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men that offer them to him. Wherefore take notice, \ at Gibeah, which name denotes a hill; and after that thou art under the wrath of God; for thou hast that day he came no more into the presence of the despised and neglected what he commanded thee. prophet. And when Samuel mourned for him, God How dost thou then suppose he will respect a sacri- bade him leave off his concern for him, and to take fice out of such things as he has doomed to destruc- the holy oil, and go to Bethlehem, to Jesse, the son tion ? unless perhaps thou dost imagine that it is of Obed, and to anoint such of his sons as he should almost all one to offer it in sacrifice to God, as to show him, for their future king. But Samuel said, destroy it. Do thou therefore expect that thy king- | he was afraid lest Saul, when he came to know of dom will be taken from thee, and that authority it, should kill him, either by some private method, which thou hast abused by such insolent behaviour, or even openly. But upon God's suggesting to him as to neglect that God who bestowed it upon thee.” a safe way of going thither, he came to Bethlehem. Then did Saul confess that he had acted unjustly, And when they all saluted him, and asked, what was and did not deny that he had sinned; because he the occasion of his coming ? he told them, he came had transgressed the injunctions of the prophet; but to sacrifice to God. When, therefore, he had
prehe said, that it was out of dread and fear of the pared the sacrifice, he called Jesse and his sons to soldiers, that he did not restrain them, when they partake. And when he saw his eldest son to be a seized on the prey. “But forgive me,” said he, "and tall and handsome man, he guessed by his comelibe merciful to me; for I will be cautious how I offend ness, that he was the person who was to be their for the time to come.” He also entreated the prophet future king. But he was mistaken in judging about to go back with him, that he might offer his thank- God's providence; for when Samuel inquired of God, offerings to God. But Samuel went home, because whether he should anoint this youth, whom he so he saw that God would not be reconciled to him. much admired, and esteemed worthy of the king
But Saul was so desirous to retain Samuel, that dom? God said, “Men do not see as God seeth. he took hold of his cloak; and because the vehe- Thou indeed hast respect to the fine appearance of mence of Samuel's departure made the motion to this youth, and thence esteemed him worthy of the be violent, the cloak was rent. Upon which the kingdom; while I propose the kingdom as a reward, prophet said, that after the same manner should the not out of the beauty of bodies, but of the virtue kingdom be rent from him; and that a good and a of souls; and I inquire after one that is perfectly just man should take it; that God persevered in comely in that respect; I mean one who is beautiwhat he had decreed about him; that to be mutable ful in piety, righteousness, fortitude, and obedience; and changeable in what is determined, is agreeable for in them consists the comeliness of the soul.”+ to human passions only; but it is not agreeable to When God had said this, Samuel desired Jesse to the divine power. Hereupon Saul said that he had show him all his sons. So he made five others of been wicked; but that what was done could not be his sons to come to him. Of all which, Eliab was undone. He therefore desired him to honour him the eldest, Aminidab the second, Shammah the third, so far, that the multitude might see that he would Nathaniel the fourth, the fifth was called Rael, and him in worshipping God. So Samuel the sixth Asam. And when the prophet
saw that granted him that favour; and went with him and these were noway inferior to the eldest in their worshipped God. Agag also, the king of the Ama- countenances, he inquired of God, which of them it lekites, was brought to him; and when the king was whom he chose for their king ? and when God asked, how bitter death was? Samuel said, As thou said it was none of them, he asked Jesse, whether hast made many of the Hebrew mothers to lament he had not some other sons besides these? and and bewail their children; so shalt thou by thy death when he said that he had one more, named David, cause thy mother to lament thee also. * Accord- but that he was a shepherd, and took care of the ingly, he gave orders to slay him immediately at flocks; Samuel bade them call him immediately; for Gilgal; and then went away to the city Ramah. that till he was come they could not possibly sit
down to the feast. Now as soon as his father had CHAP. VIII.
sent for David, and he was come, he appeared to be
of a yellow complexion, of a sharp sight, and a OF THE APPOINTMENT OF DAVID TO THE REGAL AUTHORITY, BY THE comely person in other respects also. “ This is he,”
said Samuel to himself, “whom it pleases God to Saul being sensible of the miserable condition he make our king.” So he sat down to the feast; and had brought himself into, and that he had made placed the youth under him; and Jesse also, with God to be his enemy, went up to his royal palace his other sons. After which he took oil in the pres
DIVINE COMMAND, AND IN CONSEQUENCE OF SAUL'S TRANSGRESSION.
1 Sam. xv. 33.
+ 1 Sam. xvi. 7,
ence of David, and anointed* him; and whispered | having heard an advantageous character of his him in the ear, and acquainted him, that God chose comeliness and his valour. So Jesse sent his son, him to be their king; and exhorted him to be right- and gave him presents to carry to Saul. And eous and obedient to his commands; for that by this when he was come, Saul was pleased with him, means his kingdom would continue for a long time; and made him his armour-bearer, and held him and that his house should be of great splendour, and in very great esteem; for he charmed his passion, celebrated in the world; that he should overthrow and was the only physician against the trouble he the Philistines; and that against what nations so had from the demons, whenever it came upon ever he should make war, he should be the conqueror, him; and this by reciting of hymns, and playing and survive the fight; and that while he lived he upon the harp, and bringing Saul to his right should enjoy a glorious name, and afterwards trans- mind again. However, he sent to the father of mit it to his posterity.
the child, and desired him to permit David to So Samuel, when he had given him these ad- stay with him; for that he was delighted with monitions, went away. But the divine power de his company. Which stay, that he might not parted from Saul, and removed to David; who, contradict Saul, Jesse readily granted. upon this removal of the divine spirit to him, began to prophesy. But as for Saul, some strange
CHAP. IX. and demoniacal disorderst came upon him ; and brought upon him such suffocations, as were ready to choke him. For when the physicians could find no other remedy but this; if any person could charm those passions by singing, and Now the Philistines gathered themselves toplaying upon the harp, they advised them to in- gether again, no very long time afterward: and quire for such a one, and to observe, when these having assembled a great army, they made war demons came upon him, and disturbed him; and against the Israelites; and having seized a place to take care that such a person might stand over between Shochoh and Azekah,Ş they there pitched him, andi play on the harp, and recite hymns to their camp. Saul also drew out his army to ophim. Accordingly Saul did not delay; but com- pose them. And by pitching his own camp on a manded them to seek out such a man. And when certain hill, he forced the Philistines to leave their a certain bystander said, that he had seen in the former station, and to encamp themselves upon city Bethlehem, a son of Jesse, who was yet no such another hill, over against that on which more than a child in age, but comely and beauti- Saul's army lay, so that a valley which was beful, and in other respects one that was deserving tween the two hills on which they lay, divided of great regard ; who was skilful in playing on their camps asunder. Now there came down a the harp, and in singing hymns; and an excellent man out of the camp of the Philistines, whose soldier in war; he sent to Jesse, and desired him name was Goliath, of the city Gath; a man of to take David away from the flocks, and to send vast bulk, for he was of || four cubits and a span him to him; for he had a mind to see him, as in tallness ; T and had about him weapons suitable to the largeness of his body; for he had a breast- | the Philistines was going on, Saul sent away plate on that weighed five thousand shekels. He David to his father Jesse, and contented himself had also a helmet, and greaves of brass as large with those three sons of his, whom he had sent as you would naturally suppose might cover the to his assistance, and to be partners in the dangers limbs of so vast a body. His spear was also such of the war. And at first, David returned to feed as was not carried like a light thing in his right his flocks; but after no long time he came to the hand; but he carried it as lying on his shoulders. camp of the Hebrews, being sent by his father to He had also a lance of six hundred shekels, and carry provisions to his brethren, and to know many followed him to carry his armour. Where- what they were doing ; while Goliath came again, fore this Goliath stood between the two armies, and challenged them, and reproached them, that as they were in battle array; and sent out a loud they had no man of valour among them that durst voice, and said to Saul and to the Hebrews: “I come down and fight him. Now as David was will free you from fighting and from dangers. For talking with his brethren about the business for what necessity is there that your army should fall, which his father had sent him, he heard the Phiand be afflicted ? Give me a man of you that will listine reproaching and abusing the army, and had fight with me; and he that conquers shall have indignation at it; and said to bis brethren, “ I am the reward of the conqueror, and determine the ready to fight a single combat with this adversary.” war; for these shall serve those others to whom Hereupon Eliab, and his elder brother, reproved the conqueror shall belong. And certainly it is him, and said, that he spake too rashly and immuch better and more prudent to gain what you properly for one of his age; and bade him go to desire by the hazard of one man, than of all."* his flocks, and to his father. So he was abashed When he had said this, he retired to his own at his brother's words, and went away; but still camp. But the next day he came again, and used spake to some of the soldiers, that he was willing the same words; and did not leave off for forty to fight with him that challenged them. And when days together to challenge the enemy in the same they had informed Saul what was the resolution words, till Saul and his army were therewith ter- of the young man, the king sent for him to come rified; while they put themselves in array as if to him. And when the king asked what he had they would fight, but did not come to an engage- to say, he replied, “O king, be not cast down, ment,
OF ANOTHER EXPEDITION OF THE PHILISTINES AGAINST THE UE-
* Our translation says, that Samuel anointed him in the midst singers of hymns; and that usually children or youth were of his brethren, and for this it is pretended, that as this unction chosen for that service. As also that those called singers to the was a solemn act, and the only title which David had to the harp, did the same that David did here, i. e. join their own vocal kingdom, it was necessary to have it done in the presence of and instrumental music together. some witnesses, for which purpose none were more proper than Succoth and Azekah lay to the south of Jerusalem, and the those of his own family. But it is plain, from his brother east of Bethlehem, about four leagues from the former, and five Eliab's treating him after this, 1 Sam. xvii. 28, that he was not from the latter, and the ancient valley of Elah must consequently privy to his being anointed king-elect over. God's people; and lie not far distant from them, though later travellers place it at therefore since the words will equally bear the sense of from no more than a league's distance from Jerusalem. Calmet's the midst, as well as in the midst of his brethren, it is more rea- Commentary. B. sonable to suppose, that as this was the ceremony of his desig. || Six in the Hebrew; four in the Septuagint. nation to the kingdom only, few or none (except his father per- I The words in the text are,- Whose height was six cubits haps) were admitted to it.” And there was the less reason for and a span ; so that taking a cubit to be twenty inches and a witnesses upon this occasion, because David never laid claim to half, and a span to be three inches, and a little more, the whole the crown till after Saul's decease, and was then, at two several will amount to about twelve feet and a half. A stature above as times, 1st, when he was made king over the tribe of Judah, | tall again as usual! The lowest computation of the cubit, howand 2d, when made king over all the tribes of Israel, anointed ever, brings it to near ten feet, which is the standard that we publicly. Calmets and Patrick's Comment, and Howell's His have set it at; though it must not be dissembled, that both the tory, in the notes. B.
Septuagint and Josephus have reduced it to little more than † 1 Sam. xvi. 14.-.
eight feet, which badly comports with the weight and vastness İSpanheim takes notice here, that the Greeks had such of bis armour, though it might suit their design perhaps, in acnor afraid; for I will depress the insolence of this Now while this war between the Hebrews and adversary ;f and will go down and fight with him, commodating their account to the credibility of their Heathen imaginable, engage in the combat, yet their respective states readers. But be that as it will, several authors, to show this vast may, at least, allow of it, as a less evil; as an expedient whereby size of the man not to be beyond the bounds of probability, a decision is made, without the effusion of much blood, or any have written, ex professo de gigantibus, among whom Herman considerable loss on either side, which of the two nations shall nus Conringius, in his book De antiquo statu Holmstadii, and have the dominion over the other. Strabo (says he) makes menin another, De habitu corporum Germanorum, have demonstra- tion of this as an ancient custom among the Greeks; and Æneas ted, that the ancient Germans were of a vast size, even as Cæsar, appeals to the Latins, whether it is not highly just and equitaDe bello Gall. testifies of them, by calling them cimmani corpo- ble, that he and Turnus should determine the controversy be. rum magnitudine homines, men of huge greatness of body. Nay, tween them even in this manner.” But whether there was any even Josephus himself, who is quoted for denying the existence combat stipulated to be decisive of the quarrel between the two of giants, furnishes us with an argument in their behalf, when contending nations, it is certain that this specch of Goliath's he gives us an account of some bones of a prodigious size which was a mere bravado, proceeding from a high opinion he had of were found in Hebron; as Acosta, in his history of the Indies, | his own matchless strength, as if he had been the whole suplib. i. c. 10, makes mention of bones of an incredible bigness, port of the nation, which was to stand or fall together with him. and of a race of giants of such a height, that an ordinary man For that he had no authority from the prince of the Philistines could scarce reach their knees. Le Clerc's and Patrick's Com- to make any such declaration, is evident from the event: since ment. Calmet's Dictionary, under the word Goliath, and Dis. of so far were the Philistines from yielding themselves slaves to the Giants. B.
the Hebrews, upon the death of this champion, that they made * The words in which Goliath's challenge is expressed, are the best of their way into their own country, and there defended these, Why are you come out to set your battle in array ? Am I themselves, and fought many battles with them afterwards. not a Philistine, and you servants to Saul ? Choose you a man Saurin's Dissert. vol. iv. Dissert. 32, and Patrick's and Le for you, and let him come down to me: If he be able to fight Clerc's Comment. B. with me, and to kill me, then will we be your servants ; but if I † In those days it was customary for men to serve their king prevail against him and kill him, then ye shall be our servants, and country in the wars at their own expense; and therefore and serve us. 1 Sam. xviii. 8. Antiquity furnishes us with ex- Jesse sent a supply of provisions to such of his sons as were in amples of several such like combats, as Goliath here proposes, the service; but since he had other sons at home, while David but with none more remarkable, than that between the Horatii was chiefly in the fields, it seems to be by a divine direction that and Curiatii, related by Livy, lib. 1. c. 23. “In which case (as he sent him from the sheep upon this errand. B. Grotius expresses himself, De jure belli et pacis, lib. 2. c. 23.) # 1 Sam. xvii. 32. though the champions perhaps cannot, with all the innocence
and will bring him under me, as tall and as great | said, “ Dost thou take me not for a man but a as he is; till he shall be sufficiently laughed at, dog ?” to which he replied, “ No, not for a dog ; and thy army shall get great glory, when he shall but for a creature worse than a dog.” This be slain by one that is not yet of man's estate, voked Goliath to anger, who thereupon cursed neither fit for fighting, nor capable of being in- him by the name of God ;* and threatened to give trusted with the marshalling an army, or ordering his flesh to the beasts of the earth, and to the a battle; but by one that looks like a child, and fowls of the air, to be torn to pieces by them. is really no older in age than a child.”
To whom David answered, “Thou comest to me Now Saul wondered at the boldness and alacrity with a sword, and with a spear, and with a breastof David ; but durst not presume on his ability, by plate: but I have God for my armour in coming reason of his age; but said, he must on that ac- against thee, who will destroy thee, and all thy count be too weak to fight with one that was skil- army by my hands; for I will this day cut off thy ful in the art of war. “I undertake this enter- head, and cast the other parts of thy body to the prise,” said David, “ in dependence of God's being dogs ;t and all men shall learn, that God is the with me; for I have experienced already of his protector of the Hebrews; and that our armour assistance. For I once pursued after and caught and our strength is in his providence; and that a lion that assaulted my flocks, and took away a without God's assistance, all other warlike prelamb from me; and I snatched the lamb out of the parations and power are useless.” So the Philiswild beast's mouth; and when he leaped upon me tine being retarded by the weight of his armour, with violence, I took him by the tail, and dashed when he attempted to meet David in haste, came him against the ground. In the same manner did on but slowly, as despising him, and depended I avenge myself of a bear also. And let this ad- upon it, that he should slay him, who was both versary of ours be esteemed like one of these wild unarmed, and a child also, without any trouble at beasts, since he has a long while reproached our all. army, and blasphemed our God, who yet will re- But the youth met his antagonist, being acduce him under my power.”
companied with an invisible assistant, who was Saul prayed that the end might be, by God's no other than God himself. And taking one of assistance, not disagreeable to the alacrity and the stonest that he had out of the brook, and had boldness of the child, and said, “ Go thy way to put into his shepherd's bag, and fitted it to his the fight.” So he put about him his breastplate, sling, he slang it against the Philistine. The and girded on his sword, and fitted the helmet to stone fell upon his forehead, and sank into his his head, and went away. But David was bur- brain, insomuch that Goliath was stunned, and fell dened with his armour; for he had not been exer- upon his face. So David ran, and stood upon his cised to it, nor had he learned to walk with it. adversary as he lay down, and cut off his head So he said, “ Let this armour be thine, O king, with his own sword; for he had no sword himself. who art able to bear it; but give me leave to And upon the fall of Goliath, the Philistines were fight as thy servant, and as I myself desire.” Ac- beaten, and fled; for when they saw their chamcordingly he laid by the armour, and taking his pion prostrate on the ground, they were afraid of staff with him, and putting five stones out of the the issue of their affairs, and resolved not to stay brook into a shepherd's bag, and having a sling in any longer; but committed themselves to an ignohis right hand, he went towards Goliath. But minious and indecent flight; and thereby endeathe adversary seeing him come in such a manner, voured to save themselves from the danger they disdained him and jested upon him, as if he had were in. But Saul, and the entire army of the not such weapons with him as are usual when | Hebrews, made a shout and rushed upon them one man fights against another; but such as are and slew a great number of them; and pursued used in driving away and avoiding of dogs; and the rest to the borders of Gath, and to the gates
* It is highly probable that this was a general practice with heroes, and it was doubtless a copy of the manners and hyperidolaters, who, supposing themselves secure of the favour and bolical speeches of the times. Thus he makes one say to anprotection of their deities, concluded that their enemies must other: necessarily be the objects of their displeasure and vengeance. Bold as thou art, too prodigal of breath, Hence, anticipating the certainty of divine wrath upon them, Approach, and enter the dark gates of death. El. vi. 177. B. they cursed and devoted them to destruction. So did the Philis. The dexterity with which the sling may be used as an offen. tines act towards David. And so the Romans used to do, say. sive weapon is surprising. It evidently appears in the conflict ing-Dii deæque te perdant. B.
between David and Goliath, and may be confirmed by the fol. † This mode of speaking and challenging was very common lowing citation. “ The arms which the Achæans chiefly used with the Orientals. Homer gives the same baughty air to his ) were slings. They were trained to the art from their infancy,
RIAGE OF THAT CONQUEROR WITH THE KING'S DAUGHTER.
of Ekron.* So that there were slain of the Philis- gladly ;as intending to make use of it for a snare tines thirty thousand; and twice as many wound- against David; and he hoped that it would prove ed. Saul then returned to their camp, and pulled the cause of destruction and of hazards to him. their fortification to pieces, and burnt it. But So he told those that informed him of his daughDavid carried the head of Goliath into his own ter's affection, that he would willingly give David tent, and dedicated his sword to God at the taber- the virgin in marriage, and said, “ 1 engage mynacle.t
self to marry my daughter to him, if he will bring
me six hundred heads of my enemies."| SupCHAP. X.
posing that when a reward so ample was proOF SAUL'S ENVY AT DAVID'S BRILLIANT SUCCESS, AND OF THE MAR. posed to him, and when he should aim to get him
great glory by undertaking a thing so dangerous Now the women were an occasion of Saul's and incredible, he would immediately set about it, envy and hatred to David. For they came to and so perish by the Philistines; and his designs meet their victorious army with cymbals and about him would succeed to his mind, as he should drums, and all demonstrations of joy, and sang be freed from him, and get him slain, not by himthus: the wives said, “ Saul hath slain his many self, but by another man. So he gave order to thousands of the Philistines.” The virgins re- his servants to try how David would relish this plied, “ David hath slain his ten thousands."! proposal of marrying the damsel. Accordingly Now when the king heard them singing thus, and they began to say to him, that king Saul loved that he had himself the smallest share in their him, as well as did all the people ; and that he commendations; and that the greater number, the was desirous of his affinity by marriage of this ten thousands, were ascribed to the young man; damsel. To which he gave this answer, “Seemeth and when he considered there was nothing more it to you a light thing to be made the king's sonwanting to David, after such applause, but the in-law ? it does not seem to me: especially when kingdom ; he began to be afraid, and suspicious of I am one of a family that is low, and without any David. Accordingly he removed him from the glory or honour.” Now when Saul was informed station he was in before; for he was his armour- by his servants what answer David had made; bearer, which out of fear seemed to him much too he said, “ Tell him, that I do not want any money, near a station for him; and so he made him cap- nor dowry from him; which would be rather to tain over a thousand, and bestowed on him a post, set my daughter to sale, than to give her in marbetter indeed in itself, but, as he thought, more riage; but I desire only such a son-in-law as hath for his own security. For he had a mind to send in him fortitude, and all other kinds of virtue ; of him against the enemy, and into battle ; as hoping which I perceive David is possessed, and my dehe would be slain in such dangerous conflicts. sire is to receive of him, on account of his mar
But David had God going along with him rying my daughter, neither gold, nor silver, nor whithersoever he went; and accordingly he greatly that he should bring such wealth out of his father's prospered in his undertakings, and it was visible house; but only some revenge on the Philistines, that he had mighty successes; insomuch that Saul's and indeed six hundred of their heads; than which daughter, who was still a virgin, fell in love with a more desirable, or a more glorious present could him, and her affection so far prevailed over her, not be brought me; and I had much rather obthat it could not be concealed; and her father be- tain this, than any of the accustomed dowries came acquainted with it. Now Saul heard this for my daughter: viz. that she should be married
by slinging from a great distance at a circular mark of a mode- $ 1 Sam. xviji. 7.
f 1 Sam. xviii. 20. rate circumference. By long practice they took so nice an aim, 1 Josephus says thrice in this chapter, and twice afterwards, that they were sure to hit their enemies not only on the head, chap. 11, and Book VII. chap 1. i. e. five times in all, that Saul but on any part of the face they chose. Their slings were of a required not a bare hundred of the foreskins of the Philistines, different kind from the Balearians, whom they far surpassed in but six hundred of their heads. The Septuagint has one hundexterity.” Polyb. p. 125. B.
1 Sam. xvii. 52. dred foreskins; but the Syriac and Arabic two hundred. Now # Niebuhr presents us with a very similar scene in his Des. that these were not foreskins, with other copies, but heads with cript. de l'Arabie, p. 263; where a son of an Arab chief kills Josephus's copy, seems somewhat probable from 1 Sam. xxix. 4, his father's enemy and rival, and according to the custom of the where all copies say, that it was with the heads of such PhilisArabs, cuts off his head, and carries it in triumph to his father. tines that David might reconcile himself to his master Saul. In a note he adds, “cutting off the head of a slain enemy, and | And if Josephus's copy be right there, against all the rest; I carrying it in triumph, is an ancient custom.” Xenophon re- should also prefer it before the rest here, especially as so often marks that it was practised by the Chalybes, (Retreat of the repeated in the number; six hundred instead of one hundred Ten Thousand, lib. iv.) Herodotus attributes it to the Scythians, \ in the Septuagint, or two hundred in the Syriac and Arabic. lib. iv. cap. 60. B.