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the skull is now filled up with a mixture of spices, powdered plaster and natron, and the nostrils through which it was inserted are plugged up with small linen pledgets dipped in some astringent ; obsidian eyes are also inserted in the eyesockets. Large quantities of gums, spices, natron, as well as a very little bitumen, are pounded and well mixed together, and with them the breast and stomach are carefully packed through the slit in the side ; while certain formulæ are being recited, a gold plate inscribed with the utchat, or eye of Horus,
is laid upon it to indicate that this god watched over this body as he did over that of his father Osiris. The nails of
the hands are stained with henna (Arab. lis), and on the The orna- little finger of the left hand is placed Ani's gold ring, in the ments of
bezel of which is mounted a handsome steatite scarab inthe body.
scribed on the base with his name and titles. The ring was supposed to confer upon the deceased some power, but what that power was is not yet exactly made out; it is certain, however, that no one was buried without one or more, and if the relatives of the deceased were not able to buy thém in gold or silver, they made use of faïence rings, glazed various colours, and even of small strings of beads which they tied on the fingers in lieu of rings. The legs are then brought closely together, and the arms are laid on the body with one wrist crossed over the other. The cher-heb next provides a large and handsome scarab made of green basalt which is set in a frame of gold, over the back of it is a horizontal band of the same metal, at right angles to which, on the side of the tail of the beetle, runs another band which joins the frame; at the head of the scarab is a gold loop through which is now threaded a thick gold wire sufficiently long to go round Ani's neck. This scarab was part of the stock in trade of the cher-heb, and all that was necessary to do to make it Ani's property was to inscribe his name and ticles upon it in the
blank line left for the purpose at the head of the flat base. The scarab This done the scarab was covered with a thin gold leaf and laid over
Ani's breast at the neck. The inscription upon it
According to some rubrics of the thirtieth chapter the scarab was to be placed “ within the heart” of a person after the ceremony of “opening the mouth "
was one of the verses of the 30th chapter of the Book of the Dead, and contained a prayer, addressed by Ani to his heart, that there might not be brought against him adverse evidence when it was weighed in the balance in the judgment hall of Osiris, that he might not be obstructed or driven back, and that his name might not be overthrown by those powers who made it their business to harass the newcomers among the dead in the nether-world. The prayer ends with a petition that no false evidence may be borne against him in the presence of the god.
And now the bandaging begins. The body is first of all Process of smeared all over with unguents. Pieces of linen are then bandaging. torn into strips about three inches wide, and one edge of each strip is gummed. On one end of each of these the name of Ani has been written in hieratic characters to facilitate the identification of the mummy during the process of bandaging; a number of these strips are dipped in water, and the embalmers having bandaged the fingers, hands, and arms, and toes separately, begin to bandage the body from the feet upwards. The moist bandages cling tightly to the body, and the gummed edge enables each fold of the bandage to obtain firm hold ; the little irregularities are corrected by small pledgets of linen placed between the folds and gummed in position. These linen bandages are also held in position by means of narrower strips of linen wound round the body at intervals of six and eight inches, and tied in a double knot. Over these fine linen bandages passages from the Book of the Dead, and formula which were intended to give power to the dead, are written. One end of a very thick bandage of eighteen to twenty-five folds of linen is laid under the shoulders, and the other is brought over the head and face, and rests on the upper part of the chest ; this is held in position by a bandage wound round the neck, and tied in a double knot at the back of the neck. The same plan is adopted with respect to the feet, but before the bandage
sa o X I (Naville, Bd. II, 99), had been performed; this rite, however, took place in the tomb,
which secures all is tied, thick pads of linen are laid on the
top of the feet to prevent any injury happening to them when Process of the mummy is made to stand upright. The bandaged arms bandaging
having been pressed closely into the sides, and the fore-arms and hands having been laid upon the stomach, the bandaging
goes on again, while formulæ are recited by the cher-heb. Names of Each bandage had a special name, each bandage gave power dages.
to the deceased, and was inscribed with words and figures of gods, which also gave him power, and the adjustment of each in its proper position required both care and judgment. More folds of linen are laid on the body perpendicularly,:
| Referring to the embalming of the feet, the following extract is of interest. “After these things perform the embalming operations on his right and left arms, and then the . . . . . and the children of Horus, and the children of Chent-āat, shall carry out the embalming operations on the two legs of the deceased. Rub the feet, legs, and thighs of the deceased with black stone (?) oil, and then rub them a second time with the finest oil. Wrap the toes in a piece of cloth, draw two jackals upon two pieces of linen with colours mixed with water perfumed with anti, and each jackal shall have his face turned towards the other ; the jackal on the one
bandage is Anubis, lord of Hert; the jackal on the other is Horus, lord of | Hebennu. Put Anubis on the right leg, and Horus on the left leg, and wrap
them up in fine linen. To complete the embalming of the legs, take six measures of anchamu flowers, natron and resin, and mix with water of ebony gum, and put three measures on the right leg and three measures on the left. Then put some fresh (?) senb flowers made into twelve bundles (?) on the left leg, and twelve bands of linen, and anoint with the finest oil.” Maspero, Le Rituel de l'Em. baumement, pp. 43, 44, in Mémoire sur Quelques Papyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits, tom. xxiv., 1te partie ; Paris, 1875).
? E.g., one of the bandages of the nostrils was called
and the other
190 10 smen ; a head bandage ( 107 8 heuthethsu,
the two bandages of the cheek
änchth anchth su, the two
ao bandages of the top of the head
lovi 3 While the head was being bandaged the following petition was recited hy one of the embalmers :-“O most august goddess, O lady of the west, mistress of the east, come and enter into the two ears of the deceased ! O doubly powerful, eternally young, and very mighty lady of ihe west, and mistress of the east may breathing take place in the head of the deceased in the nether world ! Grant that he may see with his eyes, that he may hear with his two ears, that he may breathe through his nose, that he may utter sounds from his mouth, and articulate with his tongue in the nether world! Receive his voice in the hall of truth and justice, and his triumph in the hall of Seb in the presence of the great
and more bandages are wound round the body horizontally, until, little by little, it loses its shape beneath them. When a length of about three hundred cubits has been used in folds and bandages, a coarse piece of linen is laid on the body, and is sewn up at the back. Over this again a saffroncoloured linen sheet is laid, and this having been deftly sewn over the head, down the back, and under the feet, is finally held in position by a perpendicular bandage of brownish coloured linen, passing from the head to the feet and under them up the back to the head, and by four horizontal bandages of the same coloured linen, one round the shoulders, one round the middle of the body, one round the knees, and one round the ankles. Thus the mummy is complete. During the seventy days which have been spent in Ani's
coffin. embalming Ani's body, the coffin makers have not been idle, and they have made ready a covering of wood to be laid on the mummy, and two beautiful coffins. The covering, in the form of a mummy, is slightly vaulted, and has a human face, bearded, on it; it is handsomely painted outside with collar, figures of Nut, Anubis, and Ap-uat, the full names and titles of Ani in perpendicular lines of inscription, the cartouches of the king in whose time he lived, and scenes in which Ani is adoring the gods. On the inside of the cover, on the purple ground, are painted in a light yellow colour pictures of the horizon, the spirits of the East, in the form of apes, adoring Rā, the lion gods of the morning and evening with a disk on their united backs, etc., etc. The inner coffin is equally
god, lord of the west. O Osiris (i.e., the deceased), the thick oil which comes upon thee furnishes thy mouth with life, and thine eye looketh into the lower heaven, as Rā looketh upon the upper heaven. It giveth thee thy two ears to hear that which thou wishest, just as Shu in Hebit (?) heard that which he wished to hear. It giveth thee thy nose to smell a beautiful persume like Seb. It giveth to thee thy mouth well furnished by its passage (into the throat), like the mouth of Thoth, when he weigheth Maāt. It giveth thee Maāt (Law) in Hebit. O worshipper in Hetbenben, the cries of thy mouth are in Siut, Osiris of Siut comes to thee, thy mouth is the mouth of Ap-uat in the mountain of the west.” (See Maspero, Le Rituel de l'Embaumement, p. 27, in Mémoire sur Quelques l'apyrus du Louvre (Extrait des Notices et Extraits des Manuscrits), tom. xxiv., [te partie ; Paris, 1875).
"A fine example of such a covering is that of Nesi-pa-ur-shefi, preserved at Cambridge.
handsome, and carpenter and artist have expended their best labour upon it; before Ani was embalmed he was measured for it, and due allowance having been made for the bandages, it fits the mummy exactly. It is in the form of a mummy, and the sycamore planks of which it is made are about two inches thick ; the bottom is in one piece, as is also each of the sides, the rounded head-piece is cut out of a solid piece of wood, and the foot-piece is also separate ; all these parts are pegged together with wooden pegs about two inches long. On the cover is pegged a solid face, carved out of hard wood,
which is thought to have a strong resemblance to that of Coffin Ani ; bronze eyelids and obsidian eyes are fixed in it, and a
carved wooden beard is fastened to the chin. Solid wooden tation.
hands are next fastened to the breast. The whole coffin, inside and out, is next covered with a thin layer of plaster;
over this a coat of light yellow varnish is painted, and the Scenes scenes and inscriptions are painted on it in red, light and painted on dark green, white and other colours. At the head is Neph
thys, and at the foot is Isis, each making speeches to Ani, and telling him that she is protecting him. On the cover outside is Nut, and between two series of scenes in which Ani is represented worshipping the gods, are two perpendicular lines of inscriptions recording his name and titles; at the foot of these are figures of Anubis and Ap-uat. The sides of the coffin are ornamented with figures of gods in shrines, the scene of the weighing of the heart, Ani drinking water from the hands of a goddess standing in a tree, Shu lifting up Nut from the embraces of Seb, etc. Inside the coffin are painted figures of a number of gods and genii with instructions referring to them, and the goddesses Nut and Hathor; the first covers Ani with her wings, and the second, as mistress of the nether-world, receives Ani into her arms. Around the edge of the coffin near the cover, from head to foot, run two lines of inscription, one on each side, which repeat at considerable length the name and titles of Ani. The outer edge of the coffin, and the inner edge of the cover are "rabbeted” out, the one to fit into the other, and on each side, at regular intervals, four rectangular slots about itin. x zin. x gin. are cut; to fasten the coffin hermetically, tightly fitting wooden dowels, four