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Egyptians Mestrians. Phut also was the founder reus, we have nothing in the sacred books but their of Libya, and called the inhabitants Phutites, from names; for the Hebrews overthrew their cities, and himself; there is also a river in the country of the their calamities came upon them on the occasion Moors which bears that name, whence the greatest following. part of the Grecian historians mention that river, When, after the deluge, the earth was re-settled and the adjoining country, by the appellation of in its former condition, Noah set about its cultivaPhut; but the name it has now is derived from one tion, and planted it with vines; and when the fruit of the sons of Mestraim, who was called Lybyos. was ripe, and he had gathered the grapes in their We will inform you presently what has been the season, and the wine was ready for use, he offered occasion why it has been called Africa also. Canaan, sacrifice, and feasted; and being inebriated, he fell the fourth son of Ham, inhabited the country now asleep, and lay naked in an unseemly manner. called Judea, and called it from his own name Ca- When his youngest son saw this, he came laughing, naan. The children of these four were, Sabas, who and showed him to his brethren, but they covered founded the Sabeans: Evilas, who founded the Evi- their father's nakedness; and when Noah was made leans, now called Getuli; Sabathes, who founded sensible of what had been done, he prayed for prosthe Sabathens, called by the Greeks Astoborans; perity to his other sons; but for Ham, he did not Sabactas, who settled the Sabactens; and Ragmus, curse him by reason of his nearness in blood, but who founded the Ragmeans. This latter had two cursed his posterity, and when the rest of them essons, one of whom, Judadas, settled the Judadeans, caped that curse, God inflicted it on the children of a nation of the western Ethiopians, and left them Canaan. But of these matters we shall speak more his name; as did Sabas, to the Sabeans. But Nim- hereafter. rod, the son of Chus, stayed and tyrannized at Shem, the third son of Noah, had five sons,f who Babylon, as we have already observed.

inhabited the land that began at Euphrates, and Now all the children of Mesraim, being eight in reached to the Indian ocean. For Elam left behind number, possessed the country from Gaza to Egypt, him the Elamites, the ancestors of the Persians. though it retained the name of one only, the Philis- Ashur lived at the city Ninive, and named his subtim, for the Greeks call part of that country Pales- jects Assyrians, who became the most fortunate tine. As for the rest, Ludieim, Enemim, and Labim, nation beyond others. Arphaxad named the Arwho alone inhabited Libya, and called the country phaxadites, who are now called Chaldeans. Aram from himself; Nedim and Phethrosim, and Chesloim had the Aramites, whom the Greeks call Syrians; and Cephthorim, we know nothing of them besides as Lud founded the Ludites, who are now called their names : for the Ethiopic war,* which we shall Lydians. Of the four sons of Aram, Uz founded describe hereafter, was the cause that those cities Trachonitis and Damascus ; this country lies bewere overthrown.

tween Palestine and Celesyria. Ul founded Armenia; The sons of Canaan were these; Sidonius, who and Gather the Bactrians; and Mesa the Mesanebuilt a city of the same name, but called by the ans: it is now called Charax Spasina. Sala was Greeks Sidon; Amathus inhabited Amathine, which the son of Arphaxad: and his son was Heber, from is even now called Amathe by the inhabitants, al- whom they originally called the Jews Hebrews.S though the Macedonians named it Epiphania, from Heber begat Joctan and Phaleg. He was called one of his posterity; Arudeus possessed the island Phaleg because he was born at the dispersion of Arudeus; Arucus possessed Arce, which is in Li- | the nations to their several countries, for Phaleg banus. But of the seven others, Chetteus, Jebuceus, among the Hebrews signifies division. Now Joctan, Amorreus, Gergesseus, Eudeus, Sineus, and Sama- one of the sons of Heber, had these sons, Elmodad,

* One observation ought not here to be neglected, with re- the moderns suppose. Shem is also called the Father of all gard to that Ethiopic war, which Moses, as general of the the Children of Heber, or of all the Hebrews, in a history long Egyptians, put an end to, II. 10, and about which modern wri- before Abram passed over Euphrates. Gen. X. 21. ters seem very much unconcerned; viz. that it was a war of that consequence, as to occasion the removal or destruction of || If Phaleg were so called at his birth, as Josephus here six or seven nations of the posterity of Mesraim, with their rightly asserts, it is plain the short Hebrew or Masorete chrocities, which Josephus would not have said, if he had not had nology was not the chronology of Josephus, by which the conancient records to justify his assertions, though those records be fusion of languages and the dispersion of mankind fell no later now lost.

than the 100th year after the deluge, which is impossible to be † Gen. ix. 21.

| Gen. X. 21. supposed, and is a great deal too soon for such confusion of Ś That the Jews were called Hebrews from their progenitor languages and dispersion of mankind, which, by the best chroHeber, our author Josephus here rightly affirms; and not from nology, did not happen till 300 years later, or till 400 years Abram the Hebrew, or passenger over Euphrates, as many of after the flood.

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Saleph, Asermoth, Jera, Adoram, Aizel, Decla, Ebal, 1 he left the land of Chaldea, when he was seventyAbimeal, Sabeus, Ophir, Euilar, and Jobab: these five years old; and at the command of God went inhabited from Cophen, an Indian river, and in part into Canaan, and therein he dwelt himself, and left of Asia adjoining to it; and this may suffice. con- it to his posterity. He was a person of great sagacerning the sons of Shem.

city, both for understanding all things, and persuadI will now treat of the Hebrews. The son of ing his hearers; and not mistaken in his opinions, Phaleg, whose father was Heber, was Ragau, whose for which reason he began to have higher notions of son was Serug, to whom was born Nahor; his son virtue than others had; and he determined to reform was Terah, who was the father of Abraham, who and change the opinion all men happened then to accordingly was the tenth* from Noah, who was have concerning God; for he was the first who born in the two hundred and ninety-second year ventured to publish this notion, that there was but after the deluge : for Terah begat Abram in his one God, the creator of the universe; and that as seventieth year. Nahor begat Haran when he was to other gods, if they contributed to the happiness one hundred and twenty years old: Nahor was born of men, that each of them afforded it according to to Serug at his hundred and thirty-second year ; his appointment, and not by their own power. This Ragau had Serug at one hundred and thirty; at opinion was derived from the irregular phenomena the same age also Phaleg had Ragau; Heber begat that were visible both at land and sea ; as well as Phaleg in his hundred and thirty-fourth year, he those that happen to the sun and moon, and all the himself being begotten by Sala when he was a hun-heavenly bodies, thus: “ If,” said he, “ these bodies dred and thirty years old : whom Arphaxad had for had power of their own, they would certainly take his son at the hundred and thirty-fifth year of his care of their own regular motions ; but since they age. Arphaxad was the son of Shem, and born do not preserve such regularity, they make it plain twelve years after the deluge. Now Abram had two that so far as they operate to our advantage, they brethren, Nahor and Haran; of these, Haran left a do it not of their own power but as they are subserson, Lot: as also Sarai and Milcha, his daughters; vient to him that commands them; to whom alone and died among the Chaldeans, in a city of the we ought_justly to offer our honour and thanksChaldeans called Ur, and his monument is shown giving.” For which doctrines, when the Chaldeans to this day. These married their nieces ; Nahor and other people of Mesopotamia raised a tumult married Milcha, and Abram married Sarai. Now against him, he thought fit to leave that country; Terah hating Chaldea on account of his mourning and at the command and by the assistance of God, for Haran, they all removed to Haran of Mesopo- he came and lived in the land of Canaan.|| And tamia, where Terahf died, and was buried, when he when he was there settled, he built an altar, and had lived to be two hundred and five years old ; for performed a sacrifice to God. the life of man was already, by degrees, diminished, Berosus mentions our father Abram without and became shorter than before, till the birth of naming him, when he says, “ In the tenth generation Moses, after whom the term of human life was one after the flood, there was among the Chaldeans a hundred and twenty years, God determining it to man, righteous and great, and skilful in the celestial the length that Moses happened to live. Now Nahor science.” But Hecateus does more than barely had eight sons by Milcha; Uz and Buz, Kemuel, mention him ; for he composed and left behind him Chesed, Azau, Pheldas, Jadelph, and Bethuel. These a book concerning him. And Nicolaus of Damaswere all the genuine sons of Nahor; for Teba and cus, in the fourth book of his history, says, “ Abram Gaam, and Tachas and Maaca, were born of Reuma reigned at Damascus; being a foreigner, who came his concubine; but Bethuel had a daughter Rebecca, with an army out

of the land above Babylon, called and a son Laban.

the land of the Chaldeans. But after a long time he removed from that country also, with his people,

and went into the land then called the land of CaCHAP. VII.

naan, but now the land of Judea : and this when his

posterity were become a multitude; as to which posterity of his, we relate their history in another

work. Now the name of Abram is even still famous ABRAM having no sons of his own, adopted Lot, in the country of Damascus; and there is shown a his brother Haran's son, and his wife Sarai's brother: village named from him, the Habitation of Abram.”



# An. 1612.

g Gen. xii. l.

| Gen. xii. 5.

* Therefore the second Cainan is spurious. See Bernard's note.

† An. 1962.




| demonstrated that such reasonings were vain, and

void of truth. Whereupon he was admired by them in those conferences as a very wise man, and one

of great sagacity, when he discoursed on any subNow after this, when a famine* had invaded the ject he undertook; and this, not only in underland of Canaan, and Abram had discovered that standing it, but in persuading other men also to the Egyptians were in a flourishing condition, he assent to him. He communicated to them arithwas disposed to go down to them ; both to partake metic, and delivered to them the science of astronoof the plenty they enjoyed, and to learn what their my. For, before Abram came into Egypt, they were priests asserted concerning the gods : designing unacquainted with some parts of learning; for that either to follow them, if they had better notions than science came from the Chaldeans into Egypt, and he; or to convert them into a better way, if his own from thence to the Greeks also. notions proved the truest. Now as he was to take As soon as Abram returned into Canaan, he Sarai with him, and was afraid of the madness of parted the land between him and Lot, upon account the Egyptians with regard to women, lest the king of the tumultuous behaviour of their shepherds, should kill him on occasion of his wife's great concerning the pastures wherein they should feed beauty, he contrived this device: He pretended to their flocks. However, he gave Lot his option, or be her brother, and directed her in a dissembling leave to choose which lands he would take; and he way to pretend the same: for he said, it would be took, himself, what the other left; which were the for their benefit. Now as soon as they came into lower grounds at the foot of the mountains : and Egypt, it happened to Abram as he supposed. For he himself dwelt in Hebron, which is a city seven the fame of his wife's beauty was greatly talked of; years ancienter than Tanis of Egypt. But Lot for which reason Pharaoh, the king of Egypt, would possessed the land of the plain and the river Jordan, not be satisfied with what was reported of her, but not far from the kingdom of Sodom: which was would needs see her himself. But God put a stop to then a fine city, but is now destroyed, by the will his unjust inclinations, by sending upon him a dis- and wrath of God; as will be shown in its proper temper, and a sedition against his government. And place hereafter. when he inquired of his priests, how he might be freed from those calamities, they told him, that his

CHAP. IX. miserable condition was derived from the wrath of God, upon account of his inclination to abuse the stranger's wife. He then, out of fear, asked Sarai, At this time, when the Assyrians had the dowho she was, and who it was that she had brought minion over Asia, the people of Sodom were in a along with her ? And when he had discovered the flourishing condition ; both as to riches and the truth, he excused himself to Abram, that supposing number of their youth. There were five kings the woman to be his sister, and not his wife, he set that managed the affairs of this country: Ballas, his affections on her, as desiring an affinity with Barsas, Senabir, and Sumobor, with the king of hiin by marrying her, but not as incited by lust to Bela ; and each king led on his own troops. And abuse her. He also made him a large present in the Assyrians made war upon them, and dividing moncy; and gave him leave to enter into conversa- their army into four parts, fought against them. tion with the most learned among the Egyptians. Now every part of the army had its own comFrom which conversation his virtue and reputation mander, and when the battle was joined, the Assybecame more conspicuous than they had been before. rians were conquerors, and imposed a tribute upon

For whereas the Egyptians were formerly ad- the kings of the Sodomites, who submitted to this dicted to different customs, and despised each other's slavery twelve years; and so long they continued sacred and accustomed rites, and were angry one to pay their tribute; but on the thirteenth year with another on that account : Abram conferred they rebelled ; and then the army of the Assywith each of them, and confuting the reasonings rians came upon them, under their commandthey made use of for their respective practices, he ers Amraphel, Arioch, Chedorlaomer,g and Ti* Gen. xii. 10.

+ Gen. xiii. 7. since the date of this transaction falls four years before the | Numbers xiii. 22.

death of Ninyas, there are good grounds to infer, that Ninyas, Ś We nowhere in profane history meet with the name of who then lived in Persia, was the Chedorlaomer of Moses, at Chedorlaomer, nor with any of those names of the kings who that time the head of the Assyrian monarchy: that Amraphel were confederate with him. The reason hereof is, that Ctesias was his deputy at Babylon in Shinar: and Arioch and Tidal his X. from whom the profane historians take the names of these deputies over some other adjacent countries. For it is remarkakings, did not use their original Assyrian names in his history, ble, that Ninyas was the first who appointed under him such but rather such as he found in the Persian records. However, I deputies : nor is there any absurdity in Moses to call them kings,


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