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ARTHANITHI—(Elements of Political Economy in Bengali by Professor
Jogindra Nath Samaddar, B.A., F.R.E.S., F.R., Hist. S. etc., of
Howrah, Re. I, pp. 158 and 17.) This is a small but well-got-up book on Political Economythe first book of its kind in Bengali. Professor Samaddar's book is mainly divided under three headings-Production, Distribution and Exchange, but
under these headings he has discussed all the main topics, including Co-Operative Credit Grain Banks, Currency Questions, and such other interesting topics. His delineation of these has been done with care and judgment and the treatment has been lucid and scientific. We believe it is the first book of its kind in Bengali and this being so the author deserves encouragement. The Hon'ble Maharaja Bahadur of Cossimbazar has borne the expenses of the publication and its dedication has been made to that gentleman. Professor Benoyendra Nath Sen of the Presidency College has written a short introduction.
ANNUAL REPORT OF THE CALCUTTA IMPROVEMENT TRUST FOR
THE PERIOD ENDING 31ST MARCH 1912.-Calcutta Improvement
The first Annual Report of the Calcutta Improvement Trust deals with a period of only two months, but is interesting in the indications it gives of policy and procedure. The following extract shows that the Trust are proceeding on sound lines, and with a proper sense of the relative importance of the various activities which call for their attention. It is encouraging to note that, while we have heard a great deal in times past of this and that sectional "improvement” the Trust is alive to the necessity that “the problem of Calcutta and its suburbs must
be considered as a whole,” and it seems reasonable to hope that in so important a matter the very best expert advice will be secured before any general plan or scheme of communications and improvements is decided on.
“The Preamble of Act V. (B.C.) of 1911 describes the object of the creation of the Trust in the following terms :* It is expedient to make provision for the improvement and expansion of Calcutta by opening up congested areas, laying out or altering streets, providing open spaces for purposes of ventilation or recreation, demolishing or constructing buildings, acquiring land for the said purposes and for the re-housing of persons of the poorer and working classes displaced by the execution of improvement schemes, and otherwise as hereinafter appearing—' but in carrying out these objects the Trust has been left quite unfettered. No scheme had been prepared and handed over to it for execution. The first duty that lay before the Trustees was to determine what congested areas should be opened up, what thoroughfares should be constructed and what suburbs should be laid out to accommodate the evergrowing population of Calcutta. It was obvious that the problem of Calcutta and its suburbs must be considered as a whole and that small detached schemes should not be undertaken uutil a general plan of operations had been approved. In view of the complexity of the problem the principal public associations in Calcutta were consulted and replies from most of them were still awaited at the close of
“ Though the delay of thirteen years, which took place between the time when it was recognised that legislation must be undertaken and the passing of the Calcutta Improvement Act, is to be deplored and has rendered the operations of the Trust more difficult and much more costly, the Trustees were fortunate in having available at the beginning of 1912 figures of the Census taken in 1911 and also in finding the maps of the recent survey of Calcutta under issue. Information as to the population and the conformation of every part of the town of the most recent character is therefore available in a convenient form. Further information lies ready for the Trust in the Report of Dr. Crake, who was engaged from February to October 1911 in making a Sanitary Survey of the northern parts of Calcutta.
'Feeling the necessity of obtaining the fullest informatoin possible the Trustees have arranged for the survey of the suburban municipalities on the scale of 50 feet to the inch, a work which is estimated to last two years, and they have also
offered to contribute one-third of the cost of a similar survey of the town of Howrah.
* “As the two months during which the Trust was in existence were months only of enquiry and preparation, this report is a meagre one.
Annexed to it, however, for future reference are reproductions of certain plans which were laid before the Trustees at their early meetings. Plate I shows the areas adjoining Calcutta which have been surveyed by the Survey Department on a large scale either for the Port Trust or for Government. The remaining plates are reproductions of the ward diagrams attached to Dr. Crake's report. In view of the impending creation of the Improvement Trust, Government engaged Dr. H. M. Crake, D.P.H., one of the Health Officers in the employ of the Calcutta Corporation, to make a sanitary survey of the residential buildings in the north of Calcutta. Between ist February and 31st October 1911 he inspected and classified 14,332 masonry buildings, lying in Wards I and II and V to XI. He prepared a plan of each Ward dealt with, showing the areas in which a varying percentage of the houses was classed as unfit for human habitation. These plans are reproduced here as illustrating one phase of the problem with which the Trust has to deal and that they may be readily accessible hereafter.”
The plans mentioned above with their black record of condemned areas, are a striking commentary on the sanitary condition of the northern wards, and a study of the incidence of the worst areas goes to prove the necessity of wide and convenient thoroughfares to make the outside areas available for residential development, and equally of comprehensive schemes of improvement on sites. It seems obvious that these three things-communications, suburban development, and site improvement—are interdependent, that they should form parts of a general plan, and that they must proceed concurrently.
Annual Statement of the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of
British India with British and Foreign Countries, Vols. 1
and II, Government of India. Accounts relating to the Sea-borne Trade and Navigation of
British India for the month of September 1911 and for the six months, 1st April to 30th September 1911, compared with the corresponding period of the years 1909 and 1910.
Government of India. Report on the Trade carried by Rail and River in Bengal in the
official year 1910-11. Bengal Government. Local Self-Government Resolution reviewing the Reports on the
working of the District Boards in Bengal during the year
1910-11. Bengal Government. Report on the working of Municipalities in the Punjab during
the year 1910-11. Punjab Government. Report on the Administration of the Madras Presidency during
the year 1910-11. Madras Government. Annual Report of the Director-General of Archeology for the
year 1909-10. Government of India. Annual Report of the Kalimpong Demonstration Farm for the
year 1910-11. Bengal Government. Annual Report of the Dumraon Agricultural Experiment
Station for the year 1910-11. Bengal Government. Annual Report of the Bankipore Agricultural Experiment
Station for the year 1910-11. Bengal Government. Accounts relating to the Trade by Land of British India with
Foreign countries for the seven months, April to October 1911, compared with the corresponding period of the years 1909 and 1910. Government of India.
Report on the Land Revenue Administration of the Plains
Districts of the Province of Eastern Bengal and Assam for the Revenue years 1910-11. Eastern Bengal and Assam
Government. Report on the Administration of the Punjab and its Dependencies
for 1910-11. Punjab Government. Accounts relating to the Trade by Land of British India
with Foreign countries for the eight months, April to November 1911, compared with the corresponding period of
the years 1909 and 1910. Government of India. Report on Municipal Administration and Finance in the United
Provinces of Agra and Oudh during the year ending 31st
March 1911. United Provinces Government. Report on Public Instruction in the Madras Presidency for 1910
and 1911, Voll. Madras Government. Administration Reports of United Provinces 1910 und 1911.
United Provinces Government. Report on the Administration of Bengal for the years 1910 and
1911. Bengal Government. Report on the Operations of the Department of Land Records
Punjab, for the year ending 30th September 1911. Punjab
Government. Annual Report on the Chenab, Jhelum and Chaman Colonies
for the year ending 30th September 1911. Punjab Govern
ment. Third and Final Forecast of the Winter Rice Crop of Bengal
for 1911. Bengal Government. Annual Report of the Director-General of Archæology for the
year 1910-11. Part 1, Administration. Government of
year 1910-11. Bengal Government. Note on the Work of the Burdwan Agricultural Station for the
year 1910-11. Bengal Government.