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each of these fragile objects is inscribed with her name. On the table are spoons made of ivory of the most beautiful workmanship. They are shaped in the form of a woman. The body is stained a deep creamy colour, the colour of the skin of the Egyptian lady, who guarded herself from the rays of the sun; the hair is black, and we see that it is movable; when we lift it off we see the name of "Tutu, the sistrum bearer," engraved beneath. On a second stand, made of wood, we find the articles for her toilet, mirror, kohl pot in obsidian, fan, etc., and close by is the sistrum which she carried in the temple of Amen-Ra upon earth, and which was buried with her, so that she might be able to praise that god with music in his mansions in the sky. Chairs and her couch are there too, and stands covered with dried flowers and various offerings. Removing the lid of the coffin we see her mummy lying as it was laid a few years before. On her breasts are strings of dried flowers with the bloom still on them, and by her side is a roll of papyrus containing a copy of the service which she used to sing in the temple of Amen in the Apts, when on earth. Her amethyst necklace and other ornaments are small, but very beautiful. Just over her feet is a blue glazed steatite usliabti figure. While we have been examining Tutu's general furniture, the servants of the cher-heb have brought down the coffin, which is placed on a bier along the east wall, and the chairs and couch and boxes and funereal offerings, and arranged them about the chamber. In a square niche in the wall, just over the head of the coffin, Ani's writing palette and reeds are placed, and by its side is laid a large roll of papyrus nearly 90 feet long, inscribed in Ani's hieroglyphics during his lifetime and under his direction, with the oldest and most important chapters of the "Book of the Dead "; the vignettes, which refer to the chapters, are beautifully painted, and in some as many as thirteen colours are used in this chamber; and in every work connected with Ani's tomb there is a simple majesty which is characteristic of the ancient Egyptian gentleman. At each of the four corners or sides of the bier, is placed one of the so-called Canopic jars, and at the foot are laid a few stone ushabtiu figures, whose duty it was to perform for the deceased such
labours as filling the furrows with water, ploughing the fields, and carrying the sand, if he were called upon to do them. When everything has been brought into this chamber, and the tables of offerings have been arranged, a priest, wearing a panther skin, and accompanied by another who burns incense in a bronze censer, approaches the mummy, and performs the
ceremony of "opening the mouth" Jlb>~TMmr , un-re; while a priest in white robes reads from a roll of papyrus or leather. The act of embalming has taken away from the dead man all control over his limbs and the various portions of his body, and before these can be of any use to him in the nether-world, a mouth must be given to him, and it must be opened so that his ka may be able to speak. The twentyfirst and twenty-second chapters of the "Book of the Dead" refer to the giving a mouth to the deceased, and the vignette of the twenty-second chapter (Naville, bl. xxxiii) represents a
priest called the "guardian of the scale," "^j | J
The giving art ma^et, giving the deceased his mouth.
to the the twenty-third chapter a priest is seen performing the operadeceased.
In the vignette to
tion of opening the mouth rhvQ re> w'tn
the instrument —and the deceased says in the text, "Ptah 1 has opened my mouth with that instrument of steel with which he opened the mouth of the gods." * When the mouth of the deceased had been opened, his ka gained control of his speech, intelligence and limbs, and was able to hold intercourse with the gods, and to go in and out of his tomb whenever he pleased. When the formulae are finished and all rites performed, Ani's relatives and near friends withdraw from the mummy chamber and make their way up the stairs, through the long passage and into the first chamber, where they find that animals have been slaughtered, and that many of the assistants and those who accompanied the funeral arc
eating and drinking of the funereal offerings. When the last person has left the mummy chamber, masons bring along slabs of stone and lime which they have ready and wall it up; the joints between the stones are so fine that the blade of a modern penknife can with difficulty be inserted to the depth of half an inch. We have seen Ani's body embalmed, we have watched all the stages of the manufacture of his coffin, we have seen the body dressed and laid in it, we have accompanied him to the tomb, we have gone through it and seen how it is arranged and decorated, and we have assisted at the funereal ceremonies; in his beautiful tomb then, let us leave him to enjoy his long rest in the company of his wife. Ani did not cause such a large and beautiful tomb to be hewn for him merely to gratify his pride; with him, as with all educated Egyptians, it was the outcome of the belief that his soul would revivify his body, and was the result of a firm assurance in his mind of the truth of the doctrine of immortality, which is the foundation of the Egyptian religion, and which was as deeply rooted in them as the hills are in the earth.
Mummy is the term which is generally applied to the body of a human being, animal, bird, fish, or reptile, which has been preserved by means of bitumen, spices, gums, or natron. As far as can be discovered, the word is neither a Origin of corruption of the ancient Egyptian word for a preserved body, ^jTM ■■ nor of the more modern Coptic form of the hieroglyphic name. The word "mummy" is found in Byzantine Greek (/xovfiia, fjuofiiov), and in Latin,4 and indeed in almost all European languages. It is derived from the Arabic \jw<^«, "bitumen," and the Arabic word for mummy is dJ~<^c, which means a "bitumenized thing," or a body preserved by bitumen. The Syriac-speaking people called it ] fvnnVr^ the Greeks ■jrirrda
1 I have reproduced here many paragraphs from my Prefatory Remarks made on Egyptian Mummies, on the occasion of the unrolling of the Mummy of Bak-Kan, privately printed; London, 1890.
1 It appears in Latin about A.d. 1000. Wiedemann, Herodots Zweites Bush; Leipzig, 1890, p. 349.