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constant attendance every where, even when he was not invited to be present, made him strongly suspected of betraying their secrets to the enemy; for they plainly perceived that they understood all the resolutions taken against them at their consultations. Nor was there any one whom they had so much reason to suspect of that discovery as this John; yet was it not easy to get quit of him, so potent was he grown by his wicked practices. He was also supported by many of those eminent men, who were to be consulted upon all considerable affairs; it was therefore thought reasonable to oblige him to give them assurance of his good will upon oath: accordingly John took such an oath readily, that he would be on the people's side, and would not betray any of their counsels or practices to their enemies, and would assist them in overthrowing those that attacked them, and that both his hand and his advice. So Ananus and his party believ. ed his cath, and did now receive him to their consultations, without farther suspicion; nay, so far did they believe him, that they sent him as their ambassador into the temple, to the zealots, with proposals of accommodation; for they were very desirous to avoid the pollution of the temple as much as they possibly could, and that no one of their nation should be slain therein.

14. But now this John, as if his oath had been made to the zealots, and for confirmation of his good-will to them, and not against them, went into the temple, and stood in the midst of thein, and spake as follows: that she had ruu ma

36 know of every thing that was secretly contrived against * them by Ananus and his party, but that both he and they " should be cast into the most imminent danger, unless sone 66 providential assistance were afforded them; for that Anau nus made no longer delay, but had prevailed with the peo. ople to send ambassadors to Vespasian, to invite them to " come presently and take the city; and that he had appoint" ed a fast for the next day against them, that they might o obtain admission into the temple on a religious accoint, or “ gain it by force, and fight with them there; that he did s not see how long they could either endure a siege, or how “ they could fight against so many enemies. He added far“ther, that it was by the providence of God he was himself " sent as an ambassador to them, for an accommodation; for " that Ananus did therefore offer them such proposals, that * he might come upon them when they were unarmed: that " they ought to choose one of these two methods, either to "intercede with those that guarded them, to save their lives, “ or to provide some foreign assistance for themselves: that “ if they fostered themselves with the hopes of pardon, in “ case they were subdued, they had forgotten what despe“ rate things they had done, or could suppose, that as soon “ as the actors repeated, those that had suffered by them “must be presently reconciled to them; while those that “ have done injuries, though they pretend to repent of them, “ are frequently hated by the others for that sort of repent“ance; and that the sufferers, when they get the power in" to their hands, are usually still more severe upon the act“ ors: that the friends and kindred of those that had been “ destroyed would always be laying plots against them : 5 and that a large body of people were very angry on ac“count of their gross breaches of their laws, and (illegal] “ judicature, insomuch, that although some part might com“ miserate them, those would be quite overborne by the ma“jority.”

CHAP. IV.

The Idumeans, being sent for by the zealots, came immediately to

Jerusalem : and when they were excluded out of the city, they lay all night there. Jesus, one of the high-priests, makes a speech to them ; and Simon the Idumean makes a reply to it.

8 1. Now by this crafty speech John made the zealots afraid; yet durst he not directly name what foreign assistance he meant, but in a covert way only intimated at the Idumeaps. But now that he might particularly irritate the leaders of the zealots, he calumniated Avanus, that he was about a piece of barbarity, and did in a special manner threaten them. These leaders were Eleazar the son of Simon, who seemed the most plausible' man of them all, both in considering what was lit to be done, and in the execution of what he had determined upon, and Zacharias the son of Phalek, both of whom derived their families from the priests. Now when these two men had heard, not only the common threatenings which belonged to them all, but those peculiarly levelled against themselves, and besides how Ana-,

nus and his party, in order to secure their own dominion, - had invited the Romans to come to them, for that also was

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part of Joho's lie, they hesitated a great while what they should do, considering the shortness of the time by which they were straitened; because the people were prepared to attacked them very soon, and because the suddenness of the plot laid against them bad almost cut off all their hopes of getting any foreign-assistance; for they might be under the height of their afflictions before any of their confederates could be informed of it. However, it was resolved to call in the Jdumeans; so they wrote a short letter to this effect that “ Apapus bad imposed on the people, and was betraying " their metropolis to the Romans: that they themselves had “ revolted from the rest, and were in custody in the teniple, “ on account of the preservation of their liberty : that there

was but a small time left, wherein they might hope for 56 their deliverance; and that unless they would come imme« diately to their assistance, they should themselves be soon " in the power of Apapus, and the city would be in the “ power of the Romans." They also charged the messengers to tell many more circumstances to the rulers of the Idumeans. Now there were two active men proposed for the carrying this message, and such as were well able to speak, and to persuade them that things were in this posture, and, what was a qualification still more necessary than the former, they were very swist of foot; for they knew well enough that these would immediately comply with their desires, as being ever a tumultuous and disorderly nation, always on the watch upon every motion, delighting in mutations; and upon your flattering them ever so little; and petitioning them, they soon take their arms, and put themselves into motion, and make haste to a battle, as if it were a feast. There was indeed occasion for quick dispatch in the carrying of this message, in which point the messengers were no way defective. Both their names were Ananias; and they soon came to the rulers of the Idumeans.

2. Now these rulers were greatly surprised at the contents of the letter, and at what those that came with it further told them: whereupon they ran about the nation like madmen, and made proclamation that the people should come to war; so a multitude was.suddenly gotten together, sooper indeed than the time appointed in the proclamation, and every body caught up their arms, in order to maintain the liberty

of their metropolis; and twenty thousand of them were put in · battle array, and came to Jerusalem under four commande

ers, John, and Jacob the son of Sosas; and besides these was Simon the son of Cathlas, and Phineas the son of Clu- ! sothus.

3. Now this exit of the messengers was not known either to Apanus, or to the guards, but the approach of the Idu. means was known to him; fur as he knew of it before they came, be ordered the gates to be shut against them, and that the walls should be guarded. Yet did not he by any means think of fighting against them, but before they came to blows, to try what persuasions would do. Accordingly Jesus, the eldest of the high-priests next to Apapus, stood upon the tow. er that was over against them, and said thus, “ Many trou66 bles indeed, and those of various kinds have fallen upon “ this city, yet in none of them have I so much wondered 6 at her fortune, as now, when you are come to assist wick. 6 ed men, and this alter a manner very extraordinary ; for

I see that you are come to suport the vilest of men against “ us, and this with so great alacrity, as you could hardly o put on the like, in case our metropolis had called you “ to her assistance against barbarians. And if I had per. « ceived that your army was composed of men like unto

those who invited them, I had not deemed your attenupt so “ absurd. For nothing does so much cement the minds of “ men together as the alliance there is between their man6 pers. But now for these men who have invited you, if “ you were to examine them one by one, every one of them 66 would be found to have deserved ten thousand deaths; for as the very, rascality and off-scouring of the whole country, « who have spent in debauchery their own substance, and “ by way of trial beforehand, have madly plundered the “ neighbouring villages and cities, in the upshot of all, have “ privately run together into this holy city. They are rob“ bers, who by their prodigious wickedness have profaned “ this most sacred floor, and who are to be now seen drink“ing themselves drunk in the sanctuary, and expending the 16 spoils of those whom they have slaughtered upon their uns satiable bellies. As for the multitude that is with you one 46 may see them so decently adorned in their armour, as it “ would become them to be, bad their metropolis called them ** to her assistance against foreigners. What can a man call “ this procedure of yours but the sport of fortune, when he “ sees a whole nation coming to protect a sink of wicked *wretches ? I bave for a good while been in doubt what it

“ could possibly be that should move you to do this so sudes denly; because certainly you would not take on your ar

mour on the behalf of robbers, and against a people of kin " to you without some very great cause for your so doing, “ But we have an item that the Romans are pretended, and “ that we are supposed to be going to betray this city to " them; for some of your men have l.tely made a clamour * about those matters, and have said they are come to set

their metropolis free. Now we cannot but admire at these * wretches in their devising such a lie as this against us;

for they knew there was no other way to irritate against 66 us men that were paturally desirous of liberty, and on that * account the best disposed to fight against foreign enemies, “ but by framing a tale as if we were going to betray that “most desirable thing, liberty. But you ought to consider 66 what sort of people they are that raise this calumny, and “ against what sort of people that calumny is raised, and to “ gather the truth of things, not by fictitious speeches, but : « out of the actions of both parties; for what occasion is « there for us to sell ourselves to the Romans ? while it was .66 in our power pot to have revolted from them at the first, 66 or when we had once revolted, to have returned under 6 their dominion again : and this while the peighbouring " countries were not yet laid waste: whereas it is not an .66 easy thing to be reconciled to the Romans, if we were de“ sirous of it, now they have subdued Galilee, and are there66 by become proud and insolent; and to endeavour to please “ them at the time when they are so near us, would bring .66 such a reproach upon us as were worse than death. As “ for myself indeed, I should have preferred peace with .66 thepi before death; but now we have once made war up" on them, and fought with them, I prefer death with repu6.tation, before living in captivity under them. But far" ther, whether do they pretend that we, who are the rulers .66 of the people, have sent thus privately to the Romans, or “ hath it been done by the common suffrages of the people ? " If it be ourselves only that have done it, let them pame fore those friends of ours that have been sent, as our servants, 66 to inanage this treachery. Hath any one been caught as 6 he went out on bis errand, or seized upon as he came 6 back? Are they in possession of our letters ? How could 65 we be concealed from such a vast number of our fellow ci6 tizens, among whom we are conversant every hour, while VOL VI.

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