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would assure him that he would preserve him, and give him his assistance in getting up out of the cavern ;'accordingly he incautiously reached him his right hand, when the other man prevented him, and stabbed him under his loins with a spear, and killed him immediately.
36. And on this day it was that the Romans New all the mul. titude that appeared openly : But on the following days they searched the hiding places, and tell upon those that were un. der ground, and in the caverns, and went thus through every age, excepting the intants and the women, and of these there were gathered together as captives twelve hundred ; and as for those that were llain at the taking of the city, and in the for. mer fights, they were numbered to be forty thousand. So Verpalian gave order that the city should be entirely demol. ilhed, and all the fortifications burnt down. And thus was Jotapata taken, on the thirteenth year of the reign of Nero, on The first day of the month Panemus [Tamuz].
CHAP. VIII. How Jofephus was Discovered by a Woman, and was willing
to deliver himself up to the Romans; and wbat Discourse he had with his own Men when they endeavoured to hinder him; and what he said to Vefpapan, when he was brought to him; and after what manner Vefpahan ufed him afterward.
$1. AND now the Romans searched for Josephus, both out
n of the hatred they bore him, and because their gen. eral was very desirous to have him taken ; for he reckoned that it he were once taken, the greatest part of the war would be over. They then searched among the dead, and looked into the most concealed recesses of the city ; but as the city was forft taken, he was aflisted by a certain supernatural providenice ; for he withdrew himself from the enemy when he was in the midst of them, and leaped into a certain deep pit, whereto there adjoined a large den at one side of it, which den could not be seen by those ihat were above ground : and here he met with forty persons of eminency that had concealed themselves, and with provilions enough to satisly them tor not a few days. So in the day time he hid himselt from the enemy, who had seized upon all places, and in the night time he got up out of the den, and looked about for some way of escaping, and took exact notice of the watch: But as all places were guarded every where on his account, that there was no way of getting off unseen, he went down again into the den. Thus be concealed himself two days ; but on the third day, when they had taken a woman who had been with them, he was discovered. Whereupon Vespasian sent immediately and zealoudly two Kribunes, Paulinus and Gallicanus, and ordered them to give
Josephus their right hands as a security for his life, and to ex. hort him to come up.
2. So they came and invited the man to come up, and gave him assurances that his lite should be preserved: But they did not prevail with him ; for he gathered suspicions from the probability there was that one who had done so many things against the Romans, must luffer for it, though not from the mild tem, per of those that invited him. However, he was afraid that he was invited to come up in order to be punished, until Vei. pasian sent besides these a third tribune, Nicanor, to him ; he was one that was well known to Josephus, and had been his familiar acquaintance in old time. When he was come, he enlarged upon the natural mildnels of the Romans towards those they have once conquered, and told him, that he had be. haved himself fo valiantly, that the commanders rather admir. ed than hated him ; that the general was very desirous to have him brought to him, not in order to punish him, for that he could do though he should not come voluntarily, but that he was determined to preserve a man of his courage. He more. over added this, that Vespasian, had he been resolved to im. pose upon him, would not have sent to him a friend of his own, nor put the fairest colour upon the vileft aétion, by pretending friendship, and meaning perfidiousnels ; nor would he have himlelf acquiesced, or come to him, had it been to deceive him..
3. Now as Jofephus began to hefitate with himself about Nicanor's proposal, the soldiery were so angry, that they ran hastily to set fire to the den ; but the tribune would not permit them lo to do, as being very desirous to take the man alive. And now, as Nicanor lay hard at Jolephus to comply, and he understood how the multitude of the enemies threatened him, he called to mind the dreams which he had dreamed in the night time, whereby God had signified to him before hand both the future calamities of the Jews, and the events that concerned the Roman emperors. "Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterily of priests ; and just then was he in an ecstacy, and letting before him the tremendous images of the dreams he had lately had. he put up a secret prayer to God, and said, “ Since it pleaseth thee, who hast created the Jewilh nation, to depress the same, and since all their good fortune is gone over to the Romans, and Gince thou hast made choice of this soul of mine to foretel what is to come to pass hereafter, I willingly give them my hands, and am content to live And I protest openly, that I do not go over to the Romans as a deserter of the Jews, but as a minister from thee.”
. When he had said this, he complied with Nicanor's in
vitation. But when tole jers votaz bed with him, un. derstood that he yielded to bode =Tied bsn to come up, they came about him in a body and czee out, Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose ; tha God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they delpile death. O josephus ! art thou ftill fond of lite ; and canft thou hear to see the light in a state of flavery ? How loon halt thou forgoten thyself ? How many haft thou perluaded to lose their lives for liberty ? Thou haft therefore had a falle reputation for manhood, and a like falle reputation for wis. dom, it thou canst hope for preservation from those against whom thou hait fought so zealously, and art however willing to be preserved by them, if they be in earnest. But although the goal tortune of the Romans hath made thee forget thy felt, we ought to take care that the glory of our forefathers may But be tarnitbed. We will lend thee our right hand and a fword; and at thou wilt die willingly, thou shalt die as gene. rakes the laws; but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them. As loon as they said this, they began to thruft their words in and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of welding himself to the Romans.
i bus Julephus was afraid of their attacking him, vidarla he theuld be a betrayer of the commands of Gov o re they were delivered. So he began to
o berto them, in the distress he was then in, With the hell S hen: * O my friends, why are we lo POR
res and why do we set our soul and boh
met deur companions, at such variance ? Can *** , p
l an nor the man I was formerly ? Nay, th e
bow that matter stands well enough. are ding e in war; but so that it be according to the war, ordeando conquerors. If, therefore, I anna Inna the ford of the Romans, I am truly worthy
k ov mr own word. and my own hand : But if ther anit of mercy, and wouli spare their enemy, how much MR V ught we to have mercy upon ourselves, ands to spare eunes p For at is certainly a toolish thing to do that to eurteras which we quarrel with them tor doing to us. I conteis freely, that it is a brave thing to die for liberty ; but Itill fo that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the prelent cale our enemies do neither meet us in batile, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a coward who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. What are we asraid when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death? If
at we are afraid of when we but suspect our enemies lict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain ?
ay be said, we must be llaves. And are we then in a ate of liberty at present? It may also be faid, that it is a
manly aft for one to kill himself. No, certainly, but a most unmanly one ; as I should esteem that pilot to be an arrant coward, who out of fear of a storm, should sink his ship of his own accord. Now, self-murder is a crime most remote from the common nature of all animals, and an instance of impiety against God our Creator : Nor indeed is there any animal that dies by its own contrivance, or by its own means, for the d'efire of life is a law engraven in them all ; on which account we deem those that openly take it away from us to be our enemies, and thole that do it by treachery are punished for so doing. And do not you think that God is very angry when a man does injury to what he hath bestowed on him ? For from him it is that we have received our being, and we ought to leave it to his disposal to take that being away from us. The bodies of all men are indeed mortal, and are created out of corruptible matter; but the soul is ever immortal, and is a portion of the divinity that inhabits our bodies. Besides, it any one destroys or abuses a depofitum he hath received from a mere man, he is esteemed a wicked and perfidious person; but then if any one cast out of his body this divine depositum, can we imagine that he who is thereby affronted does not know of it! Moreover, our law justly ordains that flaves which run away from their master shall be punished though the masters they run away from may have been wicked masters to them. And Ihall we endeavour to run away from God, who is the best of all masters, and not think ourselves guilty of impiety ? Do not you know that those who depart out of this lite, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame; that their houses and their pofterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from wbence, in the revolutions of ages, they are again set into pure bodies ; while the fouls of those whole hands have acted madly against themlelves, are received by the darkest place in Hades, and while God, who is their father, punishes those that offend against either of them in their posterity ; for which reason God hates such do. ings, and the crime is punished by our most wise legislator. Accordingly our laws determine, that the bodies of such as kill themselves should be exposed vill the sun be let, without burial, although at the same time it be allowed by them to be lawful to bury our enemies (sooner). The laws of other na. tions also enjoin such mens hands to be cut off when they are dead, which had been made use of in destroying themselves when alive, while they reckoned that as the hody is alien from the soul, so is the hand alien from the body. It is therefore, my friends, a right thing to reason juftly, and not add to the calamities which men bring upon us, impiety towards our Creator. If we have a mind to preserve ourlelves, let us do it ; for to be preserved by those our enemies, to whom we have
vitation. But when those Jews who had fled with him, un. derstood that he yielded to those that invited him to come up, they came about him in a body, and cried out, " Nay, indeed, now may the laws of our forefathers, which God ordained himself, well groan to purpose ; that God we mean who hath created the souls of the Jews of such a temper, that they del. pise death. O josephus ! art thou still fond of life ; and canft thou bear to see the light in a state of slavery ? How soon hast thou forgotten thyself ? How many haft thou perluaded to lose their lives for liberty ? Thou hast therefore had a falle reputation for manhood, and a like falle reputation for wif. dom, if thou canst hope for preservation from those against whom thou hast fought so zealously, and art however willing to be preserved by them, if they be in earnest. But although the good fortune of the Romans hath made thee forget thyself, we ought to take care that the glory of our forefathers may not be tarnished. We will lend thee our right hand and a fword ; and it thou wilt die willingly, thou shalt die as gene. ral of the Jews; but if unwillingly, thou wilt die as a traitor to them." As soon as they said this, they began to thrust their (words at him, and threatened they would kill him, if he thought of yielding himself to the Romans.
5. Upon this Jolephus was afraid of their attacking him, and yet thought he should be a betrayer of the commands of God, if he died before they were delivered. So he began to talk like a philosopher to them, in the distress he was then in, when he said thus to them: “ my friends, why are we so earnest to kill ourselves ? and why do we set our soul and body, which are such dear companions, at such variance ? Can any one pretend that I am not the man I was formerly ? Nay, the Romans are sensible how that matter stands well enough. It is a brave thing to die in war ; but so that it be according to the law of war, by the hand of conquerors. If, therefore, I avoid death from the sword of the Romans, I am truly worthy to be killed by my own sword, and my own hand : But if they adinit of mercy, and would spare their enemy, how much more ought we to have mercy upon ourselves, and to spare ourselves ? For it is certainly a foolish thing to do that to ourselves which we quarrel with them tor doing to us. I confess freely, that it is a brave thing to die for liberty ; but still so that it be in war, and done by those who take that liberty from us; but in the present case our enemies do neither meet us in battle, nor do they kill us. Now, he is equally a cow. ard who will not die when he is obliged to die, and he who will die when he is not obliged so to do. What are we afraid of, when we will not go up to the Romans? Is it death ? If fo, what we are afraid of when we but suspect our enemies will inflict it on us, shall we inflict it on ourselves for certain ? But it may be said, we must be slaves. And are we then in a clear state of liberty at present? It may also be faid, that it is a