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tory of our knowledge, that all physical wonderful scene in the churchyard, when discoveries are made by the Baconian Hamlet walks in among the graves, where method, and that any other method is the brutal and ignorant clowns are sing. unworthy the attention of sound and sen- ing and jeering and jesting over the re sible thinkers.
mains of the dead. You remember how One more instance, and I have done the fine imagination of the great Danish with this part of the subject. The same thinker is stirred by the spectacle, albeit great poet made another important phy- he knows not yet that the grave which is sical discovery in precisely the same way. being dug at his feet is destined to conGothe, strolling in a cemetery near Venice, tain all that he holds dear upon earth. stumbled on a skull which was lying be- But though he wists not of this, he is fore him. Suddenly the idea flashed moved like the great German poet, and across his mind that the skull was com- he, like Göthe, takes up a skull, and his posed of vertebræ; in other words, that speculative faculties begin to work. Imthe bony covering of the head was simply ages of decay crowd on his mind as he an expansion of the bony covering of the thinks how the mighty are fallen and have spine. This luminous idea was afterwards passed away. In a moment, his imaginaadopted by Oken and a few other great tion carries him back two thousand years, naturalists in Germany and France, but it and he almost believes that the skull he was not received in England till ten years holds in his hand is indeed the skull of ago, when Mr. Owen took it up, and in Alexander, and in his mind's eye he conhis very remarkable work on the Homol trasts the putrid bone with what it once ogies of the Vertebrate Skeleton, showed contained, the brain of the scourge and its meaning and purpose as contributing conqueror of mankind. Then it is that towards a general scheme of philosophic suddenly he, like Göthe, passes into an anatomy. That the discovery was made ideal physical world, and seizing the great by Göthe late in the eighteenth century doctrine of the indestructibility of matter, is certain, and it is equally certain that that doctrine which in his age it was diffor fifty years afterwards the English ana- ficult to grasp, he begins to show how, by tomists, with all their tools and all their a long series of successive changes, the dissections, ignored or despised that very head of Alexander might have been made discovery which they are now compelled to subserve the most ignoble purposes ; to accept.
the substance being always metamor. You will particularly observe the cir-phosed, never destroyed. Why,” asks cumstances under which this discovery Hamlet, “why may not imagination trace was made. It was not made by some the noble dust of Alexander ?” when, just great surgeon, dissector, or physician, but as he is about to pursue this train of ideas, it was made by a great poet, and amidst he is stopped by one of those men of facts, scenes most likely to excite a poetic tem- one of those practical and prosaic natures, perament. It was made in Venice, that who are always ready to impede the flight land so calculated to fire the imagination of genius. By his side stands the faithful, of a poet; the land of marvels, the land the affectionate, but the narrow-minded of poetry and romance, the land of paint. Horatio, who, looking upon all this as the ing and of song. It was made, too, when dream of a distempered fancy, objects Gothe, surrounded by the ashes of the that: “twere to consider too curiously to dead, would be naturally impressed with consider so.” Oh! what a picture ! what a those feelings of solemn awe, in whose contrast between Hamlet and Horatio ! presence the human understanding, re- between the idea and the sense; between buked and abashed, becomes weak and the imagination and the understanding. helpless, and leaves the imagination un- "Twere to consider too curiously to con. fettered to wander in that ideal worla sider so.” Even thus was Göthe troubled which is its own peculiar abode, and from by his cotemporaries, and thus too often which it derives its highest aspirations. speculation is stopped, genius is chilled,
It has often seemed to me that there is and the play and swell of the human mind a striking similarity between this event repressed, because ideas are made suborand one of the most beautiful episodes in dinate to facts, because the external is the greatest production of the greatest preferred to the internal, and because the man the world has ever possessed; I mean Horatios of action discourage the Hamlets Shakspeare's Hamlet. You remember that I of thought.
Much more could I have said to you on be done, we shall find that the necessity this subject, and gladly would I have en- of some such plan is likely to become larged on so fruitful a theme as the phi- more and more pressing: The field of losophy of scientific method ; a philosophy thought is rapidly widening, and as the too much neglected in this country, but of horizon recedes on every side, it will soon the deepest interest to those who care to be impossible for the mere logical operarise above the little instincts of the hour, tions of the understanding to cover the and who love to inquire into the origin of whole of that enormous and outlying doour knowledge, and into the nature of the main. Already the division of labor has conditions under which that knowledge been pushed so far that we are in immiexists. But I fear that I have almost ex- nent danger of losing in comprehensivehausted your patience in leading you into ness more than we gain in accuracy. In paths of thought, which, not being familiar, our pursuit after special truths, we run no must be somewhat difficult, and I can small risk of dwarfing our own minds. By hardly hope that I have succeeded in concentrating our attention we are apt to making every point perfectly clear. Still, narrow our conceptions, and to miss those I do trust that there is no obscurity as to commanding views which would be atthe general results. I trust that I have tained by a wider though perhaps less not altogether raised my voice in vain be- minute survey. It is but too clear that fore this great assembly, and that I have something of this sort has already hapdone at least something towards vindicat-pened, and that serious mischief has been ing the use in physical science of that de-wrought. For, look at the language and ductive method which, during the last two sentiments of those who profess to guide, centuries, Englishmen have unwisely des- and who in some measure do guide, public pised. Not that I deny for a moment opinion in the scientific world. According the immense value of the opposite or in- to their verdict, if a man does something ductive method. Indeed, it is impossible specific and immediate ; if, for instance, he for any one standing in this theater to do discovers a new acid or a new salt; great so. It is impossible to forget that within admiration is excited, and his praise is the precincts of this building, great se loudly celebrated. But when a man like crets have been extorted from nature by Göthe puts forth some vast and pregnant induction alone. Under the shadow idea which is destined to revolutionize a and protection of this noble Institution, whole department of inquiry, and by inmen of real eminence, men of power and augurating a new train of thought to form thought have, by a skillful employment of an epoch in the history of the human that method, made considerable additions mind; if it happens, as is always the case, to our knowledge, have earned for them that certain facts contradict that view, selves the respect of their cotemporaries, then the so-called scientific men rise up in and well deserve the homage of posterity. arms against the author of so daring an To them all honor is due ; and I, for one, innovation; a storm is raised about his would say, let that honor be paid freely, head, he is denounced as a dreamer, an ungrudgingly, and with an open and idle visionary, an interloper in matters bounteous heart. But I venture to sub- which he has not studied with proper somit that all discoveries have not been briety. made by this, their favorite process. I Thus it is that great minds are desubmit that there is a spiritual, a poetic, pressed in order that little minds may be and for aught we know a spontaneous and raised. This false standard of excellence uncaused element in the human mind, has corrupted even our language and which ever and anon, suddenly and with. vitiated the ordinary forms of speech. out warning, gives us a glimpse and a Among us a theorist is actually a term of forecast of the future, and urges us to reproach, instead of being, as it ought to seize truth as it were by anticipation. In be, a term of honor; for to theorize is the attacking the fortress, we may sometimes highest function of genius, and the greatstorm the citadel without stopping to sap est philosophers must always be the greatthe outworks. That great discoveries est 'theorists. What makes all this the have been made in this way, the history more serious is, that the further our knowof our knowledge decisively proves. And ledge advances, the greater will be the if, passing from what has been already need of rising to transcendental views of accomplished, we look at what remains to the physical world. To the magnificent doctrine of the indestructibility of matter, ideal world, lift us from the dust in which we are now adding the no less magnificent we are too prone to grovel, and develop in one of the indestructibility of force; and us those germs of imagination which even we are beginning to perceive that, ac- the most sluggish and apathetic undercording to the ordinary scientific treat- standings in some degree possess. The ment, our investigations must be confined striking fact that most men of genius have to questions of metamorphosis and of dis- had remarkable mothers, and that they tribution; that the study of causes and of have gained from their mothers far more entities is forbidden to us; and that we than from their fathers; this singular and are limited to phenomena through which unquestionable fact can, I think, be best and above which we can never hope to explained by the principles which I have pass. But unless I greatly err, there is laid down. Some, indeed, will tell you something in us which craves for more that this depends upon laws of the heredthan this. Surely we shall not always be itary transmission of character from pasatisfied, even in physical science, with rent to child. But if this be the case, how the cheerless prospect of never reaching comes it that while every one admits that. beyond the laws of coëxistence and of se- remarkable men have usually remarkable quence? Surely this is not the be-all and mothers, it is not generally admitted that end-all of our knowledge. And yet, ac- remarkable men have usually remarkable cording to the strict canons of inductive fathers? If the intellect is bequeathed on logic, we can do no more. According one side, why is it not bequeathed on the to that method, this is the verge and con- other? For my part, I greatly doubt fine of all. Happily, however, induction whether the human mind is handed down is only one of our resources. Induction in this way, like an heir-loom, from is indeed a mighty weapon laid up in the one generation to another. I rather bearmory of the human mind, and by its aid lieve that, in regard to the relation begreat deeds have been accomplished and tween men of genius and their mothers, noble conquests have been won. But in the really important events occur after that armory there is another weapon, I birth, when the habits of thought peculiar will not say of a stronger make, but cer- to one sex act upon and improve the habits tainly of a keener edge; and if that wea- of thought peculiar to the other sex. UDpon had been oftener used during the consciously, and from a very early period, present and preceding century, our know there is established an intimate and enledge would be far more advanced than it dearing connection between the deductive actually is. If the imagination had been mind of the mother and the inductive more cultivated, if there had been a closer mind of her son. The understanding of union between the spirit of poetry and the the boy, softened and yet elevated by the spirit of science, natural philosophy would imagination of his mother, is saved from have made greater progress, because na- that degeneracy towards which the mere tural philosophers would have taken a understanding always inclines; it is saved higher and more successful aim, and would from being too cold, too matter-of-fact, have enlisted on their side a wider range too prosaic, and the different properties of human sympathies.
and functions of the mind are more harFrom this point of view you will see moniously developed than would otherthe incalculable service women have ren- wise be practicable. Thus it is that by dered to the progress of knowledge. the mere play of the affections the finished Great and exclusive as is our passion for man is ripened and completed. Thus it induction, it would, but for them, have is that the most touching and the most been greater and more exclusive still. sacred form of human love, the purest, the Empirical as we are, slaves as we are to highest, and the holiest compact of which the tyranny of facts, our slavery would, our nature is capable, becomes an engine but for them, have been more complete for the advancement of knowledge and and more ignominious. Their turn of the discovery of truth. In after-life other thought, their habits of mind, their con- relations often arise by which the same versation, their influence, insensibly ex- process is continued. And notwithstandtending over the whole surface of society, ing a few exceptions, we do undoubtedly and frequently penetrating its intimate find that the most truly eminent men have structure, have, more than all other things had not only their affections, but also their put together, tended to raise us into an I intellect greatly influenced by women. I will go even farther; and I will venture | simply the conditions under which the to say that those who have not undergone regularity of nature is recognized. They that influence betray a something incom- explain the external world, but they replete and mutilated. We detect even in side in the internal. As yet we know their genius a certain frigidity of tone; scarcely any thing of the laws of mind, and we look in vain for that burning fire, and therefore we know scarcely any thing that gushing and spontaneous nature with of the laws of nature. Let us not be led which our ideas of genius are indissolubly away by vain and high-sounding words. associated. Therefore it is that those who We talk of the law of gravitation, and are most anxious that the boundaries of yet we know not what gravitation is; we knowledge should be enlarged, ought to talk of the conservation of force and distribe most eager that the influence of women bution of forces, and we know not what should be increased. in order that every forces are ; we talk with complacent ignorresource of the human mind may be at ance of the atomic arrangements of matonce and quickly brought into play. For ter, and we neither know what atoms are you may rely upon it that the time is ap- nor what matter is; we do not even know proaching when all those resources will if matter, in the ordinary sense of the be needed, and will be taxed even to the word, can be said to exist; we have as utmost. We shall soon have on our hands yet only broken the first ground, we have work far more arduous than any we have but touched the crust and surface of things. yet accomplished ; and we shall be en. Before us and around us, there is an imcountered by difficulties the removal of mense and untrodden field, whose limits which will require every sort of help, and the eye vainly strives to define; so comevery variety of power. As yet we are in pletely are they lost in the dim and shadthe infancy of our knowledge. What we owy outline of the future. In that field, have done is but a speck compared to which we and our posterity have yet to what remains to be done. For what is traverse, I firmly believe that the imaginathere that we really know? We are too tion will effect quite as much as the unapt to speak as if we had penetrated into derstanding. Our poetry will have to rethe sanctuary of truth and raised the vail inforce our logic, and we must feel as of the goddess, when in fact we are still much as we must argue. Let us, then, standing, coward-like, trembling before hope that the imaginative and emotional the vestibule, and not daring from very minds of one sex will .continue to accelefear to cross the threshold of the temple. rate the great progress, by acting upon The highest of our so-called laws of nature and improving the colder and harder · are as yet purely empirical. You are minds of the other sex. By this coalition,
startled by that assertion, but it is literally by this union of different faculties, differtrue. Not one single physical discovery ent tastes, and different methods, we shall that has ever been made has been con- go on our way with the greater ease. A nected with the laws of the mind that vast and splendid career lies before us, made it; and until that connection is as- which it will take many ages to complete. certained our knowledge has no sure ba- We see looming in the distance a rich and sis. On the one side we have mind; on goodly harvest, into which perchance the other side we have matter. These some of us may yet live to thrust our two principles are so interwoven, they so sickle, but of which, reap what we may, act upon and perturb each other, that we the greatest crop of all must be reserved shall never really know the laws of one for our posterity. So far, however, from unless we also know the laws of both. desponding, we ought to be sanguine. Every thing is essential; every thing We have every reason to believe that hangs together, and forms part of one when the human mind once steadily comsingle scheme, one grand and complex bines the whole of its powers, it will be plan, one gorgeous drama, of which the more than a match for the difficulties preuniverse is the theater. They who dis- sented by the external world. As we surcourse to you of the laws of nature as if pass our fathers, so will our children surthose laws were binding on nature, or as pass us. We, waging against the forces if they formed a part of nature, deceive of nature what has too often been a precaboth you and themselves. The laws of rious, unsteady, and unskilled warfare, nature have heir sole seat, origin, and have never yet put forth the whole of our function in the human mind. They are strength, and have never united all our faculties against our common foe. We, that our descendants, benefiting by our therefore, have been often worsted, and failure, will profit by our example, and have sustained many and grievous re- that for them is reserved that last and deverses. But even so, such is the elasticity cisive stage of the great conflict between of the human mind, such is the energy of Man and Nature, in which, advancing that immortal and god-like principle which from success to suc ss, fresh trophies lives within us, that we are battled with will be constantly won, every struggle will out being discouraged, our very defeats issue in a conquest and every battle end quicken our resources, and we may hope' in a victory.
From Bentley's Miscellany.
RUSHING I E A D LONG INTO MARR LAG E.
knows what it is; if not, he can live in
expectation. Captain and Mrs. CourteA DAZZLING gleam of white favors ney departed at two o'clock on their flashed into the admiring eyes of numer- wedding tour, the guests followed, and ous spectators, as a string of carriages the family were left alone, to themselves and horses turned prancing away from and to Aunt Clem. Aunt Clem, a sister the church of a noted suburb of the me- of Dr. Marsh's, rejoiced in the baptismal tropolis. The gay and handsome Augus- name of Clementina, which had been long ta Marsh had just become Mrs. Courte. since shortened by her nieces into Clem. ney, and the bridal party were now re- She was a woman of some judgment, turning home to partake of the wedding shrewd and penetrating, especially with breakfast.
regard to her nieces faults, and whenDr. Marsh, a physician, was popular in ever Aunt Clem wrote word from the his small locality, and his five daughters country that she was coming on a visit, were attractive girls, fully expecting to they called it a black-letter day. make good marriages, although it was “I am so upset !” uttered Mrs. Marsh, understood that they would have no for- sitting down with a half-groan. tune, for the Doctor lived up to his in- “That's through eating custard in a come, if not beyond it. The first to carry morning,” said Aunt Clem. out the expectation was Augusta, who “ Eating nonsense,” returned Mrs. married Captain Courteney.
Marsh. "Did you see that young man The Captain was only a captain by who sat next to—which of the girls was courtesy, He had sold out of the army it ?—to you, Annis, I think : did you and lived upon his property, five hundred notice bim, Clementina ?" a year. Quite sufficient to marry upon,
“Yes. A nice-looking man." thought Augusta ; but the Captain, what “Nice-looking! Why, he has not got with his club, and his tailor, and his opera, a handsome feature in his face !" and his other bachelor expenses, had found “A nice countenance, for all that,” it little enough for himself. He met Au- persisted Aunt Clem. “One you may gusta Marsh, fell in love with her, and confide in at the first glance. What of determined to renounce folly and settle him ?" down into a married man. Dr. Marsh “I am horribly afraid he is going to had no objection, Augusta had less ; so a propose for one of the girls. He dropped home was set up at Brompton, and this some words to me; and now, instead of was the wedding-day.
leaving the house, he is down stairs, It need not be described : they are all closeted with the Doctor. Which of you alike : if the reader has passed his, he girls is it that has been setting him on to