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pointed them to be rulers of all Galilee, as he chose seves judges in every city to hear the lesser quarrels ; for as to the greater causes, and those wherein life and death were concerned, he enjoined they should be brought to him, and the seven. ty elders.

6. Josephus also, when he had settled these rules for deter. mining causes by the law, with regard to the people's dealings one with another, betook himself to make provisions for their Safety against external violence ; and as he knew the Romans would fall upon Galilee, he built walls in proper places about Jatapata and Barsabee, and Selamis; and be Gdes these about Caphareccho, and Japha, and Sigo, and what they call Mount Tabor, and Taricheæ, and Tiberias. Moreover, he built walls about the caves near the lake of Gennesar, which places lay in the lower Galilee ; the same he did to the places of Upper Galilee, as well to the rock called the Rock of the Achabari, and to Seph, and Jamneh, and Meroth; and in Gaulanitis he fortified Selucia, and Sogane, and Gamala ; but as to those of Sepphoris, they were the only people to whom he gave leave to build their own walls, and this because he perceived they were rich and wealthy, and ready to go to war, without ftanding in need of any injun&ions for that purpose. The case was the same with Gischala, which had a wall built about it by John the son of Levi himself, but with the consent of Josephus : But for the building of the rest of the fortresses, he laboured together with all the other builders, and was pres. ent to give all the necessary orders for that purpose. He also got together an army out of Galilee, of more than an hundred thousand young men, all of which he armed with the old weapons, which he had collected together, and prepared for them.

7. And when he had confidered that the Roman power became invincible, chiefly by their readiness in obeying orders, and the constant exercise of their arms, he despaired of teaching these his men the use of their arms, which was to be ob. tained by experience ; but obserying that their readiness in obeying orders, was owing to the multitude of their officers, he made his partitions in his army more after the Roman man. ner, and appointed a great many subalterns. He also diftributed the soldiers into various classes, whom he put under captains of tens, and captains of hundreds, and then under captains of thousands; and besides these he had commanders of larger bodies of men. He also taught them to give the sig. nals one to another, and to call and recal the soldiers by the trumpets, how to expand the wings of an army, and make them wheel about, and when one wing hath har fuccels, to turn again and aflıff those that were hard set, and to join in the defence of what had moft suffered. He also continually in. ftruéted them in what concerned the courage of the soul, and the hardiness of the body ; and above all he exercised them for war, by declaring to them diftinétly the good order of the Row. mans, and that they were to fight with men who, both by the Atrength of their bodies, and courage of their souls, had conquered in a manner the whole babitable earth. He told them that he should make trial of the good order they would observe in war, even before it came to any battle, in case they would abftain from the crimes they used to indulge themselves in, fuch as theft, and robbery, and rapine, and from defrauding their own countrymen, and never to esteem the harm done to those that were so near of kin to them, to be any advantage to themselves ; for that wars are then managed the best when the warriors preserve a good confcience; but that such as are ill men in private life, will not only have those for enemies which attack them, but God himself also for their antagonist. .. 8. And thus did he continue to admonish them. Now he chose for the war such an army as was sufficient, i. e. sixty thousand footmen, aad * two hundred and fifty horsemen : And besides these, on which he put the greatest truft, there were about four thousand five hundred mercenaries; he had also fix hundred men as guards of his body. Now the cities easily maintained the rest of his army, excepting the merce. naries, for every one of the cities enumerated above sent out half their men to the army, and retained the other half at home in order to get provisions for them; insomuch that the one part went to the war, and the other part to their work, and so those that sent out their corn were paid for it by those that were in arms, by that security which they enjoyed from them.

fubaltern officers of his army, as Exod. xviii 25. Deut i. 15.and in his charge against the offences common among foldiers, as Deut. xxiii.g in all which he shewed his great wisdom and piety, and skilful conduct in martial affairs Yet may we discern in his very high character of Anarus the high-priest, B. IV. ch. v, feat. 2. who seems to have been the lame who conducted St. James, bishop of Jerusalem, to be stoned, under Alinus the procurator, that when he wrote these books of the war, he was not so much as an Ebsonite Chriftian; otherwise he would not have failed, ac. cording to his usual custom, to have reckoned this his barbarous murder, as a just punishment upon him for that his cruelty to the chief, or rather only Chriftian bishop of the circumcifion. Nor, had he been then a Chriftian, could he immediately have spoke so movingly of the causes of the destruction of Jerusalem, without one word of either the condemnation of James, or crucihction of Christ, as he did when he was become a Chriftian afterward.

* i should think that an arıny of 60,000 footmen should require many more than 250 horsemen ; and we find Josephus had more horsemen under his command than 250 in his future history. I suppose the number of the thousands is dropt in our prelent copies..

CHA P. XXI. Concerning John of Gischala. Jofephus uses stratagems against

the Plots John laid against him, and recovers certain cities which had revolted from him.

OW as Josephus was ihus engaged in the adminis.

N tration of the affairs of Galilee, there arose a treacherous person, a man of Gischala, the son of Levi, whose name was John. His character was that of a very cunning and ve. Ty knavilh person, beyond the ordinary rate of the other men of eminence there, and for wicked pra&ices he had not his fellow any where. Poor he was at first, and for a long time his wants were an hinderance to him in his wicked defigns. He was a ready liar, and yet very darp in gaining credit to his fictions ; he thought it a point of virtue to delude people, and would delude even such as were the dearest to him. He was an hypocritical pretender to humanity, but where he had hopes of gain, he spared not the shedding of blood : His desires were ever carried to great things, and he encouraged his hopes from those mean wicked tricks which he was the author of. He had a peculiar knack at thieving ; but in some time he got ceriain companions in his impudent practices ; at first they were but few, but as he proceeded on in his evil course, they became ftill more and more numerous. He took care that none of his partners should be easily caught in their sogueries, but chofe such out of the rest as had the ftrongest conftitutions of body, and the greatest courage of soul, to. gether with great skill in martial affairs; so he got together a band of tour hundred men, who came principally out of the country of Tyre, and were vagabonds that had run away from its villages ; and by the means of these he laid waste all Galilee, and irritated a considerable number, who were in great expec. tation of a war then suddenly to arile among them.

2. However John's want of money had hitherto restrained him in his ambition after command, and in his attempts to advance himself. But when he saw that Josephus was highly pleased witb the activity of his temper, he persuaded him, in the first place, to intrust him with the repairing of the walls of his native city (Gilchala] in which work he got a great deal of money from the rich citizens. He after that contrived å very shrewd trick, and pretending that the Jews who dwelt in Syria were obliged to make use of oil that was made by others than those of their own nation, he desired leave ot Jo. sephus to send oil to their borders : So he bought four amphoræ with luch Tyrian money as was of the value of four Attic drachmæ, and fold every half amphoræ at the same price, Andas Galilee was very fruittulin oil, and was peculiarly so at that time, by sending away great quantities, and hav. ing the lole privilege so to do he gathered an immense lum of money together, which money he immediately used to the disadvantage of him who gave him that privilege ; and, as he supposed, that if he could once overthrow Josephus, he should himself obtain the government of Galilee, so he gave order to the robbers that were under his command, to be more zeal. ous in their thievilh expeditions, that by the rise of many that desired innovations in the country, he might either catch their general in his snares as he came to the country's allift. ance, and then kill him ; or it he should overlook the robbers, he might accuse him for his negligence to the people of the country. He also spread abroad a report far and near, that Josephus was delivering up the administration of affairs to the Romans; and many such plots did he lay in order to ruin him.

3. Now at the same time that certain young men of the vil. lage Dabaritta, who kept guard in the great plain, laid snares for Ptolemy, who was Agrippa's and Bernice's fteward, and took from him all that he had with him, among which things there were a great many costly garments, and no small number of silver cups, and six hundred pieces of gold, yet were they not able to conceal what they had stolen, but brought it all to Jofephus, to Taricheđe. Hereupon he blamed them for the violence they had offered to the king and queen, and depofited what they brought to him with Eneas, the most po. tent man of Taricheæ, with an intention of lending the things back to the owners at a proper time ; which act of Jofephus brought him into the greatest danger; for thole that had sto. len the things had an indignation at him, both because they gained no share of it for themielves, and becaule they perceived before hand what was Josephus's intention, and that he would freely deliver up what had cost them so much pains to ihe king and queen. These ran away by night to their several villages, and declared to all men that Josephus was going to betray them : They also raised great disorders in all the neighbouring cities, insomuch that in the morning an hundred thousand armed men came running together ; which multitude was crowded together in the hippodrome at Tari. cheæ, and made a very peevilh clamour against him ; while some cried out, that they should depose the traitor ;" and others, that" they should burn him.” Now John irritated a great many, as did also one Jesus, the son of Sapphias, who was then governor of Tiberias. Then it was that Josephus's friends, and the guards of his body were so affrighted at this violent assault of the multitude, that they all fled away but four; and as he was asleep, they awaked bim, as the people were going to set fire to the house. And although thole four moi that remained with him persuaded him to run away, he was neither surprised at his being himfelt deferted, nor at the great

VOL. III.

multitude that came against him, but leaped out to them with his clothes rent, and alhes sprinkled on his head, with his hands behind him, and his sword hanging at his neck. At this light his friends, especially those of Taricheæ, commiserated his condition ; but those that came out of the country, and thołe in their neighbourhood, to whom his government seemed bur. deníome, reproached him, and bid him produce the money wbich belonged to them all immediately, and to confess the agreement he had made to betray them; for they imagined, from the habit in which he appeared that he would deny nothing of what they suspected concerning him, and that it was in order to obtain pardon, that he had put himself entirely in. to so pitiable a posture. But this humble appearance was on. ly designed as preparatory to a stratagem of his, who thereby contrived to set those that were so angry at him, at variance one with another about the things they were angry at. How. ever, he promised he would confess all : Hereupon he was permitted to speak, when he said, “I did neither intend to fend this money back to Agrippa, nor to gain it mylelt; for: I did never esteem one that was your enemy to be my friend, nor did I look upon what would tend to your disadvantage, to be my advantage. But, O you people of Taricheæ, I saw that your city Itood in more need than others of tortifications for your security, and that it wanted money in order for the building it a wall. I was also afraid left the people of Tiberias and other cities should lay a plot to seize upon these spoils, and therefore it was that L'intended to retain this money privaiely, that I might encompals you with a wall. Bat it this does not please you, I will produce what was brought me, and leave it to you to plunder it ; but if I have conducted myself so well as to please you, you may if you pleafe puailh your benefactor."

4. Hereupon the people of Taricheä loudly commended him, but those of Tiberias, with the rest of the company, gave him hard names, and threatened what they would do to him : so both sides left off quarrelling with Josephus, and fell on quarrelling with one another. So he grew bold upon the de. pendence he bad on his friends, which were the people, ot Taricheæ, and about forty thousand in number, and spake more freely to the whole multitude, and reproached them greatly for theis-rashness, and told them, That " with this monev he would build walls about Taricheæ, and would put the other cities in a state of security allo ; for that they should not want money, if they would but agree for whose benefit it was to be procured, and would not suffer themselves to be irritated again it him who procured it for them."

5. Hereupon the rest of the multitude that had been deluded retired ; but yet so that they went away angry, and two thousand of them made an assault upon him in their armour ; and as he was already gone to his own house, they stood with.

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