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night was far gone, and the storm very terrible, Apanus gave the guards in the cloisters leave to go to sleep; while it came into the heads of the zealots to make use of the saws belong, jog to the temple, and to cut the bars of the gates to pieces. The noise of the wind, and that not inferior sound of the thunder, did here also conspire with their designs, that the noise of the saws was not heard by the others. , ..7. So they secretly went out of the temple to the wall of the city, and made use of their saws and opened that gate which was over against the Idumeans. Now at first there came a fear upon the Idumeans themselves, which disturbed them, as imagining that Apanus and his party were coming to attack them, so that every one of them had his right hand upon his sword, in order to defend himself; but they soon came to know who they were that came to them, and were entered the city. And bad the Idumeans then falled upon the city, nothing could liave hindered them from destroyiog the people every mau of them, such was the rage they were in at that time : but as they first of all made haste to get the zealots out of custody, which those that brought them in earnestly desired them to do, and not to overlook those for whose sake they were come, in the midst of their distresses, nor to bring them into still greater danger; for that when they had once seized on the guards, it would be easy for them to fall upon the city ; but that if the city were once alarmed, they would not then be able to overcome those guards, because as soon as they should perceive they were there, they would put themselves in order to fight them, and would hinder their coming into the temple.
The cruelty of the Idumeans, when they were gotten into the
temple, during the storm": and of the zealots. Concerning the slaughter of Ananus, and Jesus, and Zacharias. And how the Idumeans retired home.
8). This advice pleased the Idumeans, and they as. cended through the city to the temple. The zealots were also in great expectation of their coming, and earnestly waited for them. When therefore these were entering, they also came boldly out of the inner temple, and mixing them selves among the Idumeans, they attacked the guards; and some of those that were upon the watch, but were fallen asleep, they killed as they were asleep: but as those who were now awakened made a cry, the whole multitude arose and in the amazement they were in, caught hold of their arms, immediately, and betook themselves to their own defence ;and so long as they thought they were only the zealots who attacked them, they went on boldly, as hoping to overpower them by their number ; but when they saw others pressing in upon them also, they perceived the Idumeans were got in ; and the greatest part of them laid aside their arms, together with their courage, and betook themselves to lamentations. But some few of the younger sort covered themselves with their armour, and valiantly received the Idumeans, and for a great while protected the multitude of old.mer. Others indeed gave a signal to those that were in the city of the calamities they were in; but when these were also made sepsible that the Idumeans were come in, none of them dnrst come to their assistance, only they returned the terrible echo of wailing, and lamented their misfortunes. A great howling of the women was excited also, and every one of the guards were in danger of being killed. The zealots also joined in the shouts raised by the Idumeads; and the storar itself rendered the cry more terrible : por did the Idumeans spare any body, for as they are naturally a most barbarous aud bloody nation, and had been distressed by the tempest, they made use of their weapons against those that had shut their gates against them, and acted in the saine manner as to those that supplicated for their lives, and those that sought them, insomuch that they ran through those with their swords, who desired them to remember the relation there was between them, and begged of them to have regard to their common temple. Now there was at present neither any place for flight: nor any hope of preservation, but as they were driven one upon another in heaps so were they slais. Thus, the greater part were driven together by force, as there was now no place of retirement, and the murderers : were upon them, and, having no other way, threw themselves. down headlang into the city; whereby, in my opinion, they tinderwept a more miserable destruction than that which they avoided, because that was a voluntary one. And now the nuter temple was all of it overflowed with blood; and that day, as it came on saw. eight thousand five hundred dead bodies there.
2. But the rage of the Idumeans was not satiated by these slaughters; but they now betook themselves to the
city and plundered every house, and slew every one they met: and for the other multitude they esteemed it needless tu go on with killing them, but they sought for the high-priests, and the generality went with the greatest zeal against them; and as soon as they caught them they slew them, and then standing upon their dead bodies, in way of jest, upbraided Ananus with his kindness to the people, and Jesus with his speech made to them from the wall. Nay, they proceeded to that degree of impiety, as to cast away their dead bodies without burial although the Jews used to take so much care of the burial of men, that they took down those that were condemned and crucified, and buried them before the going down of the sun. I should not mistake if I said, that the death of Apabus was the beginning of the destruction of the city, and that from this very day may be dated the overthrow of her wall, and the ruio of lier affairs, whereon they saw their high-priest, and the procurer of their preservation, slain in the midst of their city. He was on other accounts also a venerable, and a very just man ; and besides the grandeur of that nobility, and dignity, and honour, of which he was possessed, he had been a lover of a kind of parity, even with regard to the meapest of the people ; he was a prodigious lover of liberty, and an admirer of a democracy in government, and did ever prefer the public welfare before his own advantage, and preferred peace above all things; for he was thoroughly sensible that the Romans were not to be conquered. He also foresay that of necessity a war would fole low, and that unless the Jews made up matters with them very dextrously, they would be destroyed ; to say all in a word, if Anapus had survived, they had certainly compounded matters; for he was a shrewd man in speaking and persuadiog the people, and had already gotten the mastery of those that opposed his designs, or were for the war. And the Jews had then put abundance of delays in the way of the Romans, if they had had such a general as he was. Jesus was also joined with him, and although he were inferior to him upon the comparison, he was superior to the rest ; and I cannot but thiok, that it was because God had doomed this city to destruction, as a polluted city, and resolved to purge his sanctuary by fire, that he cut off these their great defenders and well-wishers, while those that a little before had worn the sacred garments, and had presided over the * pub
• Koruir ýggnoxus, or wordly worship, as the author to the He brews, calls the sanctuary, agror nor Monor a wordly sanctuary.
lic worship, and had been esteemed venerable by those that dwelt on the whole habitable earth when they came into our city, were cast out naked, and seemed to be the food of dogs. and wild beasts. And I caonot but imagine that virtue itself groaned at these men's case, and lamented that she was here so terribly conquered by wickedness. And this at last was the end of Apanus and Jesus.
3. Now after these were slain, the zealots and the multitude of the Idumeans fell upon the people as upon a flock of profane animals, and cut their throats; and for the ordinary sort, they were destroyed in what place soever they caught them. But for the noblemen and the youth, they first caught them and bound them, and shut them up in prison, and put off their slaughter, in hopes that some of them would turn over to their party ; but not one of them would comply: with their desires, but all of them preferred death before being iorolled among such wicked wretches as acted against their own country. But this refusal of theirs brought upon them terrible torments; for they were so scourged and tortured, that their bodies were not able to sustain their torments : till at length, and with difficulty, they had the favour to be slain. Those whom they caught in the day time were slain in the night, and then their bodies were carried out, and thrown away, that there might be room for other prisoners; and the terror that was upon the people was so great, that no one had courage enough either openly to weep for the dead man that was related to him, or to bury him; but those that were shut up in their own houses, could only shed tears in secret, and durst not even groan without great cau. tion, lest any of their enemies should hear them; for if they did, those that mourned for others soon underwent the sanje death with those whom they mourned for. Only, in the pight-time, they would take up a little dust, and throw it upon their bodies, and even some that were the most ready to expose themselves to danger, would do it in the day-time; and there were twelve thousand of the better sort who perished in this manner.
4. And now these zealots and Idumeans were quite weary of barely killing men, so they had the impudence of set. ting up fictitious tribunals, and judicatures for that purpose, and as they intended to have * Zacharias, the sou of Baruch;
• Some commentaries are ready to suppose, that this Zacharias the son of Baruch, here most unjustly slain by the Jews in the tem.
one of the most eminent of the citizens, slain, so what provoked them against him was, that hatred of wickeduess, and love of liberty, which were so eminent in him: he was also a rich man, so that by taking him off, they did not only hope to seize his effects, but also to get rid of a man that had great power to destroy them. So they called together by a public proclamation, seventy of the principal men of the populace, for a shew, as if they were real judges, while they had no proper authority. Before these was Zacharias accused of a design to betray their polity to the Romans, and had traitorously sent to Vespasian for that purpose. Now there appeared no proof or sign of what he was accused, but they affirmed themselves, that they were well persuaded that so it was, and desired that such their affirmation might be taken for sufficient evidence. Now when Zacharias clearly saw that there was no way remaining for his escape among them, as having been treacherously called before them, and then put in prison, but not with any intention of a legal trial, he took great liberty of speech in that despair of his life he was under. Accordingly he stood up, and laughed at their pretend. ed acousation, and in a few words confuted the crimes laid to his charge; after which he turned his speech to his accusers, and went over distinctly all their transgressions of the law, and made heavy lamentation upon the confusion they
ple, was the very same person with Zacharius, the son of Barachias, whom our Saviour says the Jews slew between the temple and the altar, Matt xxiii. 33 This is a somewhat strange exposition. Since Zé. chariah the prophet was really the son of Barachia and grandson of Iddo, Zech. i l. and how he died we have no other accounts than that before us in St. Matthew, while this Zacharias was the son of Baruch. Since the slaughter was past when our Saviour spake those words, the Jews had then already slain him, whereas this slaughter of Zecharias the son of Baruch in Josephus, was then about 34 years future. And since that slaughter was between the temple and the altar, in the court of the priests, one of the most sacred and remote parts of the whole temple, while this was, in Josephus' own words, in the middle of the temple, and much the most probably in the court of Israel only, (for we have had no intimation that the zealots had at that time profaned the court of the priests. See B. v. ch. i. 2.) Nor do I believe that our Josephus, who always insists on the peculiar sacredness of that inmosi court, and of the holy house that was in it, would have omitted so material an aggravation of this barbarous murder, as perpetrated in a place so very holy, had that been the true place of it. See Antiq, B. xi, ch. vii. 9 1. vol. ii. and the note here on B. v. ch. i. $ 2.