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The marriage of Rowland Hill, the management of the two schools as one business, and some other changes, necessitated more definite business-arrangements. When taken as a partner he did not know what share in the profits his father intended to give him, and he resolved to say nothing about it. He said nothing for nine years, and no formal division of the common stock was made till his marriage. The father, mother and the four sons engaged in the school. Now some definite distribution was necessary. Edwin, the second son, was arbitrator, and by careful calculation, based on the age and services of each member of the family, he prepared a scale; and his scheme of distribution was adopted. In these articles the diversity of need was considered. The principle of distribution of profits was based on the necessities of the partners. It was a principle not unlike the old brotherly system of Ministerial support in Methodism. Wants were claims. The three bachelor brothers were fixed in one sum. The married brothers received two or three times as much. The more children a partner had, the more money he received. So they gathered, some more, some less. And when they did mete it,' it happened with their means of daily bread as with the manna: 'he that gathered much had nothing over, and he that gathered little had no lack; they gathered every man according to his eating.' The estimated reasonable expenses' of each claimant formed the basis of calculation; and these were determined by the brothers in their Family Council.

The Family Council was an important institution. In it they debated all questions of action and conduct. They formed a Family Fund as a mutual insurance against the sicknesses and accidents of life to which all were liable. Relief was to

be given in embarrassment, and, in giving relief, regard was had to the propriety or impropriety of the conduct which had caused it. The principle was one of mutual insurance, founded on the undoubted fact that want is a greater evil than wealth, beyond a simple competence, is a benefit.' The Family Fund was not dissolved till 1856. No reticence as to fact or opinion obtained amongst the brothers. They debated each matter frankly. Eager in reform, ready to construct ideal schemes, independent, active, inventive in thought, they constructed fair Utopias, which contrasted brilliantly with the dull facts of daily life. The opinions were sometimes spoken out to their damage. So the Council passed the philosophical resolution: It is our opinion that when any one, by announcing an opinion, or by a mode of expression, has startled his hearers, that circumstance is a strong presumptive proof that he has done an injury to himself.'

With such restless intellectual speculation-speculation always on practical questions-it was difficult to maintain reticence, especially as frankness was their habit. The want of reticence sometimes caused trouble, and so the Council records: It is desirable to settle how far perfection of speculative opinion should be sacrificed to practical effect.' In their ardour, conscientiousness and inexperience, they sometimes formed harsh judgments of those in power.

I would do this,' and 'I would have that,' were put forth in full ignorance of what was practicable, sometimes of what was desirable. The result was, as one of them writes: We grievously underrated the great actual advantages and high comparative freedom which our country enjoyed.' In this fault they were, perhaps, not alone.

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The work of the school began to press heavily on the health of Row


land Hill, so he desired a change. To effect one, he must contrive some means of support for himself and wife. He also wished to do something 'which would make the world manifestly better' for his having lived in it. The variety of his schemes is indicative of the combined speculative and practical strength of his mind. In a list of topics, in 1832, are to be found: Propelling steamboats by a screw'-a matter for which F. P. Smith took out a patent four years later; 'Telegraphs by pressure of air'-anticipating the application of pneumatic apparatus ; 'Pendulous mechanism applied to steam-engines'-cuggesting improvements now employed in marineengines; Weighing letters,' and 'Assorting letters in coach.' Another scheme contained the germs of the Parcel Delivery Company, the General Omnibus Company and the District Post. Only one plan did he press to completeness. In 1836, he perfected and patented a machine for printing a continuous sheet of paper, and actually produced, at a cost of two thousand pounds, a machine which did clean, accurately-registered work at a speed tenfold greater than the old reciprocating machine; and but for the difficulties raised by the Inland Revenue Office as to the stamping of the sheets-a difficulty he offered to meet the great improvements introduced by The Times with the Walter machine, and by other web-machines which have so remarkably accelerated the production of newspapers in the last ten years, might have been in use for nearly half a century.

In 1833, Mr. Hill was obliged to go abroad for the benefit of his health. He was thirty-eight years of age. While travelling, he was offered the Secretaryship of the South Australian Colonization Association. Here his powers of organization found ample exercise. The principles


of the new scheme were,

first self

support for the colony; means to prevent that wide dispersion of colonists which had caused great suffering and serious mortality; the preservation of a higher moral standard by the exclusion of convicts; the adequate supply of labour, that the land might have both masters and men; and the maintenance of a numerical equality of the sexes. Care was taken to secure proper regulation of the emigrant traffic by sea. The shippers were paid on the number landed, and as in a healthy ship the number of deaths was kept below that of births, there was an incentive to promote health. Unpunctuality was guarded against by establishing the rule, that the emigrants were to be boarded and maintained by the shipowners from the announced day of sailing. The passengers were thus relieved from any loss but that of time. These and other regulations so acted upon the transport service that it became both punctual and safe.

Among the questions named in the memorandum of 1832 were some affecting the Post Office. The subject was now carefully studied. The method of study was inductive. Facts were diligently gathered, grouped, sifted, and hypotheses formed and tested.

The work was the employment of such leisure as his duties as Colonization Secretary allowed. The memorandum of 1832 contained suggestions for two important elements in his reform: the use of a standard of weight for postage, and the acceleration of the mails by new arrangements for conveyance and sorting. The latter plan was devised in 1826. Now he earnestly studied the whole question. In 1835 there was a surplus of revenue that rendered remission of taxation possible and probable. What tax could be most profitably reduced, and what were

the results of reduced taxation? Some taxes had been remitted with a loss to the revenue, and little relief to the public; on the other hand, the reduction of the tax on coffee had so stimulated consumption that there was a gain of one-half. Enquiry was made how far the productiveness of a tax kept pace with the increased numbers and prosperity of the nation. Tested by this standard, the tax on letters showed a bad preeminence. In twenty years, from 1815 to 1835, both the gross and nett income of the Post Office had declined. If it had only kept pace with the population, it should have increased by half a million.

The tax which would be most affected by those conditions of trade, education and movement of population which influence postal returns, was that on stage-coaches. This had more than doubled in the period; the increase was one hundred and twenty-eight per cent. The Post Office being a monopoly, the only way of measuring postal work was by the returns of other countries, and the nearest example, that of France, showed an increase of fifty-four per cent. in fourteen years. It was notorious that the exorbitant British rates, besides enormously stimulating the illicit carriage of letters, retarded communication. The tax needed reduction. On enquiry, it was soon found that reduction might be a benefit rather than a loss. The rates for letters were very irregular. There were upwards of forty rates for inland letters alone. A letter which was distributed in the city cost a penny, beyond fifteen miles fivepence, the rate rose irregularly to one shilling for three hundred miles, and every hundred miles beyond by one penny. If a letter crossed the Scotch border, it paid a toll of one halfpenny. If it went by North Wales to Ireland, it paid toll for crossing the bridges at Conway,and the Straits.

The slightest enclosure doubled the rates, and a second tripled it.

The cost of time and labour in taxing letters-that is, charging their postage was considerable, the collection of postage was slow and expensive, and extensive and complicated accounts had to be kept. It was found that the carriage of a letter cost but little, the Edinburgh mail costing per letter about the thirtysixth part of a penny. It soon appeared that the exorbitance and irregularity of the charge increased the expenditure and reduced the income. A packet of public papers was sent from Dublin to a country town. The office there was both parcel office for the mail and post office. The package was meant to be a parcel; it was charged as a letter. It could have been carried easily in a pocket. It was charged eleven pounds, for which sum the whole mail-coach could have been hired. A ship-captain was charged for a letter from Deal to London as much as would have paid a messenger handsomely for his time and inside places in the coach there and back, and yet have left considerable saving.

When evasion was so profitable, no wonder it was frequent. The agitation of the question produced instances which ranged from grave to gay, from grotesque joking with the department to painfully pathetic instances of the suffering caused by the system then in vogue. One of the best known is that of the poet Coleridge and the cottager at Keswick. Miss Martineau, in her History of England, attributes the incident to Rowland Hill. Her carelessness caused an attack on Mr. Hill for unrighteously taking to himself credit for charity, and it also enabled a sagacious or credulous Cumbrian to show to tourists the room in an inn where the thought of penny postage originated.

In the scheme of proposed reform, Mr. Hill was largely aided by Mr. Wallace, the Member for Greenock, who since 1833 had been urging enquiry and reform, and who, when the broader, more simple and complete schemes of Mr. Hill were propounded, rendered him most generously all the aid which his researches, his influence and position enabled him to give. At length, in 1837, a pamphlet was privately printed, and an interview was secured with the Chancellor of the Exchequer. The chief features of the reform were uniformity of rate and prepayment, with arrangements for more frequent and rapid distribution. The question of prepayment, which proved in practice to be the least difficult, caused apprehensions of unpopularity with the public and loss to the revenue. As a guard against the latter, the idea of Mr. Charles Knight, that stamped wrappers should be used for newspapers, was now recommended for letters. It was then urged that if illiterate people came to purchase a wrapper, they might not be able to address it. It was suggested that, perhaps, this difficulty might be obviated by using a bit of paper just large enough to take the stamp, covered with a glutinous wash on the back which could then be placed on the letter by the bringer, and so the necessity for redirecting would be avoided.

The postage-stamp was an afterthought to meet the needs of the illiterate correspondent or messenger, and neither Mr. Hill nor those officially engaged expected its use to become either popular or general. During the present year a dealer in curiosities has advertised a collection of five thousand varieties of stamps for sale. The private circulation of the pamphlet on Postal Reform led to renewed discussion, and in May a Committee of the House began to examine the plan which Lord Lich

field, the Postmaster-General, declared to be the most extraordinary of all wild and visionary schemes he had heard or read of. Lord Lichfield, however, facilitated reform by a skilful consolidation of the one hundred and forty-nine Acts on the Post Office into one, having the triple and not common advantages of compactness, brevity and perfect intelligibility; and also by a measure which proved most valuable, enabling the Postmaster, with the consent of the Treasury, to reduce or vary postal rates, either locally or generally.

When Parliament reassembled, Mr. Wallace renewed his motion for a Committee, which was granted. A series of letters, composed jointly by Rowland and Arthur Hill, were addressed to Lord Lichfield in the public papers. Mr. Moffatt proposed a Mercantile Committee, of which Mr. Bates, of the house of Baring Brothers, became Chairman; and this voluntary association collected and diffused information in support of the scheme. This strengthened the hands of the friends of reform on the Parliamentary Committee. This Committee had three or four members who really sat for the Government against the scheme. Every point was carefully examined. More than twelve thousand questions were asked. After the investigation was concluded, uniformity of rate was determined by the casting vote of the Chairman. A uniform rate of one penny per halfounce was rejected, and for a uniform rate of twopence the votes were again equally divided, the vote of the Chair deciding for the rate. The Committee's report was drawn up by Mr. Warburton, and The Times stated that the enquiry had been conducted with more honesty and more industry than any ever brought before a Committee of the House of Commons.'

The report caused uneasiness to the Post Office. The authorities,

aroused too late, commenced peddling reforms, lowering the rate to Keswick and some other places from thirteenpence to a shilling; or, as the Post Circular put the case, not to a penny, but by a penny. On the other hand, the expectations of the public began to be unreasonable. Petitions inundated the House, borne along by the high tide of public feeling. The newspapers, headed by The Times, wrote and argued for the project. The scheme fought its way through the House, and on August the 17th, 1839, the proposed measure received the Royal assent.

It was necessary, in deference to public opinion and for carrying out the plan, to secure the services of Mr. Hill. He was, therefore, offered five hundred pounds for two years only, as attached to the Treasury to assist in introducing the plan. His position on the South Australian Association was permanent, at an equal salary, with prospects of increase. He had

declined a partnership with Mr. Clowes, the printer, which was estimated as worth two thousand five hundred pounds a year. The proposal for two years' engagement on such terms was an insult, and was rejected. He was at last engaged for one thousand five hundred pounds a year, and now, with authority from the Treasury, paid his first visit to the Post Office. He was never inside the Post Office until he went officially. His plans were constructed from without. Despite this disadvantage, his conjectural estimates proved in many instances more accurate than official returns. Mr. Hill had estimated the total of letters at eighty-eight millions, the officials at forty-three. The ultimate corrected return was nearly seventyeight millions, and this proportion of inaccuracy between the facts and estimates of the reformer and the returns of the officials was very general.

(To be concluded.)


My friend, the Rev. Stephen P.
Harvard, has offered some criticisms
on my Paper on 1 Peter iii. 20, 21,
which make it necessary for me to
trouble your readers with some
observations in reply.

I could hardly expect that my Paper would give complete satisfaction to critical readers, for I have never been able quite to satisfy myself as to the positive interpretation of the passage in its various members, and the relations of those members to each other. In my other two Papers, relating to Misunderstood Texts, I gave what I thought to be distinct and satisfactory interpretations of the figurative phrase


ology employed. But in regard to this passage I professed no confidence, except as to the purport of the Apostle's main proposition, in which he speaks of the spiritual meaning and saving efficacy of baptism, and, negatively, as to what the passage could not be made to mean. seems, however, to be this negative judgment as to the passage with which Mr. Harvard is chiefly dissatisfied. If I gather his meaning aright, he believes the passage to mean precisely what I think it evident that it cannot mean.

Before I try to reply to Mr. Harvard's observations I must, however, reinstate my own meaning on

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