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cast were of the weight of a talent, and were carried two furlongs and farther. The blow they gave was no way to be sustained, not only by those that stood first in the vay, but by those that were beyond them for a great space. As for the Jews, they at first watched the coming of the stone; for it was of a white colour, and could therefore not only be perceived by the great noise it made, but could be seen also before it came by its brightness: accordingly the watchmen that sat upon the towers gave them notice when the engine was let go, and the stone came from it, and cried out aloud in their own country language, THE SON COMETH:* so those that were in its way stood off, and threw themselves down upon the ground; by which means, and by their thus guarding themselves the stone fell down, and did them no harm. But the Romans contrived how to prevent that by blacking the stone, who then could aim at them with success, when the stone was not diserned before-hand as it had been till then; and so they destroyed many of them at one blow. Yet did not the Jews, under all this distress, permit the Romans to raise their banks in

* What should be the meaning of this signal or watchword, when the watchmen saw a stone coming from an engine, the SON COMETı, or what mistake there is in the reading, I cannot tell. The MSS. both Greek and Latin, all agree in this reading; and I cannot approve of any groundless conjectural alteration in the text' from TiO2 to 10%, that not the son or a stone, but that the arrow or dart cometh ; as hath been made by Dr. Hudson, and not corrected by Havercamp. Had Josephus written even his first edition of these books of the war in pure Hebrew, or had the Jews then used the pure Hebrew at Jerusalem, the Hebrew word for a son is so like that for a slone, Ben and Eben, that such a correction might have been more easily, admitted, but Josephus wrote his former edition for the use of the Jews beyond Euphrates, and so in the Chaldea language, as he did this second edition in the Greek language; and Bar was the Chaldea word for son, instead of the Hebrew Ben, and was vised not only in Chaldea, &c. but in Judea al90, as the New Testament informs us. Dio also lets us know, that the very Romans at Rome pronounced the pame of Simon, the son of Gioras, Bar Poras for Bar Gioras, as we learn from Xiphiline, p. 217. Reland takes potice, " That many will here look for a mystery, as though the meaning were, that the Son of God came now to take vengeance on the sins of the Jewish nation,” which is indeed the truth of the fact, but hardly what the Jews could now mean: unless, possibly by way of derision of Christ's threatenings so often made, that he would come at the head of the Roman army for their destruction. But even this interpretation has but a gree of probability. If I were to make an emendation, by mere conjecture, I would read NIETPO instead of rioz though the likeness be not so great as in 10X; because that is the word used by Josepbus just before, as I have already noted, on this very occasion, while 102, an arrow or dart, is only a poetical word, and never used by Josephus elsewhere, and is indeed no way suitable to the occasion, this engine no: throwing arrows or darts, but great stones at this tiine.

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quiet; but they shrewdly and boldly exerted themselves, and repelled them both by night and by day.

4. And now, upon the finishing the Roman works, the workmen measured the distance there was from the wall, and this by lead and a line, which they threw to it from their banks; for they could not measure it any otherwise, because the Jews would shoot at them, if they came to measure it themselves, and when they found that the engines could reach the wall, they brought them thither. Then did, Titus set his engines at proper distances, so much nearer to the wall, that the Jews might not be able to repel them, and gave orders they should go to work ; and when thereupon a prodigious noise echoed round about from three places, and that, on the sudden, there was a great noise made by the citizens that were within the city and no less a terror fell upon the seditious themselves ; whereupon both sorts seeing the common danger they were in, contrived to make a like defence. So those of different factions cried out one to another, that they acted entirely as in concert with their enemies; whereas, they ought however, notwithstanding God did not grant them a lasting concord, in the present circumstances to lay aside their enmities one against another, and to unite together against the Romans. Accordingly, Simon gave those that came from the temple leave, by proclamation, to go upon the wall; John also himself, though he could not believe that Simon was in earnest gave them the same leave. So on both sides, they laid aside their hatred, and their peculiar quarrels, and formed themselves into one body; they then ran round the walls, and having a vast number of torches with them, they threw them at the machines, and shot darts perpetually upon those that impelled those engines which battered the wall; nay, the bolder sort leaped out by troops upon the hurdles that covered the machines, and pulled them to pieces, and fell upon those that belonged to them, and beat them, not so much by any skill they had, as principally by the boldness of their attacks. However, Titus himself still sent assistance to those that were the hardest set, and placed both horsemen and archers on the several sides of the engines, and thereby beat off those that brought the fire to them ; he also thereby repelled those that shot stones or darts from the towers, and then set the engines to work in good earnest : yet did not the wall yield to these blows, excepting where the battering ram of the fifteenth legion moved the corner of a tower, while the wall itself continued unhurt ; for the wall was not presently in the same danger with the tower, which was extant far above it: nor could the fall of that part of the tower easily break down any part of the wall itself together with it.

5. And now the Jews intermitted their sallies for a while ; but when they observed the Romans dispersed all abroad at their works, and in their several camps (for they thought the Jews had retired out of weariness and fear), these all at once made a sally at the tower Hippicus, through an obscure gate, and at the same time brought fire to burn the works, and went boldly up to the Romans, and to their very fortifications themselves, where at the cry they made, · those that were near came presently to their assistance, and those farther off came running after them ; and here the boldness of the Jews was too hard for the good order of the Romans ; and as they beat those whom they first fell upon, so they pressed upon those that were now gotten together. So this fight about the machines was very hot, while the one side tried hard to set them on fire, and the other side to prevent it; on both sides there was a confused cry made, and many of those in the fore-front of the battle were slain. However, the Jews were now too hard for the Romans, by the furious assaults they made, like mad-men; and the fire caught hold of the works, and both all those works, and the engines themselves had been in danger of being burnt, had not many of those select soldiers that came from Alexandria opposed themselves to prevent it ; and had they not behaved themselves with greater courage than they themselves supposed they could have done ; for they out did those in this fight that had greater reputation than themselves before. This was the state of things till Cæsar took the stoutest of his horsemen, and attacked the enemy, when he himself slew twelve of those that were in the fore front of the Jews; which death of these men, when the rest of the multitude saw, they gave way, and he pursued them, and drove them all into the city, and saved the works from the fire. Now, it happened at this fight, that a certain Jew was taken alive, who, by Titus's order, was crucified before the wall, to see whether the rest of them would be affrighted, and abate of their obstinacy. But, after the Jews were retired, John, who was

commander of the Idumeans, and was talking to a certain soldier of his acquaintance before the wall, was wounded by a dart, shot at him by an Arabian, and died immediately, leaving the greatest lamentation to the Jews, and sorrow to the seditious. For he was a man of great eminencer both for his actions, and his conduct also.


How one of the towers erected by the Romans fell down of its own

accord, and how the Romans, after great slaughter had been made, got possession of the first wall. How also Titus made his assault upon the second wall : as also concerning Longinus the Roman, and Castor the Jew.

§ 1. Now, on the next night, a surprising disturbance fell upon the Romans ; for, whereas Titus had given orders for the erection of three towers, of fifty cubits high, that by setting men upon them at every bank, he might from thence drive those away who were upon the wall, it so happened, that one of these towers fell down about midnight: and as its fall made a very great noise, fear fell upon the army, and they supposing that the enemy was coming to attack them, ran all to their arms. Whereupon a disturbance and a tumult arose among the legions; and as nobody could tell what had happened, they went on after a disconsolate manner; and seeing no enemy appeared, they were afraid one of another, and every one demanded of his neighbour the watch-word, with great earnestness, as though the Jews had invaded their camp. And now were they like people under a panic fear, till Titus was informed of what had happened, and gave orders that all should be acquainted with it; and then, though with some difficulty, they got clear of the disturbance they had been under.

2. Now these towers were very troublesome to the Jews, who otherwise opposed the Romans very courageously ; for they shot ai them out of their lighter engines from those towers, as they did also by those that threw darts, and the archers, and those that flung stones. For neither could the Jews reach those that were over them, by reason of their height, and it was not practicable to take them, nor to overturn them, they were so heavy, nor to set them on fire, because they were covered with platcs of

iron. So they retired out of the reach of the darts, and did no longer endeavour to hinder the impression of their rams, which, by continually beating upon the wall, did gradually prevail against it; so that the wall already gave way to the Nico, for by that name did the Jews themselves call the greatest of their engines, because it conquered all things. And, now they were for a long while grown weary of fighting, and of keeping guards, and were retired to lodge on the night-times at a distance from the wall. It was on other accounts also thought by them to be superfluous to guard the wall, there being besides that two other fortifications still remaining, and they being slothful, and their counsels having been ill concerted on all occasions ; so a great many grew lazy and retired. Then the Romans mounted the breach, where Nico had made one, and all the Jews left the guarding that wall, and retreated to the second wall, so those that had gotten over that wall, opened the gates, and received all the army within it. And thus did the Romans get possession of this first wall, on the fifteenth day of that siege, which was the seventh day of the month Artemisius, [ yar,] when they demolished a greater part of it, as well as they did of the northern parts of the city, which had been demolished also by Cestius formerly.

3. And now Titus pitched his camp within the city, at that place which was called the Camp of the Assyrians, having seized upon all that lay as far as Cedron, but took care to be out of the reach of the Jews' darts. He then presently began his attacks, upon which the Jews divided themslves into several bodies, and courageously defended that wall, while John, and his faction, did it from the tower of Antonia, and from the northern cloister of the temple, and fought the Romans before the monuments, of king Alexander; and Simon's army also took for their share the spot of ground that was near John's monument, and fortified it as far as to that gate where water was brought into the tower Hippicus. However, the Jews made violent sallies, and that frequently also, and that in bodies together, out of the gates, and there fought the Romans ; and when they were pursued altogether to the wall they were beaten in those fights, as wanting the skill of the Romans. But when they fought them from the walls, they were too hard for thern ; the Romans being encouraged by their power, join

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