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“ have been discovered; nay, was the author of the punish“ ment inflicted on them, when it appeared evidently thật “ they were guilty of a wicked attempt against their father; " and that even the contentions there were in the king's

family were indications that he had ever managed affairs

out of the sincerest affection to his father. And as to what " he had done at Rome, Cæsar was a witness thereto; who

yet was no more to be imposed upon than God himself: of

whose opinions his letters sent hither are sufficient evi“ dence; and that it was not reasonable to prefer the calum" nies of such as proposed to raise disturbances, before those 6 letters; the greatest part of which calumpies had been « raised during his absence, which gave scope to his enemies " to forge them, which they had not been able to do if " he had been there.” Moreover he shewed the weakness of the evidence obtained by torture, which was commonly false; because the distress men are in under such tortures naturally obliges then to say many things in order to please those that govern them. He also offered himself to the tor- ' -'ture.

5. Hereupon there was a change observed in the assembly, while they greatly pitied Antipater, who by weeping and putting on a countenance suitable to his sad case, made them coinmiserate the same; insomuch that his very enemies were moved to compassion; and it appeared plainly that Herod himself was affected in his own mind, although he was not willing it should be taken notice of. Then did Nicolaus begin to prosecute what the king had begun, and that with great bitterness; and summed up all the evidence which arose from the tortures, or from the testimonies. “ He principally 66 and largely cried up the king's virtues, which he had exhi66 bited in the maintenance and education of bis sons; while “ he could never gain any advantage thereby, but still fell «s from one misfortune to another. Although he owned, that

he was not so much surprised with that thoughtless beha“ viour of his former sons, who were but young, and were “ besides corrupted by wicked counsellors, who were the oc66 casions of their wiping out of their minds the rigbteous “ dictates of nature and this out of a desire of coming to the 6 government sooner than they ought to do.; yet that he " could not but justly stand amazed at the horrid wickedness “ of Antipater, who, although he had not only had great « benefits bestowed on him by his father, enough to tame his «? reason, yet could not be more tamed than the most en66 venomed serpents; whereas even those creatures admit of " some mitigation, and will not bite their benefactors, while 66. Antipater hath not let the misfortunes of his brethren be

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o any bindrance to him, but he bath gone on to imitate their « barbarity notwithstanding. Yet wast thou, O Antipater, " (as thou hast thyself confessed), the informer as to what " wicked actions they had done, and the searcher out of the “ evidence against them, and the author of the punishment " they underwent upon their detection. Nor do we say o this as accusing thee for being so zealous in thy anger “ against them, but are astonished at thy endeavours to imis tate their profligate behaviour; and we discover thereby, " that thou did not act thus for the safety of thy father, but “ for the destruction of thy brethren, that by such outside " hatred of their impiety, thou mightest be believed a lover " of thy father, and mightest thereby get thee power enough 66 to do mischief with the greatest impunity ; which design « thy actions indeed demonstrate. It is true, thou tookest

thy brethren off because thou didst convict them of their " wicked designs : but thou didst not yield up to justice

those who were their partners; and thereby didst make it “ evident to all men, that thou madest a covenant with them “ against thy father, when thou chosest to be the accuser of so thy brethren, as desirous to gain to thyself alone this ad“ vantage of laying plots to kill thy father, and so to enjoy

double pleasure, which is truly worthy of thy evil disposi“ tion, which thou hast openly shewed against thy brethren ; " on which account thou didst rejoice, as having done a most famous exploit, not was that behaviour unworthy of thee. " But if thy intention were otherwise, thou art worse than " they ; wbile thou didst contrive to hide thy treachery against

thy father, thou didst hate them, not as plotters against as thy father, for in that case thou hadst not thyself fallen “ upon the like crime, but as successors of his dominions, " and more worthy of that succession than thyself. Thou “ wouldest kill thy father after thy brethren, Jest thy lies « raised against them might be detected ; and lest thou " shouldest suffer what punishment thou hadst deserved, thou “ hadst a mind to exact that punishment of thy unhappy « father, and didst devise such a sort of uncommon parricide 6 as the world never yet saw. For thou who art his son did “ not only lay a treacherous design against thy father, and “ didst it while he loved thee and had been thy benefactor, “ had made thee in reality his partner in the kingdom, and “ had openly declared thee his successor, while thou wast not « forbidden to taste the sweetness of authority already, and “ hadst the firm hope of what was future by thy father's “ determination, and the security of a written testament. “ But for certain, thou didst not measure tbese things accord“ ing to thy father's various disposition, but according to thy

VOL. III.

:“ own thoughts and inclinations; and wast desirous to take

" the part that remained away from thy too indulgent father, 66 and soughtest to destroy him with thy deeds, whom thou " in words pretendest to preserve. Nor wast thou content “ to be wicked thyself, but thou hlledst thy mother's head 6 with thy devices, and raised disturbances among thy bre• thren, and hadst the boldness to call thy father a wild beast; 6 while thou hadst thyself a mind more cruel than any ser" pent, whence thou sendest out that poison among thy “ nearest kindred and greatest benefactors, and invitedst " them to assist thee and guard thee, and didst hedge thy66 self in on alb sides by the artifices of both men and women, " against an old man; as though that mind, of thine was not 16 sufficient of itself to support so great an hatred as thou « bаredst to him. And here thou appearest after the tortures th of free imen, of domestics, of men and women, which have 166 been examined on thy account, and after the informations 6 of thy fellow conspirators, as making haste to contradict “ the truth ; and hast thought on ways not only how to takė " thy father out of the world, but to disannul that written 6 law which is against thee, and the virtue of Varus, and the co nature of justice; nay, such is that impudence of thine on 166 which thou confidest, that thou desirest to be put to the

torture thyself, while thou allegest, that the tortures of " those already examined thereby have made them tell lies; “ that those that have been the deliverers of thy father, may 66 not be allowed to have spoken the truth; but that thy tor“ tures may be esteemed the discoverers of truth. Wilt not 6 thou, () Varus, deliver the king from the injuries of his « kindred ? Wilt not thou destroy this wicked wild beast, “ which hath pretended kindness to his father, in order to " destroy his brethren ; while yet he is himself alone ready « to carry off the kingdom immediately, and appears to be 166 the most bloody butcher to him of them all? For thou art .66 sensible, that parricide is a general injury, both to 'nature 6 and to common life; and that the intention of parricide is. “ not inferior to its preparation; and he who does not punish " it, is injurious to nature itself.” · 6. Nicolaus added farther what belonged to Antipater's mother, and whatsoever she had prattled like a woman; as also about the predictions and the sacrifices relating to the king ; and whatsoever Antipater had done lasciviously in his cups and his amours among Pheroras's women; the examination upon torture ; and whatsoever concerned the testimonies of the witnesses, which were many, and of various kinds; some prepared before-hand, and others were sudden answers, which farther declared and confirmed the foregoing evidence. For

those men who were not acquainted with Antipater's practices, but bad concealed them out of fear, when they saw that he was exposed to the accusations of the former witnesses, and that his great good fortune, which had supported him hitherto, had now evidently betrayed him into the hands of his enemies, who were now insatiable in their hatred to him, told all they knew of him. And his ruin was now hastened, not so much by the enmity of those that were his accusers, as by his gross, and impudent, and wicked contrivances, and by his ill-will, to his father and his brethren; while he had filled their house with disturbance, and caused them to murder one anotber; and was neither fair in his hatred, nor kind in his friendship, but just so far as served his own turn. Now, there were a great number who for a long time before hand had seen all this, and especially such as were naturally disposed to judge of matters by the rules of virtue, because they were used to determine about affairs without passion, but had been restrained from making any open complaints before ; these, upon the leave now given them, produced all that they knew before the public. The deinonstrations also of these wicked facts could no way be disproved : because the many witnesses there were did neither speak out of favour to Herod, nor were they obliged to keep what they had to say silent, out of suspicion of any danger they were in; but they spake what they knew, because they thought such actions very wicked, and that Antipater deserved the greatest punishment; and indeed not so much for Herod's safety, as on account of the man's own wickedness. Many things were also said, that those by a great number of persons, who were no way obliged to say them ; insomuch, that Antipater, who used generally to be very shrewd in his lies and impudence, was not able to say one word to the contrary. When Nicolaus had left off speaking, and had produced the evidence, Varus bid Antipater to betake himself to the making his defence, if he had prepared any thing whereby it might appear that he was not gailty of the crimes he was accused of; for that, as he was himself desirous, so did he know that his father was in like manner desirous also to have him found entirely jonocent. But Antipater fell down on his face, and appealed to God, and to all men, for testimonials of his innocency, desiring that God would declare by some evident siguals, that he had not laid any plot against his father. This being the usual method of all men destitute of virtue, that, when they set about any wicked undertakings, they fall to work according to their own inclinations, as if they believed that God was unconcerned in human affairs; but when once they are found out, and are in danger of undergoing the punishment due to their crimes, they endeavour to overthrow all the evidence against them, by appealing to God; which was the very thing which Antipater now did : for whereas he had done every thing as if there were no God in the world, when he was on all sides distressed by justice, and when he had no other advantage to expect from any legal proofs, by which he might disprove the accusations laid against him, he impudently abused the majesty of God, and ascribed it to his power, that he had been preserved hitherto ; and produced before them all what difficulties he had ever undergone in his bold acting for his father's preservation. · 7. So when Varus, upon asking Antipater what he had to say for himself, found that he had nothing to say besides his appeal to God, and saw that there was no end of that, he bid them bring the potion before the court, that he might see what virtue still remained in it; and when it was brought, and one that was condemned to die had drank it by Varos's command, he died presently. Then Varus got up, and departed out of the court, and went away the day following to Antioch, where his usual residence was, because that was the palace of the Syrians; upon which Herod laid his son in bonds. Bot what were Varus's discourses to Herod, was not known to the generality, and upon what words it was that he went away ; though it was also generally supposed, that whatsoever Herod did afterward about his son, was done with his approbation. But, when Herod had bound his son, he sent letters to Rome to Cæsar about him, and such messengers withal as should, by word of mouth, inform Cæsar of Antipater's wickedness. Now, at this very time there was seized a letter of Antiphilus, 'written to Antipater out of Egypt (for he lived there); and, when it was opened by the king, it was found to contain what follows: '“ I have 66 sent thee Acme's letter, and hazarded my own life ; for 6 thou knowest that I am in danger from two families, if I 6 be discovered. I wish thee gocd success in thy affair." These were the contents of this letter ; but the king made enquiry about the other letter also, for it did not appear, and Antiphilus's slave, who brought that letter which had been read, denied that he had received the other. But, while the king was in doubt about it, one of Herod's friends seeing a seam upon the inner coat of the slave, and a doubling of the cloth (for he had two coats on), he guessed that the letter might be within that doubling, which accordingly proved to be true. So they took out the letter, and its contents were these: “ Acme to Antipater. I have written such 6 a letter to thy father as thou desirest me. I have also s taken a copy, and sent it, as if it came from Salome to

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