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bodies, and look upon them, to a certain extent, as contemporaries.

With reference to the fleeing away of the paraschistes it is difficult to understand what Diodorus had in his mind. A little further on he says that the embalmers were great friends of the priests, and as this was certainly the case, the man who performed the operation probably merely fulfilled a religious obligation in fleeing away, and had very little to fear, In some particulars Diodorus appears to have been mis- Stateinformed, and in any case the knowledge he possessed of ments of mummies could hardly have been at first hand. He lived too not wholly late (about B.C. 40) to know what the well-made Theban

worthy. mummies were like, and his experience therefore would only have familiarized him with the Egypto-Roman mummies, in which the limbs were bandaged separately, and the contour of their faces, somewhat blunted, was to be seen through the thin and tightly drawn bandages which covered the face. A good example of a mummy made about this date is that of the lady Mut-em-Mennu, which is preserved in the British Museum, No. 6704; in this mummy the features of the face can be clearly distinguished underneath the bandages. A curious idea about the fate of the intestines taken from Fate of the

Plutarch 1 the body obtained among certain Greek writers.

intestines. says, in two places, that when the Egyptians have taken them out of the body of the dead man, they show them to the sun as the cause of the faults which he had committed, and then throw them into the river, while the body, having been cleansed, is embalmed. Porphyry’ gives the same account at

οι των νεκρών ανατέμνοντες έδειξαν τώ ηλίο, είτ' αυτά μεν εις τον ποταμών κατέβαλον, του δε άλλου σώματος ήδη καθαρού γεγονότος επιμέλονται. Ρlutarch, VII. Sap. Conv., XVI., ed. Didot, p. 188. Cf. also 'Etei kalôs cixev, Konep Αιγύπτιοι των νεκρών την κοιλίαν εξελόντες και προς τον ήλιον ανασχίζοντες εκβάλλουσιν, ως αιτίαν απάντων ων ο άνθρωπος ήμαρτεν. Ρlutarch, De Carnium Esu, Oratio Posterior, ed. Didot, p. 1219.

1 Εκείνο μέντοι ου παραπεμπτέον, ότι τους αποθανόντας των ευ γεγονότων όταν ταριχεύωσιν, ιδία την κοιλίαν εξελόντες και εις κιβωτόν ενθέντες μετά των άλλων, ών διαπράττονται υπέρ του νεκρού, και την κιβωτον κρατούντες προς τον ήλιον μαρτύρονται, ενός των υπέρ του νεκρού ποιουμένου λόγον των ταριχευτών.

greater length, and adds that the intestines were placed in a box; he also gives the formula which the embalmers used when showing the intestines to the sun, and says that it was translated by Ekphantos into Greck out of his own language, which was presumably Egyptian. The address to the sun and the other gods who are supposed to bestow life upon man,

the petition to them to grant an abode to the deceased with the everlasting gods, and the confession by the deceased that he had worshipped, with reverence, the gods of his fathers from his youth up, that he had honoured his parents, that he had neither killed nor injured any man, all these have a sound about them of having been written by some one who had a knowledge of the “Negative Confession” in the 125th chapter of the Book of the Dead. On the other hand it is difficult to imagine any Greek acquainted with the manners and customs of the Egyptians making the statement that they threw the intestines into the river, for when they were not placed in jars separate from the body, they were mummified and placed between the legs or arms, and bandaged up with the body, and the future welfare of the body in the nether-world depended entirely upon its having every member complete.

An examination of Egyptian mummies will show that the accounts given by Herodotus and Diodorus are generally correct, for mummies both with and without ventral incisions are found, and some are preserved by means of balsams and gums, and others by bitumen and natrum. The skulls of mummies which exist by hundreds in caves and pits at

General correctness of statements of Hercdotus and Diodorus.

Εστι δε και ο λόγος, δν ήρμήνευσεν "Εκφαντος! εκ της πατρίου διαλέκτου, τοιούτος. 'Ω δέσποτα ήλιε, και θεοι πάντες οι τήν ζωήν τους ανθρώποις δόντες, προσδέξασθέ με και παράδοτε τοις αιδίοις θεοίς σύνοικον. 'Εγώ γάρ τους θεούς, ούς οι γονείς μοι παρέδειξαν, ευσεβών διετέλουν όσον χρόνον εν τω εκείνο αιώνι τον βίον είχον, τούς τε το σώμα μου γεννήσαντας ετίμων αεί» των τε άλλων ανθρώπων και ούτε απέκτεινα, ούτε παρακαταθήκην απεστέρησα, ούτε άλλο ουδέν ανήκε στον διεπραξάμην. Ει δέ τι άρα κατά τον εμαυτού βίον ήμαρτον ή φαγών ή πιών ων μη θεμιτόν ήν, ου δί έμαυτόν ήμαρτον, αλλά διά ταύτα (δείξας την kiBwròv, ev ý ý yao the nv). Porphyry, De Abstinentia, lib. IV., 10, ed. Didot, P. 75.

1 Wilkinson reads “Euphantos" (Ancient Egyptians, iii. 479).

Wiedemann (IIerodots Zweites Buch, p. 354) adds oudéra in brackets.

and aro

Thebes contain absolutely nothing, a fact which proves that the embalmers were able not only to remove the brain, but also to take out the membranes without injuring or breaking the bridge of the nose in any way. Skulls of mummies are found, at times, to be filled with bitumen, linen rags, or resin. The bodies which have been filled with resin or some such substance, are of a greenish colour, and the skin has the appearance of being tanned. Such mummies, when unrolled, perish rapidly and break easily. Usually, however, the resin and aromatic gum process is favourable to the preservation of the teeth and hair. Bodies from which the intestines have been removed and which have been preserved by being filled with bitumen are quite black and hard. The features are preserved intact, but the body is heavy and unfair to look upon. The bitumen penetrates the bones so completely that Bodiespre. it is sometimes difficult to distinguish which is bone and bitumen, which is bitumen. The arms, legs, hands, and feet of such natron, mummies break with a sound like the cracking of chemical matic subglass tubing ; they burn very freely, and give out great heat. stances. Speaking generally they will last for ever. When a body has been preserved by natron, that is, a mixture of carbonate, sulphate, and muriate of soda, the skin is found to be hard, and to hang loosely from the bones, in much the same way as it hangs from the skeletons of the dead monks preserved in the crypt beneath the Capuchin convent at Floriana, in Malta. The hair of such mummies usually falls off when touched.

The Egyptians also preserved their dead in honey. 'Abd Bodies cl-Lațif relates that an Egyptian worthy of belief told him preserved

in honey. that once when he and several others were occupied in exploring the graves and seeking for treasure near the Pyramids, 'they came across a sealed jar, and having opened it and found that it contained honey, they began to eat it. Some one in the party remarked that a hair in the honey turned round one of the fingers of the man who was dipping his bread in it, and as they drew it out the body of a small child appeared with all its limbs complete and in a good state of preservation; it was well dressed, and had upon it numerous ornaments.3 The body of Alexander the Great

3 'Abd el-Latit, tr. De Sacy, p. 199

and salt

was also preserved in “white honey which had not been

melted." 1 Bodies The bodies of the poor were preserved by two very cheap by bitumen methods; one method consisted of soaking in salt and hot

bitumen, and the other in salt only. In the first process every only,

cavity was filled with bitumen, and the hair disappeared ; clearly it is to the bodies which were preserved in this way that the name "mummy” or bitumen was first applied. The salted and dried body is easily distinguishable. The skin is like paper, the features and hair have disappeared, and the

bones are very white and brittle. Oldest The oldest mummy in the world about the date of which mummy in the

there is no doubt, is that of Seker-em-sa-f, a son of Pepi I. world. and elder brother of Pepi II., B.C. 3200, which was found at

Şakkârah in 1881, and which is now at Gîzeh. The lower jaw is wanting, and one of the legs has been dislocated in transport; the features are well preserved, and on the right side of the head is the lock of hair emblematic of youth. An examination of the body shows that Seker-em-sa-f died very young. A number of bandages found in the chamber of his pyramid at Şakkârah are similar to those in use at a later date, and the mummy proves that the art of embalming had arrived at a very high pitch of perfection already in the Ancient Empire. The fragments of a body which were found by Colonel Howard Vyse in the pyramid of Mycerinus at Gizeh, are thought by some to belong to a much later period than that of this king; there appears to be, however, no evidence for this belief, and as they belong to a man, and not to a woman, as Vyse thought, they may quite easily be the remains of the mummy of Mycerinus. The skeletons found in sarcophagi belonging to the first six dynasties fall to dust when air is admitted to them, and they emit a slight smell of

bitumen. Character Mummies of the XIth dynasty are usually very poorly istics of

made; they are yellowish in colour, brittle to the touch, and mummies of different fall to pieces very easily. The limbs are rarely bandaged periods.

separately, and the body having been wrapped carelessly in a

| Budge, History of Alexander the Great, p. 141.
• Maspero, Guide du Visiteur au Musée de Boulay, 1883, p. 347.

number of folded cloths, is covered over lengthwise by one Character

istics of large linen sheet. On the little finger of the left hand a mummies scarab is usually found; but besides this there is neither of different

periods. amulet nor ornament. The coffins in which mummies of this period are found are often filled with baskets, tools, mirrors, bows and arrows, etc., etc.

Mummies of the XIIth dynasty are black, and the skin is dry ; bandages are not common, and in the cases where they exist they are very loosely put on. Scarabs, amulets, and figures of gods are found with mummies of this epoch.

From the XIIIth to the XVIIth dynasties mummies are very badly made and perish rapidly.

From the XVIIIth to the XX Ist dynasties the mummies of Memphis are black, and so dry that they fall to pieces at the slightest touch ; the cavity of the breast is filled with amulets of all kinds, and the green stone scarab inscribed with the XXXth chapter of the Book of the Dead was placed over

2 the heart. At Thebes, during this period, the mummies are yellow in colour and slightly polished, the nails of the hands and feet retain their places, and are stained with henna. The limbs bend in all directions without breaking, and the art of careful and dainty bandaging has attained its greatest perfec--> tion. The left hand wears rings and scarabs, and papyri inscribed with chapters of the Book of the Dead are found in the coffins, either by the side of the mummy, or beneath it.

After the XXIst dynasty the custom arose of placing the mummy in a cartonnage, sewn or laced up the back, and painted in brilliant colours with scenes of the deceased adoring the gods and the like.

In the period between the XXVIth dynasty and the conquest of Egypt by Alexander, the decoration of mummies reached its highest point, and the ornamentation of the cartonnage shows the influence of the art of Greece


that of Egypt. The head of the mummy is put into a mask, gilded or painted in bright colours, the cartonnage fits the body very closely, and the feet are protected by a sheath.

A large number of figures of the gods and of amulets are found on the mummy itself, and many things which formed its private pro-. perty when alive were buried with it. Towards the time of

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