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Saul, that David was come again into their coun- replied, “It is I, the son of Jesse, whom thon try, and that if he would afford them his assist- makest a vagabond. But what is the matter? ance, they could catch him. So he came to them dost thou, that art a man of so great dignity, and with three thousand armed men, and upon the ap- of the first rank in the king's court, take so little proach of night he pitched his camp at a certain care of thy master's person? and is sleep of more place called Hachilah. But when David heard consequence to thee than his preservation ? this that Saul was coming against him, he sent spies, negligence deserves death ; and punishment ought and bade them let him know to what part of the to be inflicted on thee, who didst not perceive country Saul was already come. And when they when a little while ago some of us entered into told him that he was at Hachilah, he concealed thy camp; nay, as far as to the king himself. If his going away from his own companions, and thou look for the king's spear, and his cruse of came to Saul's camp, having taken with him Abi- water; thou wilt learn what a mighty misfortune shai, his sister Zeruiah's son, and Ahimelech the was ready to overtake you, in your very camp, Hittite. Now Saul was asleep, and the armed without your knowing of it.” Now when Saul men, with Abner, their commander, lay round knew David's voice, and understood that when he about him in a circle. Hereupon David entered had him in his power, while he was asleep, and into the king's tent, but he did neither kill Saul, his guards took no care of him; yet did he spare though he knew where he lay, by the spear that him, when he might justly have cut him off: he was struck down by him,* nor did he give leave said, that “ He owed him thanks for his preserto Abishai, who would have killed him, and was vation; and exhorted him to be of good courage, strongly inclined so to do. For he said it was a and not to be afraid of suffering any mischief from horrid crime to kill one that was ordained king by him any more, and to return to his own home; God, although he were a wicked man; for that he for he was now persuaded, that he did not love who gave him the dominion, would in time inflict himself so well as he was beloved by him; that punishment upon him: so he restrained his eager- he had driven away him that could guard him, ness. But that it might appear to have been in and had given many demonstrations of his good his power to have killed him when he refrained will; that he had forced him to live so long in a from it, he took his spear, and the cruse of water state of banishment, and in great fears of his life; which stood by Saul, without being perceived by destitute of his friends and his kindred. While any in the camp, who were all asleep, and went still he was often saved by him, and frequently securely away; having performed every thing received his life again when he was evidently in among the king's attendants that the opportunity danger of perishing." So David bade them send afforded, and his boldness encouraged him to do. for the spear, and the cruse of water, and take So when he had passed over the brook, and as them back; adding, that God would be the judge cended to the top of a hill, whence he might be of both their dispositions, and of the actions that sufficiently heard, he cried aloud to Saul's soldiers, flowed from the same: " for he knows,” said he, and to Abner their commander, and awakened that when it was this day in my power to have them out of their sleep; and called both to him killed thee, I abstained from it."| and to the people. Hereupon the commander Saul, having thus escaped the hands of David asked who it was that called him ? to whom David twice, returned to his royal palace, and his own
Carrying a long pike before a company of Arabs is a token being laid on the ground in the open air. Thus de la Roque that an Arab Sheekh, or prince, is there : the fixing of it like- || describes the Bedouin Arabs of the Holy Land, though in genewise near a person of authority points out his dignity. Thus ral they live under tents, yet, sometimes, he says, they sleep in Josephus, giving an account of David's entering the camp of their clothes, in summer-time, on the ground, only covering Saul, when that prince and his people were fast asleep, informs their body and face with their aba, or outer garment. Voy. us, that notwithstanding the opportunity, he did no hurt to Saul, dans la Pal. c. 12. p. 176. Josephus then, in all probability, though he well knew where he slept, by the spear which was supposes this expedition was undertaken in the time of summer; fixed near him, and that he suffered not Abishai to slay him and that Saul's face was mufiled up, so as rather to be known then, though he would fain have done it. English readers || by the spear, than by his countenance, in a night sufficiently generally suppose that every man had his spear stuck into the light to have distinguished him, had he not been so covered. ground at his head: but Josephus supposes that circumstance It seems indeed' to be the common practice of the Eastern peo. distinguished the royal sleeping-place from that of every body ple to sleep with their faces covered, according to Niebuhr ; else, which it would not have done, if it had not been some. and he supposes that Europeans would find the benefit of it, if thing peculiar to Saul, distinguishing him from his officers and they would adopt the same usage, the dews and some winds people. It was, it should seem then, a customary distinction in being found to be very hurtful. Descript, de l'Arabie, p. 9. the time of Josephus, and he thought it also an usage as ancient Harmer's Observations on Scripture, vol. i. p. 96. Clark's as the time of Saul. Perhaps too, this describing Saul, as known | Edition. B. by the spear, may intimate, that he slept with his face covered, t 1 Sam. xxvi. 23.
city. But David was afraid, if he stayed there, he | whence they might gather themselves together, should be caught by Saul. So he thought it better and suddenly attack the Hebrews. Then did to go up into the land of the Philistines. Accord Achish, the king of Gath, desire David to assist ingly he came with the six hundred men that were them with his armed men against the Hebrews. with him to Achish the king of Gath; which was This he readily promised ; and said, that the time one of their five cities. Now the king received both was now come wherein he might requite him for him and his men, and gave them a place to inhabit. his kindness and hospitality. So the king promHe had with him also his two wives, Ahinoamised to make him the keeper of his body after the and Abigail; and he dwelt in Gath. But when victory, supposing that the battle with the enemy Saul heard this, he took no farther care about succeeded to their mind : which promise of honour sending to him, or going after him, because he and confidence he made on purpose to increase had been twice, in a manner, caught by him, while his zeal for his service. he was himself endeavouring to catch him. How- Now Saul, the king of the Hebrews, had cast ever, David had no mind to continue in the city out of the country the fortune-tellers, the necroof Gath, but desired the king, that, since he had mancers, and all such as exercised the like arts; received him with such humanity, he would grant excepting the prophets. But when he heard the him another favour, and bestow upon him some Philistines were already come, and had pitched place in that country for his habitation, for he was their camp very near to the city Shunem, situate ashamed, by living in the city, to be grievous and in the plain, he hastened to oppose them with his burdensome to him. So Achish gave him a cer- forces. And when he was come to a certain mountain village, called Ziklag, which David and his tain called Gilboa, he pitched his camp over against sons were fond of when he was king, and reckoned the enemy. But when he saw the enemy's army, it to be their peculiar inheritance. But about those he was greatly troubled ; because it appeared to matters we shall give the reader farther informa- him to be numerous, and superior to his own; tion* elsewhere. Now the time that David dwelt and he inquired of God, by the prophets, concernin Ziklag, in the land of the Philistines, was fourt ing the battle, that he might know beforehand months and twenty days. And now he privately what would be the event. And when God did not attacked these Geshurites and Amalekites, that answer him, Saul was under a still greater dread were neighbours to the Philistines, and laid waste and his courage fell; foreseeing, as was but reatheir country, and took much prey of their sonable to suppose, that mischief would befall him, beasts and camels; and then returned home. now God was not there to assist him. Yet did he But David abstained from the men; as fearing bid his servants to inquire for some woman that they should discover him to king Achish. Yet was a necromancer, and called up the souls of the did he send part of the prey to him as a free gift. dead; that so he might know whether his affairs And when the king inquired whom they had would succeed to his mind. For this sort of neattacked, when they brought away the prey, he cromantic women, who bring up the souls of the said, those that lay to the south of the Jews, and dead, do by them foretell future events to such as inhabited in the plain : whereby he persuaded desire them. And one of his servants told him, Achish to approve of what he had done ; for he that there was such a woman in the city Endor, hoped that David had fought against his own na- but she was known to nobody in the tion, and that now he should have him for his upon Saul put off his royal apparel, and took two servant all his life-time; and that he would stay of those servants whom he knew to be most faithin his country. I
ful to him, and came to Endor to the woman, and
intreated her to act the part of a fortune-teller, CHAP. XIV.
and to bring up such a soul to him as he should
name. But the woman opposed his motion; and THE SOUL OF SAMUEL; AND OF THE DEATH OF HIMSELF AND HIS said, she lid not despise the king, who had banish
ed this sort of fortune-tellers; and that he did not ABOUT the same time, the Philistines resolved do well himself when she had done him no harm, to make war against the Israelites, and sent to all to endeavour to lay a snare for her, and to distheir confederates that they would go along with cover she exercised a forbidden art, in order to them to the war to Reggan, near the city Shunem, procure her to be punished. Saul, however, sware
OF SAUL'S APPLICATION TO A NECROMANTIC WOMAN TO RAISE UP
SONS, UPON THE OVERTHROW OF THE HEBREWS IN BATTLE.
* This farther account is not, I think, found in Josephus's See 1 Sam. xxvii. 7, and xxix. 3, though the words are not very
plain, even in them. + A year and four months, in the Hebrew and Septuagint. $1 Sam. xxvii. 12.
that nobody should know what she did ; and that were from the sorrow that arose upon what he would not tell any one else what she foretold; Samuel had said, or from his emptiness; for he but that she should incur no danger. As soon, had taken no food the foregoing day and night ; therefore, as he had induced her by this oath to be easily fell quite down. And when with diffifear no harm, he bade her bring up to him the culty he had recovered himself, the woman would
She not knowing who Samuel force him to eat; begging this of him as a favour, was, called him out of Hades. When he appeared, on account of her concern in that dangerous inand the woman saw one that was venerable, and stance of fortune-telling, which it was not lawful of a divine form, she was in disorder; and being for her to have done, because of the fear she was astonished at the sight, she said, “ Art not thou under of the king; while she knew not who he king Saul ?” for Samuel had informed her who he was; yet did she undertake it, and go through was. When he had owned that to be true, and with it. On which account she entreated him to had asked her, whence her disorder arose ? she admit that a table and food might be set before said that she saw a certain person ascend, who him, that he might recover his strength, and so in his form was like to a god.' And when he bade get safe to his own camp. And when he opher tell him what he resembled ; in what habit he posed her motion, and entirely rejected it, by appeared; and of what age he was; she told him reason of his anxiety, she forced him; and at he was an old man, and of a glorious personage, last persuaded him to it. Now she had one calf
, and had on a sacerdotal mantle.* So the king that she was very fond of, and one that she discovered by these signs that he was Samuel ; took a great deal of care of, and fed it herself; and he fell down upon the ground, and saluted, for she was a woman that got her living by the and worshipped him. And when the soul of labour of her own hands, and had no other posSamuel asked him, why he had disturbed him, session but that one calf. This she killed, and and caused him to be brought up, he lamented made ready its flesh, and set it before his servants the necessity he was under: for, he said, his ene- and himself. So Saul returned to the camp, while mies pressed heavily upon him; that he was in it was yet night. distress what to do in his present circumstances; Now it is but just to commend the generosity that he was forsaken of God, and could obtain no of this woman; because, when the king had forprediction of what was coming, neither by proph- bidden her to use that art, whence her circumets, not by dreams. And these were the reasons stances were improved; and when she had never why he had recourse to him. Butt Samuel seeing seen the king before, she still did not remember the end of Saul's life was come, said, “ It is in to his disadvantage that he had condemned her vain for thee to desire to learn of me any thing sort of learning, and did not refuse him as a farther, when God hath forsaken thee. However, stranger, and one she had no acquaintance with; hear what I say :-David is to be king, and to but she had compassion upon him, and comforted finish this war with good success, and thou art to him, and exhorted him to do what he was greatly lose thy dominion and thy life; because thou didst averse to; and offered him the only creature she not obey God in the war with the Amalekites, and had, as a poor woman; and that earnestly, and hast not kept his commandments, as I foretold to with great humanity; while she received no rethee while I was alive. Know, therefore, that the quital for her kindness, nor hunted after any fupeople shall be made subject to their enemies; and ture favour from him ; for she knew he was to die. that thou, with thy sons, shall fall in the battle Whereas men are naturally either ambitious to to-morrow; and thou shalt then be withf me in please those that bestow benefits upon them, or Hades."
are very ready to serve those from whom they When Saul had heard this, he could not speak may receive some advantage. It would be well for grief; but fell down on the floor. Whether it therefore to imitate the example of this woman,
* 1 Sam. xxviii. 14.
For as to all modern hypotheses, against the natural sense of † This history of Saul's consultation, not with a witch, as we such ancient and authentic histories, I consider them of very render the Hebrew word here; but with a necromancer, as the
small value or importance. whole history shows, is easily understood ; especially, if we # 1 Sam. xxviii. 19. consult the recognitions of Clement, 1. 5. 11. 13. at large; and § These great commendations of this necromantic woman of more briefly, and nearer the days of Samuel, Eccles. xlvi. 20. Endor, and of Saul's martial courage, when yet he knew he " Samuel prophesied after his death; and showed the king his should die in the battle, are somewhat unusual digressions in end; and lift up his voice from the earth in prophecy, to blot Josephus. They seem to me extracted from some speeches or out the wickedness of the people.” Nor does the exactness of declamations of bis, composed formerly in the way of oratory, the accomplishment of this prediction the very next day, permit that lay by him; and which he thought fit to insert upon this us to suppose any imposition upon Saul in the present history. I occasion.