of ships or goods on the legal punishment of their demerits, as the high seas, or in harbor, was declared “ to traitors and rebels, are by this law to be be forfeited to the captors, being the officers rated on the king's books, and treated as if and crews of his majesty's ships of war.” they were on the same footing with a great It farther enacted, “ that the masters, crews, body of his most useful and faithful suband other persons found on board captured jects." . American vessels, should be entered on In the progress of the debates on this bill board his majesty's vessels of war, and there lord Mansfield declared, “that the ques. considered to be in his majesty's service to tions of original right and wrong were no all intents and purposes, as if they had en- longer to be considered that they were entered of their own accord.” This bill also gaged in a war, and must use their utmost efforts to obtain the ends proposed by it; that and suffer an unprovoked rebellion to termithey must either fight or be pursued; and nate in the formation of an independent hosthat the justice of the cause must give way tile empire ?" “ Are we to suffer our coloto their present situation.” Perhaps no nies, the object of great national expense, speech, in or out of parliament, operated and of two bloody wars, to be lost for ever more extensively on the irritated minds of to us, and given away to strangers, from a the colonists than this.
scruple of employing foreign troops to preCHANGES IN THE CABINET. serve our just rights over colonies for which The recess for the holidays now took we have paid so dear a purchase? As the place, but previous to it some changes in the Americans, by refusing the obedience and ministry had happened which it is proper to taxes of subjects, deny themselves to be a notice; the privy-seal, vacant by the resig- part of the British empire, and make themnation of the duke of Grafton, was given to selves foreigners, they cannot complain that the earl of Dartmouth, who resigned the foreigners are employed against them.” On secretaryship of the American department; the other side, the measure was severely lord George Sackville Germain succeeded condemned; the necessity of the war was him, who once had been attached to opposi- denied, and the nation was represented as tion and a zealous friend of Mr. Grenville, disgraced by applying to the petty princes after whose death he gradually came over of Germany for succors against her own to the side of administration, and had voted rebellious subjects. The tendency of the with them in favor of all the late measures example to induce the Americans to form respecting America. Lord Weymouth suc- alliances with foreign powers, was strongly ceeded the earl of Rochford as secretary for urged. It was said, “ Hitherto the colonists the southern department.
have ventured to commit themselves singly IRISH AFFAIRS.
in this arduous contest, without having re1776.—The first business of any conse- course to foreign aid; but it is not to be quence, after the recess, related to Ireland. doubted, that in future they will think themThe lord-lieutenant of that kingdom had selves fully justified, both by our example sent a written message to the house of com- and the laws of self-preservation, to engage mons, containing a requisition in the king's foreigners to assist them in opposing to e name, of 4000 additional troops from that mercenaries, whom we are about to transkingdom for the American service, not to be port for their destruction. Nor is it doubtful paid by that establishment during their ab- that
, in case of their application, European sence, and, if desired by them, to be replaced powers of a rank far superior to that of those by an equal number of foreign Protestant petty princes, to whom we have so abjectly troops, the charges of which should be de- sued for aid, will consider themselves to be frayed without any expense to Ireland. The equally entitled to interfere in the quarrel commons granted 4000 troops, but rejected between us and our colonies." the offer of foreign troops, and the patriotic The supposition of the Americans receive members wished rather to embody a part of ing aid from France or Spain, was on this the nation under the description of volunteers and several other occasions ridiculed, on the for their internal defence.
idea that these powers would not dare to set DEBATE ON FOREIGN TROOPS. to their own colonies the dangerous example The treaties which had been concluded of encouraging those of Great Britain in opwith the landgrave of Hesse Cassel, the duke posing their sovereign. It was also supposof Brunswick, and the hereditary prince of ed, that they would be influenced by consid. Hesse Cassel, for hiring their troops to the erations of future danger to their American king of Great Britain, to be employed in the possessions, from the establishment of an American service, being on the 29th of Feb-independent empire in their vicinity. ruary laid before the house of commons, a A bill for the establishment of a militia in motion was made thereon for referring them Scotland had been brought in by lord Mountto the committee of supply. This occasion- stewart, on the 8th of December 1775; but ed a very interesting debate on the propriety from want of attendance, and multiplicity of of employing foreign troops against the other business, had been neglected during Americans. The measure was supported the greater part of the season. It was now on the necessity of prosecuting the war, and brought under consideration; but, notwiththe impracticability of raising a sufficient standing the apparent sanction of adminisnumber of domestic levies. It was also tration, as well as the patronage of the Scots urged, " that foreign troops, inspired with gentlemen, it was at last thrown out by 112 the military maxims and ideas of implicit to 95. On this occasion the minister divided submission, would be less apt to be biassed with the minority. by that false lenity which native soldiers On the 23d of May his majesty put an might indulge, at the expense of national in- end to the session. In the speech, his materest.” It was said, "Are we to sit stilll jesty expressed the usual satisfaction with their proceedings; that no alteration had | assault. They preferred a bold spirit of taken place in the state of foreign affairs : enterprise to that passive fortitude which the commons were thanked for their readi-bears up under present evils, while it waits ness and dispatch in granting the supplies, for favorable junctures. To be in readiness which unavoidably were this year extraor- for an attempt of this kind, a council of war dinary; a proper frugality was promised, recommended to call in 7280 militia-men, and it was observed that they were engaged from New-Hampshire or Connecticut. This in a great national cause, the prosecution of number, added to the regular army before which must be attended with great difficul- Boston, would have made an operating force ties, and much expense; but when they con- of about 17,000 men. sidered, that the essential rights and inter- The eyes of all were fixed on general ests of the whole empire were deeply con- Washington, and from him it was unreasoncerned in the issue of it, and could have no ably expected that he would, by a bold exsafety or security but in that constitutional ertion, free the town of Boston from the subordination for which they were contend- British troops. The dangerous situation of ing, it afforded a conviction that they could public affairs led him to conceal the real not think any price too high for such objects. scarcity of arms and ammunition, and with His majesty hoped, that his rebellious sub- that magnanimity which is characteristical jects would be awakened to a sense of their of great minds, to suffer his character to be errors, and by a voluntary return to their assailed, rather than vindicate himself by duty, justify the restoration of harmony; but exposing his many wants. There were not if a due submission should not be obtained wanting persons who, judging from the sufrom such motives and dispositions on their perior numbers of men in the American part, it was trusted, that it would be effectu- army, boldly asserted, that if the commanderated by a full exertion of the great force in-chief was not desirous of prolonging his with which they had intrusted him. importance at the head of an army, he BOSTON EVACUATED BY THE BRITISH. might, by a vigorous exertion, gain posses
While these affairs were transacting in sion of Boston. Such suggestions were reEngland, the troops at Boston were suffer- ported and believed by several, while they ing the inconvenience of a blockade. From were uncontradicted by the general, who the 19th of April they were cut off from chose to risk his fame rather than expose his those refreshments which their situation re- army and his country. quired; their supplies from Britain did not Agreeably to the request of the council reach the coast for a long time after they of war, about 7000 of the militia had renwere expected. Several were taken by the dezvoused in February. General WashingAmerican cruisers, and others were lost at ton stated to his officers, that the troops in sea. This was in particular the fate of camp, together with the reinforcements many of their coal-ships. The want of fuel which had been called for, and were daily was peculiarly felt in a climate where the coming in, would amount nearly to 17,000 winter is both severe and tedious. They men—that he had not powder sufficient for relieved themselves in part from their suf- a bombardment, and asked their advice ferings on this account, by the timber of whether, as reinforcements might be daily houses which they pulled down and burned. expected to the enemy, it would not be pruVessels were dispatched to the West Indies, dent, before that event took place, to make to procure provisions; but the islands were an assault on the British lines. The proposo straitened that they could afford but little sition was negatived; but it was recomassistance. Armed ships and transports mended to take possession of Dorchester were ordered to Georgia, with an intent to Heights. To conceal this design, and to procure rice; but the people of that prov- divert the attention of the garrison, a bomince, with the aid of a party from South bardment of the town, from other directious Carolina, so effectually opposed them, that commenced, and was carried on for three of eleven vessels, only two got off safe with days with as much briskness as a deficient their cargoes. It was not till the stock of stock of powder would admit. In this first the garrison was nearly exhausted, that the essay, three of the mortars were broken, transports from England entere the port either from a defect their construction, or of Boston, and relieved the distresses of the more probably from ignorance of the proper garrison.
mode of using them. While the troops within the lines were The night of the 4th of March was fixed apprehensive of suffering from want of pro- upon for taking possession of Dorchester visions, the troops without were equally un- Heights. A covering-party of about 800 easy for want of employment. Used to labor men led the way; these were followed by and motion on their farms, they relished ill the carts with the intrenching tools, and the inactivity and confinement of a camp- 1200 of a working-party, commanded by life. Fiery spirits declaimed in favor of an general Thomas. In the rear, there were more than 200 carts, loaded with fascines istry, from principles of political expedience. and hay in bundles. While the cannon were Being resolved to carry on the war for purplaying in other parts, the greatest silence poses affecting all the colonies, they conwas kept by this working-party. The ac-ceived a central position to be preferable to tive zeal of the provincials completed lines Boston. Reasoning of this kind had induced of defence by the morning, which astonished the adoption of the measure, but the Amerithe garrison. The difference between Dor- can works on Roxbury expedited its execuchester Heights on the evening of the 4th, tion. The abandonment of their friends, and and the morning of the 5th, seemed to re- the withdrawing their forces from Boston, alize the tales of romance. The admiral was the first act of a tragedy in which informed general Howe, that if the Ameri- evacuations and retreats were the scenes cans kept possession of these heights, he which most frequently occurred, and the would not be able to keep one of his majesty's epilogue of which was a total evacuation of ships in the harbor. It was therefore determin- the United States. ed in a council of war, to attempt to dislodge SIEGE OF QUEBEC RAISED. them. An engagement was hourly expected. THOUGH congress and the states made It was intended by general Washington, in great exertions to support the war in Canada, that case, to force his way into Boston with yet from the fall of Montgomery their in4000 men, who were to have embarked at terest in that colony daily declined. The the mouth of Cambridge river. The militia reduction of Quebec was an object to which had come forward with great alertness, each their resources were inadequate. Their unbringing three days' provision, in expecta- successful assault on Quebec made an imtion of an immediate assault. The men were pression both on the Canadians and Indians in high spirits, and impatiently waiting for unfavorable to their views. By the first of the appeal.
May, so many new troops had arrived, that In a few days after, a flag came out of the American army, in name, amounted to Boston with a paper signed by four select- 3000, but from the prevalence of the smallmen, informing, “ that they had applied to pox, there were only 900 fit for duty. The general Robertson, who, on application to increasing number of invalids retarded their general Howe, was authorized to assure military operations, and discouraged their them that he had no intention of burning friends, while the opposite party was buoyed the town, unless the troops under his com- up with the expectation that the advancing mand were molested during their embarka- season would soon bring them relief. tion, or at their departure, by the armed On the 5th of May, the van of the British 'orce without.” When this paper was pre- force, destined for the relief of Quebec, sented to general Washington, he replied, made good its passage through the ice up " that as it was an unauthenticated paper, the river St. Laurence. The expectation and without an address, and not obligatory of their coming had for some time damped on general Howe, he could take no notice the hopes of the besiegers, and had induced of it;" but at the same time intimated his them to think of a retreat. The day before good wishes for the security of the town. the first of the British reinforcements ar
A proclamation was issued by general rived, that measure was resolved upon by a Howe, ordering all woollen and linen goods council of war, and arrangements were made to be delivered to Crean Brush, Esq. Shops for carrying it into execution. were opened and stripped of their goods. A Governor Carleton was too great a profilicentious plundering took place; much was cient in the art of war, to delay seizing the carried off, and more was wantonly destroy- advantages which the consternation of the ed. These irregularities were forbidden in besiegers, and the arrival of a reinforcement orders, and the guilty threatened with death, afforded. A small detachment of soldiers but nevertheless, every mischief which dis- and marines, from the ships which had just appointed malice could suggest, was com- ascended the river St. Laurence, being mitted.
landed and joined to the garrison in Quebec, The British, amounting to more than 7000 he marched out at their head to attack the men, evacuated Boston on the 17th of March, Americans. On his approach, he found leaving their barracks standing, and also a everything in confusion; the late besiegers, number of pieces of cannon spiked, four abandoning their artillery and military stores, large iron sea-mortars, and stores to the had in great precipitation retreated. In this value of 30,000l. They demolished the cas- manner, at the expiration of five months, tle, and knocked off the trunnions of the the mixed siege and blockade of Quebec was cannon. Various incidents caused a delay raised. of nine days after the evacuation, before The reputation acquired by general Carlethey left Nantasket-road.
ton in his military character, for bravely The evacuation of Boston had been pre- and judiciously defending the province comviously determined upon by the British min-Imitted to his care, was exceeded by the su