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body, and figures of Mestha, Hāpi, Țuamāutef and Qebhsennuf made of wax, sheet silver, gold or porcelain, were laid upon the parts which these gods were supposed to protect. On the alabaster and stone jars the inscriptions were incised, and on wood and faïence they were painted or traced in outline in ink. In papyri of the XVIIIth and XIXth dynasties, the vignettes of the 17th chapter of the Book of the Dead show that Canopic jars were placed in a sepulchral chest, upon the sides of which were painted figures of the four gods, in the form of men, but each having its characteristic

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head. Out of the cover there rises the sun with the head and arms of a man, and in each hand he holds f ănch,“ life.” (Papyrus of Ani, pl. 8.) On papyri and coffins of a later period the jars are shown arranged in a row under the bier. In the 15 1st chapter of the Book of the Dead the four gods are shown standing in the mummy chamber, one at each corner; the inscriptions which refer to them read :-.

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serut ná Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Make to flourish I

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III i nå

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Oes · k Come have I that may be I in protection thy. Tie up [7] for thee

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nek head and limbs thy, smiting down for thee

xefta enemies

tep āt k

k thy

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The inscriptions on the outsides of the jars, which are sometimes accompanied by inscribed figures of the four gods, vary considerably; some consist of a few words only, but others occupy several lines. These inscriptions show that each of the four gods was under the protection of a goddess; thus Isis guarded Mesthå, Nephthys guarded Hāpi, Neith guarded Țuamāutef, and Selket or Serqet guarded QebẶsennuf. The following are examples of the formulæ inscribed on these jars :

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4 Ajola 六 Ausår

Amsee Ausar Amse Osiris [is] the protection of Åmseth, [for] Osiris [is] Åmseth."

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I These inscriptions are taken from the set of Canopic jars exhibited in the * British Museum, Nos. 886 to 889; they were made for the commander of soldiers

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Neser åb-Rā-em-xut, Psammetichus, son of Neith, son of Ta-tā. oo nub-hetep. See Sharpe, Egyptian Inscriptions, Ist Series, pl. 114.

2 Here follow the name and titles of the deceased.

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Speech of
Nephthys.

met' án Nebt-het hap - å seseta åri - å

Says Nephthys, Hide I the secret thing, make I

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. semāśer å hru neb her ári māket make pass the night I of duy every in making the protection of

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