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Mark iii, 31. and standing without, sent unto him, calling him, Capernaan.

Mat. xii. 46. desiring to speak with him.
Mark iïi. 32. And the multitude sat about him, and they said
Mat. xii. 47. one said unto him, Behold, thy mother and they brethren

stand without, desiring to speak with thee.
48. But he answered, and said to him that told him, Who

is mother ? and who are my brethren ?
Mark iii. 34. And he looked round about on them which sat about

him, Matt.xli.49. and he stretched forth his hand towards his disciples, and

said, Behold, my mother and my brethren!

50. for whosoever shall Lukeviii.21. hear the word of God, and do it. Mat, xii, 50. do the will of my Father, which is in heaven, the same is my brother, and sister, and mother 63.

Matt. xii. part of ver. 46, 47, 46 - stood without

47 Then-unto bim, Behold, thy mother, and thy brethren.
MARK iii. part of ver, 31, 32. ver. 33. part of ver. 34. and ver. 35.

31 There came then his brethren and his mother-
32 --without seek for thee.

33 And he answered them saying, Who is my mother, or my
brethren ?

34 —and said, Bebold my mother and my brethren!

35 For whosoever shall do the will of God, tbe same is my brother, and my sister, and mother.

LUKB viii. part of ver. 19. ver. 20. and part of ver. 21. 19. Then-his mother and his brethren

20 And it was told him by certain, which said, Thy mother and thy brethren stand without, desiring to see thee.

21 And he answered and said unto them, My mother and my brethren are these which


Parable of the Sower 6
MATT. xiii. 1-9. MARK iy. 1-9. LUKE viii. 448 65,
Mat, xiii, 1. The same day Jesus went out of the house, and sat by Galilee.

the sea-side.

63 The disciples of Christ were beloved by him more than bis natural kindred. The spiritual affection towards those who were the children of God, was greater than the natural affection towards those who were related to him by the ties of blood.

64 The order seems to be so decisively settled by St. Matthew, xii. 1. εν δε τη ημέρα εκείνη εξελθων, &c. &c. that Doddridge, Pilkington, Lightfoot, and Michaelis, have placed it in its present position. Archbishop Newcome, however, has inserted before Matt. xiii. I, various passages of St. Luke (xi. 37. fin. xii. and xiii. 1—9.) His arguments for so doing have not appeared to be satisfactory, and I have preferred therefore the concurrent testimony of the other harmonizers. Michaelis also places the parable of the sower after Luke viii. I. but so much


Mark iv, 1. and he began again to teach by the sea-side :
Matt. xiii. 2. and great multitudes were gathered together unto him.

of his arrangement is put together without adequate reasons,
that his authority does not weigh so much with me as to in-
duce me to reject, in this instance, the testimony of Lightfoot,
&c. &c.

In the present order of St. Luke, we find that the account
of Jesus's mother and his brethren desiring to speak with him,
is mentioned as what happened after he bad spoken the parable
of the sower, &c. whereas St. Matthew and St. Mark place it
before the parable. Now, though it is evident from this observa-
tion, that the exact chronological order of facts is not strictly ad-
hered to by all the Evangelists; yet it may appear also that the
variation here is very inconsiderable: for we find, from all the
accounts, that it was on the same day that the parable was
spoken, and his friends came to him: and even a diary could
not be esteemed very incorrect on account of such a transposi-
tion as this; so far is an bistorian from being liable to bo
charged with impropriety, in taking a liberty which all writers
have freely indulged themselves in.

I have here followed the order of St. Matthew and St. Mark, as the circumstances related seem to require us to do : for, (1.) The multitudes that hindered Jesus's mother, and his brethren, from coming at him, seem to be those mentioned Mark ii. 1922. And the reason why he would not go out unto them, was probably because he knew that they were come out to lay hold on him. (2.) When his mother and bis brethren came, he was yet in the house; for they stood without, desiring to speak with him: but we find that, before he spake the parable, he went out of the house, and sat by the sea side; and when he went into an house again, in the latter end of that day, he had sent the multitudes away. So that, had bis relations come after he had spoken the parable (as it is said by St. Luke) they would have found no difficulty in getting access to him.Pilkington, notes, p. 25.

65 St. Luke relates, in a succession of chapters, several events not mentioned by the other Evangelists; and, with the exception of some few, which are supposed, from internal evidence arising from minute coincidences to be the same as those related by the others, much difficulty bas been generally experienced as to the order in which these events are to be placed. Lightfoot begins at Luke xi. 23. and goes on to ch. xviii. 1-15. Pilkington, from ch. x. 17. proceeds without one interruption to ch. xiii. 1-23. when he inserts the events related by St. John, ch. x. 22, &c. be then proceeds to Luke xiii. 23, and thence through the intermediate chapters to Luke xvii. 1-11. Michaelis goes from Luke x. 37. to Luke xvii. without the incorporation of other passages. Doddridge begins with Luke x. 17--24. and proceeds without interruption to Luke xviii. 1-14. excepting that he transposes Luke ix. 51-56. to the last mentioned passage. Newcome has bestowed very great labour on these chapters. He begins Luke x. 17-24. and omitting from ch. xi. 14. to ch. xiii. 22. proceeds without interruption to ch. xvii, 1–10. From this brief statement it will appear that the larger proportion of these chapters ought to be continuously put together. The several alterations and transpositions proposed by these harmonizers will be considered in the various notes in which the arrangements which have appeared most advisable will be defended. Archbishop Newcome seems to have departed, in some instances, from the order proposed by Lightfoot, without sufficient cause.

Luke viï.4. And when much people were gathered together, and Sea of Grljwere come to him out of every city,

lee. Mark iv. 1. he entered into a ship, and sat in the sea, and the whole

multitude was by the sea, on the land, (and) Matt. xiii. 2. stood on the shore. Mark iv. 2. And he taught them many things by parables, and

said unto them in his doctrine,

66 It will be observed, that our Lord did not speak to the people in parables till the Scribes and Pharisees had accused him of working his miracles by the power of an evil spirit. The Messiah then, in mercy and compassion to these hearers, and to all who were captious, began to address them in parables. This is well expressed in the translation of Matt. xiii. 13, 14. in the version published in 1729, 2 vols. 8vo. anonymously dedicated to Lord King, the then lord chancellor: the name of the author has escaped my memory. Therefore speak I to them in parables ; because they overlook what they sec; and are inattentive to what they bear, neither will they comprehend. And in them is fulfilled that prophecy of Esaias, “by hearing ye shall hear, and shall not understand: and seeing ye sball see, and shall not perceive. For the heart of this people is waxed gross, and their ears are dull of hearing, and their eyes they have closed ; lest at any time they should see,” &c. &c. &c. and in v. 16. bappy are you that your eyes bave sight, and that your ears have their bearing. The common idea, that our Lord spoke in parables that the people might not understand him, and their condemnation be still increased, is as unfounded as it is blasphemous. The parallel passage, in Markiv. 12. must be interpreted likewise according to the tenor of the context. It is a prophecy, fulfilled at the very time that our Lord was speaking, that though the people saw with their eyes the outward proofs of his divine power, yet they should not perceive the evidence arising therefrom, that he was their Messiah.

Dr. Adam Clarke has inserted, from Glassias, a very good dissertation on the nature and use of parabolical writing, at the end of his notes on Matt. xiii. He finds the following ten significations in Scripture.

1. The word parable means a simple comparison, Matt. xxiv. 32-38.

2. An obscure similitude, Matt. xv. 13-15. Where Pharisaism is represented as a plant, &c.

3. A simple allegory, as in Matt. xiii.

4. A maxim, or wise sentence, as the corresponding Hebrew word Sun is used in ) Kings iv. 22.

5. A by-word, or proverb of reproach, 2 Chron. vii. 20. Psa. xliv. 14. and lxix. 11. Jerem. xxiv. 9.

6. A frivolous, uninteresting discourse, or a disregarded and despised address, Ezek. xx. 49.

7. A simple proverb, or adage, Luke iv. 23.

8. A type, illustration, or representation, Heb. ix. 9. where the first tabernacle is said to have been a figure, a parable, to last only for a time.

9. A daring exploit, and unusual and severe trial, a case of imminent danger and jeopardy. It may be doubted whether this part of Dr. Clarke's criticism is managed with equal judg

There appears to be no proper authority for the use of the word in this sense. The instance he adduces, Heb. xi. 19. where Abraham is said to have received his son from the dead, tv tapabóln, “ he being in the most imminent danger of losing


Mark iv. 3. Hearken; Behold, there went out a sower, to sow
Luke vüi.5. his seed :
Mark iv. 4. and it came to pass as he sowed, some fell by the way-

Luke viïi. 5. and it was trodden down,
Mark iv. 4. and the fowls of the air came, and devoured it up.

5. And some fell on stony ground, where it had not much

earth; and immediately it sprang up, because it had no

depth of earth :

6. But
Lukeviii. 6. as soon as it was sprung up,
Mark iv. 6. when the sun was up, it was scorched,
Luke viii. 6. it withered away, because it lacked moisture :
Mark iv. 6. and, because it had no root, it withered away.

7. And some fell among thorns; and the thorns grew up
Lake viii. 7. with it,
Mark iv. 7. and choaked it, and it yielded no fruit.
Matt. xiii. 8. But other fell into good ground,
Lake viji. 8. and sprang up,
Mark iv. 8. and increased,
Matt, xiii. 8. and brought forth fruit, some an hundred-fold, some sixty-

fold, some thirty-fold. Lake vüi. 8. And when he had said these things, he cried, Mark iv. 9. and he said unto them, He that hath ears to hear, let

him hear.

MATT. xiii. part of ver. 2. ver. 3—7. part of ver. 8. and ver. 9. 2-so that he went into a ship, and sat; and the whole multitude

3 And he spake many things unto them in parables, saying, Behold, a sower went forth to sow;

4 And when he sowed, some seeds fell by the way-side, and the fowls came and devoured them up.

5 Some fell upon stony places, where they had not much earth ; and forthwith they sprung up, because they had no deepness of earth :

6 And when the sun was up, they were scorched ; and because they had no root, they withered away.

7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprung up, and choked them.

8 -and brought forth fruit, some an hundred-fold, some sixtyfold, some thirty-fold. 9 Who bath ears to hear, let him hear.

MARK iv. part of ver. 1. ver. 6, 7, and part of ver. 8. 1 -and there was gathered unto him a great multitude, so that

6 But when the sun was up, it was scorched ; and because it had no root, it withered away.

7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns grew up, and choked it, and it yielded no fruit.

bis lise," does not seem satisfactory: the common translation being undoubtedly preferable.

10. The word parable signifies also a very ancient and obscure prophecy, Ps. xlix. 4. Prov. i. 6. Matt. xiii. 35.


8 And other fell on good ground, and did yield fruit that sprang up-and brought forth, some thirty, and some sixty, and some an hundred.

LUKE viii. part of ver. 5, 6, 7, 8. 5 A sower went out to sow—and as he sowed, some fell by the way-side-and the fowls of the air devoured it.

6 And some fell upon a rock; and

7 And some fell among thorns; and the thorns sprang upand choked it.

8 And other fell on good ground-and bare fruit an hundredfold-He that hath ears to hear, let him hear,


Reasons for teaching by Parables 67. MATT. xiij. 10-17. MARK iv. 10-12. LUKE viii. 9, 10. Mark iv.10. And when he was alone, Mat. xiii.10. the disciples came and said unto him, Why speakest thou

to them in parables ? 11. He answered, and said unto them, Because it is given

unto you to know the mysteries of the kingdom of hea

ven, but unto them it is not given. 12.

For whosoever hath, to him shall be given, and he shall have more abundance : but whosoever hath not, from him

shall be taken away even that he hath. Markiv. 11. but unto them that are without, all these things are done

in parables : 12. That seeing they may see, and not perceive: and hear

ing they may hear, and not understand : lest at any time they should be converted, and their sins should be for

given them. Mat. xiii.14. And in them is fulfilled the prophecy of Esaias, which

saith, By hearing ye sball hear, and shall not understand ;

and seeing ye shall see, and not perceive : 15. For this people's heart is waxed gross; and their ears

are dull of hearing; and their eyes they have closed ; lest at any time they should see with their eyes, and hear with their ears, and should understand with their heart, and

should be converted, and I should heal them. 16. But blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear :

67 These sections, to the end of the chapter, are arranged in their present order upon the concurrent authority of Lightfoot, Newcome, and Doddridge, and the regularity of the Scripture narrative. Pilkington has observed the same method, excepting that he has placed elsewhere the dining at the house of Matthew; an event which he inserts after the call of that apostle, and which has been already discussed. Michaelis varies too but little from this disposition. He seems doubtful where to place the treatment received by our Lord at Nazareth, (section 41,) and supposes that this event took place but once: he reasons from the similarity of the two circumstances. See note on sect. 4, of this chapter.

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