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and temples with an interest to which we are completely strangers. They have the heritage of the past divided between them in the enduring traditions of the great wrongs they wrought upon each other.”


Lucknow, the capital of Oude, stands upon an elevated plain beside the river Gumti, forming a magnificent picture as seen from a distance, but fading, at a nearer approach, into an ordinary native town, covering an area of thirteen square miles, and containing a population of 285,000 souls. It rose into importance with the young dynasty that established itself in Oude when the Mogul Empire was crumbling. Of the native monuments in Lucknow we

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shall mention a few presently, but to an Englishman, the first and foremost monument in the city is the British Residency, left standing in ruins by Lord Clyde, as a memorial of the gallant defence which a handful of brave men made for long months against overwhelming odds. Surprised by the breaking out of the revolt, the Europeans in the city sought refuge there, and were joined by Sir Henry Lawrence and his scanty garrison. But the story of the siege is too long to recount here. From May, 1857, till March, 1858, the struggle went on ; Sir Henry Lawrence died, also Sir Henry Havelock, who brought the first ineffectual relief. General Neill was shot. The three brothers-in-arms slumber in the little cemetery, amidst a host of officers and others, whose plain grave-stones tell how they fell during the rebellion, or perished afterwards of suffering and fatigue. How Sir Colin Campbell and Sir James Outram at last raised the siege and crushed the rebellion is one of the most familiar facts of history. In October, 1858, the Governor-General and Lady Canning visited Lucknow in state, and found the work of re-construction already far advanced.

which the emperors at Delhi perniitted their deputy governors to use, are still heard at early morning sounding from the palace portals. But idle luxury and outward show are all that remain of the royal pomp and splendour of Murshidabad. In the Imámbára, at the festival of the Muharram, and upon the waters of the river at the annual Raft Festival in honour of the prophet Elias, when thousands of tiny rafts with burning lamps float down the stream-upon these and similar grand occasions the Nawab displays the old magnificence, and revives the memory of departed days; but the dominion that once extended over Bengal, Behar, and Orissa is now bounded by the Killa, or palace enclosure, half a mile in circumference.


The densely populated and disgustingly dirty city of Patna, the capital of Behar, extends its vast districts, intermingled with gardens and marshes, for about eight miles along the right bank of the Ganges. The principal street, of varying width, runs parallel to the river, and at right angles to it are innumerable narrow lanes. It contains a population of about 312,000. Its commerce is very considerable, but its special attractions are few. It is identified with Palibrotha, the capital of the Mauryas emperors—the city to which ambassadors were sent by the successors of Alexander. But the great straggling town possesses nothing to suggest its high antiquity. Tasteless brick buildings, mingled with paltry bamboo huts, line the sides of its small, dirty bazaars. Everywhere vegetation is rampant; palm-trees flourish on every available spot, and creeping plants hide the roofs of the houses with their festoons. Patna contains few monuments. There is an ugly pillar of brick and stone, in memory of the 200 British prisoners massacred in 1763 by order of Cassim Ali, the expatriated Nawab of Bengal.


Four hundred and twenty-one miles north-west of Calcutta, and about a hundred and twenty miles below the junction of the Ganges and the Jumna, stands the sacred city of Benares: a city that has known thirty centuries of uninterrupted splendour, and toward which, at the present time, five hundred millons of men-Brahminists in India, and Buddhists in Ceylon, Indo-China, China, and Thibet—look with earnest reverence. Its contemporaries, Nineveh and Babylon, have passed away, but Benares still flourishes, to link the modern with the ancient world. From the earliest days of Aryan colonisation, a city existed here or hereabouts. Ancient Váránasí (since corrupted into Benares) had been regarded as the most sacred city of the Hindu creed long before Gautama Buddha came, in the sixth century before Christ, to proclaim the equality, in the sight of God, of man and woman, noble and slave, beggar and priest, and to teach that by charity, virtue, and purity all might gain eternal life. Benares became the great city of Buddhism, and temples, convents, and splendid monuments arose, to which for eight centuries the votaries of Buddha flocked from all parts of India and China, and the adjacent lands. But Brahminism gradually regained its supremacy, and in the ninth century of the Christian era stamped out the rival faith with fire and sword. In 1194 Mohammed Ghori took Benares, and for 600 years various Mussulman dynasties held it; the larger temples were converted into mosques or tombs ;




owner is pleased to give them some fruit or sweetmeats. Over-feeding has made them unwieldy and little prone to mischief.” Pilgrims abound in the streets, also beggars and pickpockets. Now and then a marriage procession comes along, with camels and musicians, sweeping everything before it. Then, with shouts of “God is Truth!” a few relatives of the deceased hurry past with a corpse to the burning ghát. The crowds flocking to the temples and sacred wells, or passing in and out of the suffocating little shops, mingle with the camels and elephants and bulls in the streets, and produce a coup-d’æil that only Benares can show. Hideous-looking devotees, male and female, with foul tangled hair and twisted limbs, whine for alms. But their days are numbered; young India is getting disgusted with these exhibitions, and secretly longs for the police to interfere. From their balconies, especially towards evening, the well-to-do inhabitants, arrayed in spangled robes, look down upon the motley scene. On the roofs of many of the tall houses are pleasant retreats where, amidst plants and flowers, the rich spend many hours of the day, and sleep at night in small wooden chambers open to the breeze.

Benares, as the Holy City, has every nook and corner associated with some unseen power. It swarms with shrines and temples. They were again and again levelled by the Muslim invader, but have again and again risen ; and the city now contains 1,454 temples, besides innumerable shrines and sacred wells. The idols, which abound in private houses as well as in the sacred edifices, are said to outnumber the inhabitants three or four times over. Brahminism in the course of ages has had many developments. The supreme deity, Brahma, became by personification of the principles of creation, preservation, and destruction, the triad Brahma, Vishnu, and Síva. The elements and planets were worshipped, and departed heroes and saints, and tutelary gods were imagined for every natural phenomenon and every phase of life, until the Hindu pantheon has been calculated to contain no less than 330 millions of divinities.

Síva is the god paramount of Benares, but there are swarms of others. A pilgrim, on arrival, is expected to ring the sacred bell at the shrine of Binayaki, whose duty it is to record pilgrimages. Tarakeswar is the cheerer of the dying; Alprmteswar is the averter of death; Annupurna is the provider of food; Bhaironáth is the divine watchman and magistrate, appointed by Síva to keep guard over everything in Benares. He has a famous temple near the public garden, and in a separate shrine close by is his stone club, four feet in length.

But the Bisheswar, or Golden Temple, dedicated to Síva, is the holiest of the holy places in Benares. It contains a Lingam of uncarved stone, the venerated symbol of the god. The temple is neither great nor grand, but the central spire and domes are covered with gold-leaf, the gift of Runjeet Singh. Crowds of devotees perpetually bring offerings to this shrine; more than 100,000 have attended on the day of an eclipse. To adore this object once in a lifetime is considered sufficient to insure an entry into Paradise. Beside the building is a columned shrine covering a narrow well full of greenish fætid water. This well is the Gayan Bowree, the Source of Wisdom. A Brahmin draws the filthy liquid, and dispenses it to the worshippers. The well is said to have been formed by the drops that fell to earth when Síva too hastily quaffed the immense bowl of amrîta over which the gods were disputing. There are numerous holy wells in Benares, amongst them the Kalkup, or Well of Fate, which gives knowledge of the future; the Munikurnika, or


MUNICII :-Church Possessions – The Bridge at Vohring - Foundation of Munich-Development,Munich of To-day

The Old and New Towns—The Theresien Wiese-Churches-The Palace-The Max-Joseph-Platz-The Butcher's Leap-The Ministry of War-Statues, Obelisks, and Fountains—The Gallery of Sculpture-Picture GalleriesBavarian National Museum. NUREMBERG :-Early History-Cunning Craftsmen-Witty Inventions—The Spirit of Poetry and Art-The Bridge across the Pegnitz-The Königs-Strasse-Picturesque Architecture-Houses of Celebrities - Albrecht Dürer-Hans Sachs-Statues and Fountains-The Old Rathhaus and its Memories - The Thirty Years' War - The Castle-Church of St. Sebald - Legends of St. Sebald-Church of St. Lawrence-The Graves of Albrecht Dürer and Hans Sachs-The Seilersgasse-Relics- The Library-The City of Toys—The Venice of Germany.


EVEN or eight centuries ago the Church and its digni

taries held possession of a very large share of whatever was worth having in Europe. It was so in Bavaria, where Augsburg, Passau, and Freising, each had its bishop ruling over and drawing revenues from a good fair slice of territory. The old city of Ratisbon was the only important town which the reigning dukes really possessed, and their revenues were so precarious that their situation was often very embarrassing ;—they dared no longer freely pillage all merchants that crossed their territory, but they collected tolls, which formed, indeed, their principal source of revenue. Through Bavaria passed the commodities procured by the merchants of Venice in Eastern lands, and taken to Innsbruck to be distributed throughout Germany; and across the duchy also passed the salt from the inexhaustible mines of Salzburg, for the use of Suabia and Franconia. It was necessary for

all these wares to cross the Isar, and the Bishop of Freising built a bridge at Vohring, and established a market and set up a moneychanging office, so that the tide of commerce rolled past his doors; and what with tolls and the profits on changing money for the merchants, the episcopal revenues became very large. The Dukes of Bavaria bestirred themselves to alter this state of things, and built a bridge higher up the Isar, near the remains of an old Roman station. A market and an exchange office were established, and a town sprang up, which was named Monachium (from an adjacent convent). Henry the Lion thought the ducal bridge would pay better without its episcopal rival; accordingly he destroyed the bridge at Vohring. But the bishop had a powerful relative—his nephew, the Emperor of Germany—to whom he appealed. The imperial edict consequently obtained left the bishop's bridge at the bottom of the Isar, but enacted that one-third of all the receipts at the ducal bridge should go to the bishop. This edict, dated 1158, is the earliest official document in which Munich is mentioned by name.





Its existence was now guaranteed, and however potentates might settle their differences, the town grew and flourished.

When, in 1180, Otto of Wittelsbach founded the dynasty that ruled Bavaria till 1777, Ratisbon declined the honour of being the ducal capital, and managed to secure for itself the status of a free and imperial city. The dukes wanted a residence where neither arrogant ecclesiastics on the one hand nor turbulent burghers on the other could disturb them. They

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chose Munich; and henceforth successive princes vied with each other in strengthening, en. larging, and embellishing the town. Duke Lewis II. surrounded it in 1255 with walls, of which some towers and gates still exist in the interior of the city. In 1327 the principal quarters of Munich were destroyed by a fire, and the oldest portions of the city were subsequently rebuilt, much as we see them now. Till quite modern times the city remained a very ordinary German capital; its population of 20,000 in 1580 only rose to 40,000 in 1801, but since that date it has quintupled in number. Munich began to take higher rank among the cities of Germany under Duke Maximilian, head of the Catholic League during the Thirty Years' War. This prince, who in his youth had passed many years in Italy,

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