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their tails were like unto ser- works of their hands, that they pents, and had heads, and with should not worship devils, and them they do hurt.

idols of gold, and silver, and 20 And the rest of the men brass, and stone, and of wood: which were not killed by these which neither can see, nor hear plagues yet repented not of the nor walk : heighten the description, and hence is not diabolous, but daimonia. 6 It is said, “For their power is in their manifest here (says Dr. Campbell) mouth and in their tails ;” i. e., in that the word rendered devils ought the latter as well as the former. He to have been demons; nor is it less says no more about their mouths, but manifest, that every being who is not proceeds, “their tails were like unto the one true God, however much conserpents, and had heads, and with ceived to be superior to us, whether them they do hurt." Such is the good or bad, hero or heroine, demipicture. They had not such tails as god or demi-goddess, angel or dehorses generally have, - the long, parted spirit, saint or sinner, real or graceful, flowing hair, — but instead imaginary, is in the class comprised of these, serpents were appended under the name demons. And the “their tails were like unto serpents ;' worship of them is as much demonthat is, they resembled serpents, and olatry, (if you will admit the word,) as like serpents, “they had heads." the worship of Jupiter, Mars, and

With them they do hurt. — The de- Minerva. This may serve to show scription is very singular; but the of how much consequence it is to only intention is to make the horses. attend with accuracy to the differappear as fearsul as possible; to ences to be found in the application give them the power of doing fearful of words. It is only thereby that we execution. It must be confessed that can learn their exact import, and be horses and horsemen_thus armed qualified to judgę, both of the subject would be invincible. Breathing fire, and of the completion of scriptural and smoke, and brimstone, they could prophecies. As to the worship of not be resisted in front; and having the devil, tou diabolou, nothing can tails like serpents, with heads, (the be clearer than that in Scripture no part of a serpent's body in which his pagans are charged with it; and as fearful power lies.) they were safe to the worship tou darmonian, beings from assaults in the rear. Such is subordinate to the Supreme, it may the picture; and when we consider be considered how far we can with how much in the habit of hieroglyph- justice say that the pagans are pecuical writing were the ancients, and liarly chargeable. It will deserve to what strange pictures they sometimes be remarked, by the way, that the presented to give the idea of fearful only difference between demonolatry power, we shall be less surprised at and idolatry appears to be, that the the revelator's images.

first regards the object of worship, 20. Were not killed by these plagues. the second the mode. The former is - The plagues mentioned in the a violation of the first commandment; A pocalypse will be treated of more the latter of the second. The confully under xxii. 19. The plagues in nection, however, is so intimate bethis case were certainly not in the tween them, that they have rarely, if immortal state, but were such as ever, been found separate.”

(Prewere inflicted by the armies_that | lim. Diss. vi., p. i., sec. 19.) The came up against Jerusalem. || Re- Jews seem to have been guilty of pented not. - - See under verse 21. both demonolatry and idolatry; for I Worship devils. — The word here they not only worshipped demons, but

21 Neither repented they of ceries, nor of their fornication, their murders, nor of their sor- nor of their thefts.

idols, also, of gold and silver, and writer states, in another place, that brass, and stone, and wood.

when Titus had obtained possession 21. Neither repented they. - This is of the upper city, “he admired not true to the facts as they existed. only some other places of strength in Notwithstanding the Roman armies it, but particularly those strong towers encompassed the city, notwithstand- which the tyrants, in their mad coning the fall of the city and temple duct, had relinquished: for when he was very imminent, notwithstanding saw their solid altitude, and the there had been destruction on every largeness of their several stones, and hand, and full a third part of the the exactness of their joints, as also people had been slain, yet those who how great was their breadth, and how remained, viz., “the rest of the men extensive their length, he expressed which were not killed by these himself after the manner following: plagues,” repented not of their wick. We have certainly had God for our edness. It is a well known fact assistant in this war, and it was no that the Jews grew more wicked as other than God who ejected the Jews their troubles increased ; they seemed out of these fortifications; for what to grow more and more forgetful of could the hands of men, or any maGod as they fell more and more into chines, do towards overthrowing these need of his protection. The Romans towers?'(De Bell. Jud., Book vi., had a very severe and dangerous ch. ix., sec. 1.) Thus we have the service to perform, even after their testimony of the Roman commander, forces around the city had been in that the final overthrow of this peocreased by calling the squadrons ple must be attributed to the interfrom the Euphrates. It seemed for a position of God. This fact is treated long time doubtful whether Vespa- of in the 10th and 11th chapters of sian, and after him Titus, would ob- Revelation. We have seen that it tain full possession of the city and was God who gave them up to de. temple, and put down all opposition. struction ; and the reason is described What would have been the conse- in the verses before us, viz., “ The rest quence had the Jews repented of of the men which were not killed by their idolatries, and all their evil these plagues [i. e., such plagues as deeds, — {for idolatry is put in the bad already occurred] repented not Scriptures as a metaphor for all kinds of the works of their hands." They of sin,)- before their final fall, we will resorted to deeds that might have not undertake to say; but it seems been expected only from those given almost impossible that the Romans up to idolatry. They plundered the should ever have prevailed, had the temple, melted down the sacred utenJews maintained a virtuous union sils, emptied the vessels of the sacred among themselves.

The city was wine and oil, and distributed them very strong in a military point of among their followers; and these view. It stood on a high elevation, worse than idolatrous iniquities led and had great works and ramparts Josephus to say, " that had the

Josephus says, “The Romans made any longer delay in temple was like a citadel, having coming against these villains, that walls of its own, which had more the city would either have been swallabor and pains bestowed on them lowed up by the ground opening upon than the rest. The cloisters where them, or been overflowed by water, with the temple was enclosed were or else been destroyed by such thunan excellent fortification." See his der as the country of Sodom perished chird Dissertation. And the same l by; for it had brought forth a gene

to secure it.


and a rainbow was upon



angel come down from the sun, and his feet as pillars heaven, clothed with a cloud : of fire:

ration of men more atheistical than power, came down from heaven, were those that suffered such punish- i. e., he was divinely commissioned. ments, for by their madness it was Clothed with a cloud. - He was that all the people came to be de- clothed or enveloped in a cloud. Το stroyed." -(De Bell. Jud., Book v., come in the clouds of heaven was, ch. xiii., sec. 6.) When, therefore, among the Jews, the known symbol all which they had suffered, especial- of divine power and majesty. The ly under Cestius Gallus, Vespasian divine presence upon the mount, at and Titus, failed to bring them to re- the giving of the law, was veiled in a pentance, (the Roman armies still cloud. Our Saviour said that at his encompassing their city,) it seems second advent he should come “in God gave them over to absolute and the clouds of heaven, with power and immediate destruction, — city, tem- great glory ;” Matt. xxiv. 30. Hence ple and nation. An angel came the angel is said to be a mighty angel. down from heaven; and with one T A rainbow upon his head. - The foot on the land, and another on the " great glory" of his coming is desea, he cried with a loud voice, and scribed by the “rainbow upon his swore by him that liveth forever and head.” A splendid figure ! and ever, that there should be time no what a unity of metaphors — the longer, i. e., that no more time should cloud and the rainbow! As it were elapse before the final overthrow. the sun. - His face was as the sun. But of this we shall treat in our notes This was the exact description given on the next chapter..

of the Son of man, ch. i. 16 : “ His

countenance was as the sun shineth CHAPTER X.

in his strength.” See also the ac. At the conclusion of the last chap- count of the transfiguration ; Matt. ter, we read that the people repented xvii. 2. His feet as pillars of fire. not "of their murders, nor of their This, also, is the language applied sorceries, nor of their fornication, to Jesus, ch. i. 15:“His feet like unto nor of their thefts ;" ch. ix. 21; and fine brass as if they burned in a furbecause they repented not, God's for- nace." The angel then seems to be bearance endured no longer. He re- the Son of man, who descends from solved then to execute judgment with heaven to judge the nations, and to out any further delay. And this, let bring the first covenant to a close, it be remembered, is the principal fact agreeably to his repeated declarations. brought out in chap. x. The plan of Jesus is peculiarly the angel of the the revelator in respect to the fall of Lord, above all other angels, the Jerusalem is fast hastening to its de “messenger of the [new] covenant," velopment.

Mal. iii. 1, which at the second ad. 1. Another mighty angel. This vent he was to establish by putting has reference to some former angel, aside the old. The appearance of perhaps to the one of whom we read this angel was pronounced by Sir in chi ix. 1, under the figure of the William Jones to equal in sublimity star, who came down from heaven to any description to be found in the inunlock the bottomless pit; or it may spired writers, and to be far superior refer to the one mentioned ch. v. 2. to anything of the kind produced by

Come down from heaven. – This human composition. a mighty angel," this angel of great 2. A little book open, - This little

2 And he had in his hand a 3 And cried with a loud voice, little book open: and he set his as when a lion roareth : and right foot upon the sea, and his when he had cried, seven thunleft foot on the earth,

ders uttered their voices. book seems to represent what re- minion, except the Lord Jesus. He mained of the seventh seal. It is not was the angel of the covenant, and to the book (Biblion) of which we found him had been given "all power in an account in v. 1, said to have been heaven and on earth ;" Matt. xxviii. sealed with seven seals; but a little 18. His enemies were to be made book (Biblaridion) the diminutive of his footstool; and this is signified by Biblion. The word occurs nowhere his placing one foot upon the sea, else in the Bible, except in this chap- and another upon the land. The ter; but it occurs in classic authors. time of his great power had come. The sealed book consisted of seven 3. Cried with a loud voice. - Не parts, each part sealed by itself. Six | demanded attention. There is a seals had been opened, and the con- striking resemblance here to the de. tents declared. The opening of the scent of God upon Sinai, when he seventh, or final seal, is described viii. gave the law : “ There were thun. 1; and the seventh, or final seal, dif- ders and lightnings, and a thick cloud fers from either of the others, in that upon the mount, and the voice of the it was subdivided into seven parts, trumpet exceedingly loud ;" Exod. xix. denoted by the seven trumpets, viii. 16. So the mighty angel " cried with 2,6. Six of the angels had sounded; a loud voice, as when a lion roareth, see ix. 13. The seventh remained to and seven thunders uttered their sound. What remained, therefore, voices." Thus it is seen, that the to be revealed, although very impor- description of the giving of the law is tant in itself, and the denouement of like that of its passing away; only in the whole tragedy, was but the sev- the first case the agent is God; in the enth fraction of the seventh seal. second he is the Son, the “messenger How appropriately, then, was it called of the [new] covenant." Seven thuna little book, when spoken of in com- ders, means nothing more than great parison with the book with seven thunder. Seven, as we have repeatseals. And mark, it was not brought edly had occasion to remark, was forward a little book sealed, a perfect number with the Jewish but open ; for the seven seals hav- writers; it was a round or series that ing been broken, there remained no was continually occurring. The more to be broken.

| Right foot Apocalypse is full of proofs of this. upon the sea. — - The mighty angel had Seven of the Asiatic churches were his right foot upon the sea, and his addressed ; there were seven golden left upon the earth, or land. This candlesticks; seven stars which are was to denote his control over both, the seven angels of the churches; the

over the whole earth, universal Lamb had seven horns and seven eyes, control. Why is the earth called which are the seven spirits of God; God's footstool? Is it not because he seven angels stood before God, who has dominion over it? It is beneath had seven trumpets; there were seven

he is its sovereign. To make last plagues and seven golden vials one's enemies his footstool, is to put full of wrath, &c. &c. In other parts them completely in subjection to him. of the Bible the same use is made of So when it is said, the angel set his the number. Certainly this word is right foot on the sea, and his left not to be understood strictly. This on the earth, is meant that he had voice of the angel is the same that dominion over them. We know of was ascribed to the Son of God; i. no angel who ever had this wide do.' 15: “ His voice as the sound of many




4 And when the seven thun- 5 And the angel which I saw ders had uttered their voices, I stand upon the sea and upon was about to write : and I heard the earth, lifted up his hand to a voice from heaven saying unto heaven, me, Seal up those things which 6 And sware by him that livthe seven thunders uttered, and eth forever and ever, who write them not.

ated heaven, and the things that waters.". Sir Isaac Newton, speak- strain of praise to the angel, as the ing of this angel, says he appears in hosts of heaven had praised the " the shape in which Christ appeared Lamb, on his appearance, v. 8, 9. in the beginning of this prophecy.”. But as the praise was no part of the (Pt. ii., ch. 2.) Moreover, what other prophecy in this case, and as the revbeing than the Lamb had the power to elator was concerned to write only reveal the contents of this book ? what the angel communicated, so it

4. Seven thunders, -as mentioned in was said to him, write not those the preceding verse. The voice was things which the seven thunders utone that could be understood; it was tered. At any rate, whatever those not merely thunder ; but an articu- things were, it cannot be important late voice, loud like seven-fold thun- for us to know ; for if it had been ne. der. I was about to write. — He cessary for the revelator to commu. had been commanded to do so. nicate them, he would not have been “What thou seest write in a book ;" forbidden to write them. Rev. i. 11. But more especially ver. 5. Upon the sea and upon the earth. 19: “Write the things which thou - For the explanation

of this phrasehast seen, and the things which are, ology, see ver. 2. | Lifted up his and the things which shall be here- hand to heaven. — In the metaphorical after.” Agreeably to this command, language of the Scriptures, God is he was about to write. | Seal up said to make solemn oath, and even those things. — The words were not to to lift up his hand doing Exod. be written. Observe, they were not vi. 8; Deut. xxxii. 40; Éeb. vi. 13. first written and then sealed up, but It is a figure to show that the an. were not written at all. We cannot, nunciation was made in the most therefore, know what the import was. solemn and impressive manner. The It is possible this has reference to the revelator evidently borrowed his defact that the precise day and hour of scription from Daniel : “And I heard the fall of Jerusalem was not to be the man clothed in linen, which was made known. Our Lord assures us upon the waters of the river, when he that no one, neither the angels in held up his right hand and his left heaven, knew the precise time when hand unto heaven, and sware by him the holy city would fall. God alone that liveth for ever, that it shall be knew when that event would transpire. for a time, times, and a half; and This was one of the circumstances when he shall have accomplished which Jesus could not utter in his to scatter the power of the holy peoaccount of the fall of Jerusalem, ple, all these things shall be finished;" while he was on earth; and it is pos- xii. 7. sible this was the fact that John was 6. Sware by him that liveth, &c. forbidden to write. This is a mere This was the ancient form of descripconjecture, however, and we offer it tion of the Supreme Being. See as such. There is another conjec- Neh. ix. 6. Also Rev. iv. 11, and

On the appearance of the xiv. 7. And what was sworn to ? mighty angel, the voices like seven What great fact was declared in this thunders, broke forth, it may be in a solemn manner? | That there should

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