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body, and figures of Mesthå, Hāpi, Țuamāutef and Qebhsennuf made of wax, sheet silver, gold or porcelain, were laid upon the parts which these gods were supposed to protect. On the alabaster and stone jars the inscriptions were incised, and on wood and faïence they were painted or traced in outline in ink. In papyri of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties, the vignettes of the 17th chapter of the Book of the Dead show that Canopic jars were placed in a sepulchral chest, upon the sides of which were painted figures of the four gods, in the form of men, but each having its characteristic
head. Out of the cover there rises the sun with the head and arms of a man, and in each hand he holds fānch, “ life.” (Papyrus of Ani, pl. 8.) On papyri and coffins of a later period the jars are shown arranged in a row under the bier. In the 151st chapter of the Book of the Dead the four gods are shown standing in the mummy chamber, one at each corner ; the inscriptions which refer to them read :
met' in Meso, nuk Mesoa se - k Åusár Speech of
Mesthå. Says Mesthå, “I am Mesthà son thy, O Osiris. il Source = $1 a 8
i. a un - a em sau . k seruț - ná Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Make to flourish I
țepăt · k þui head and limbs thy, smiting down
i - ná
un - a em sau . k țemț Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Gather together I gli
a ssolyo 11 mm mm kesu - k
saq . à āt. k an - nå nek bones thy, colleci 1 limbs thy, bring I for thee
The inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, which are sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, vary considerably ; some consist of a few words only, but others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess; thus Isis guarded Mesthà, Nephthys guarded Hāpi, Neith guarded Ţuamāutef, and Selket or Serqet guarded Qebhsennuf. The following are examples of the formulæ inscribed on these jars :
| These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the * British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889; they were made for the commander of soldiers
Neser åb-Rā-em-xut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta-tā. ole nub-ḥetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, Ist Series, pl. 114.
? Here follow the name and titles of the deceased.
Speech of Nephthys.
met' án Nebt-het hap - å seśeta ári - å
Says Nephthys, “ Hide I the secret thing, make I
sețua - á Neith.
Says Neith, "Make pass the morning 1, no
semāśer · hru neb her ári māket en make pass the night I of duy every in making the protection of
*ata doo *o
Tuamāutef À usår pu Tuamāutef [is] the protection of Tuamāutef, [ for] Osiris [is] Țuamāutef." IV. Qubysensur. n manto como una met in Serqet
seqețet Say's Serqet, .
Speech of Serqet.
sa - á hru neb ári māket