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Description of mirrors.

were sometimes square, and sometimes terminated in a
hawk's head (B.M. No. 2733), or they were carved in the
shape of a figure of Bes (B.M. No. 27286). Bronze handles
of mirrors were also made in the shape or the lotus plant
and flower, but the flat space where the handle widens
out into the flower was ornamented with the head of Hathor
in relief (B.M. No. 2728a); they were also made in the form
of figures of wonen, with their arms raised (B.M. Nos. 20,773,
2718a). The mirror was further ornamented by supporting
the bronze disk on each side with a pair of uræi (B.M. No.
20,756), or with a hawk of Horus (B.M. No. 2731). The
metal of which mirrors are made has been shown to be
almost pure copper, a very small percentage of tin and other
substances being present. The use of mirrors in Egypt
appears to be of great antiquity, but the date of their first
appearance is not known exactly. The greater diameter
of the mirror varies from three to twelve inches.

Tweezers. Pairs of tweezers, for removing hairs from the head or face, were made of bronze, the ends being, at times, in the form of human hands; they vary in length from about two to six inches.

Hair-pins are usually made of wood, bone, ivory, metal, or alabaster, and vary in length and thickness; the heads are sometimes ornamented with gold and silver bands or heads, and sometimes terminate in the figure of an animal or bird.

Combs are made of wood or ivory, and when they have but a single row of teeth the back is carved into serrated edges, and its sides are ornamented with various devices, annular or otherwise. Double combs, i.e., combs with two rows of teeth, have the one row of teeth thicker and longer than the other. Combs used for merely ornamental purposes terminate with figures of animals, etc., etc. The date of the first appearance of combs in Egypt is unknown, and it has been thought that they were not introduced until a comparatively late period.

Fan. The feathers of the fan were inserted in a handle made of wood or ivory, or both, having the same shape as


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vases and

sometimes ornamented with heads of Hathor in relief (B.M. No. 20,767).

Kohl pots. Of all the necessaries for the toilet these Stibium objects are the most commonly found, and the varieties tubes. known are very many and very interesting. The object of the kohl jar was to hold the kohl, cr stibium, or antimony, or copper, with which ladies were wont to stain the eyelids and eyebrows. The simplest form consisted of a hollow tube of alabaster, steatite, glass, wood, or ivory, from three to six inches high; alabaster tubes are usually uninscribed (B.M. No. 2574), wooden tubes are made in the shape of a column with a palm leaf capital (B.M. No. 2591), ivory or bone tubes are Different sometimes made in the form of figures of Bes (B.M. forms of No. 2571), and sometimes are ornamented with spirals vases. (B.M. No. 6184). Farence tubes are white, blue, or green, and have inscriptions on them in black; fine examples of this class are B.M. No. 2572b, inscribed with the prenomen of Amenophis III., and the name of his wife Thi; and B.M. No. 2573, inscribed with the prenomen of Tut-anch-Amen, and the name of his wife Anch-nes-Amen. B.M. No. 2589, is a fine example of kohl tube in glass, made in the form of a column with a palm leaf capital. Kohl tubes were sometimes made of the common reed, and carried in a leather bag (B.M. No. 12,539); the single tube was sometimes represented as being held by a monkey or some other animal (B.M. No. 21,895). The tube was often formed of a hollow sunk in a jar made of alabaster, stone, steatite, granite, or porphyry ; steatite jars are glazed, and ornamented with

and ß in hollow work (B.M. No. 2645). Such jars often had the rim, which supported the cover, turned separately, and in the centre of the cover, inside, a small boss was made to enable it to rest firmly on the jar ; these jars rested upon square stands supported by four legs. The outsides of porphyry jars are sometimes ornamented with raised figures of apes and uræi. Kohl jars had sometimes two tubes, and Stibium



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having · B.M. No. 2736 is inscribed “Menthu-em-ḥāt, son of Heq-ab, lord of watchful devotion.” 2 See B.M. No. 24,391, made of light blue glass banded with gold.

more than one tube.

were made of wood, with a movable cover on a pivot (B.M. No. 2595), of obsidian, with a figure of Bes in relief (B.M. No. 2599), of ivory, with each tube in the form of a lotus column (B.M. 22,839), and of stone. Kohl pots with three tubes were also made, and an interesting example in terracotta is B.M. No. 2612, which is in the form of a “triple”

Kohl pots with four and five tubes are very common in wood, and several examples exist in faïence. B.M. No. 2605 is inscribed on each tube, and contains two, or more, different powders; and B.M. 2606a, with five tubes, probably a votive offering by a friend or relative of the deceased Amāsis, a scribe and overseer of works, is inscribed :


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The following texts are inscribed upon a remarkable brown wood stibium-holder, in the possession of Sir Francis Grenfell, G.C.B. It contains five tubes, each of which held

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? These inscriptions show that one kind of eye-paint was to be used from the first to the fourth month of the inundation season ; a second from the first to the fourth month of the season of coming forth ; a third from the first to the fourth month of the period of growing; and also that a fourth was to be used every day.

a different coloured substance; on one side is a full-face figure of Bes, and on the other an ape. It came from Dêr el-baħari.

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A set of four or more kohl tubes were also formed by the compartments of a wooden box which was generally inlaid with ivory. The studs in kohl tubes were used for fastening the cover.

The stick with which the kohl was applied to the eyes was The kohl made of wood, bronze, glass, etc., and was thicker and more rounded at one end than at the other. The thick end was moistened, and dipped in the powder in the tube, and then drawn along the eyelid; the stick generally remained in the tube, but often a special cavity, either between or behind the tubes, was prepared for it. The black powder in the tube was called in Egyptian 2 은

mest'emut), Copt.

0000 Core, CTHUL, Arab. clous, whence the word Kohl, Gr. otiupt, stibium; it seems to have been the sesquisulphuret of antimony, but sulphide of lead, oxide of copper, li black oxide of manganese, and other powdered substances were also used. The act of painting the eyes with kohl was called 「 PA semțet, and the part painted Sisemti. The custom of painting the eyelids, or the parts immediately under them, is contemporary with the earliest dynasties,

: mestem (var. 01


of eye

Antiquity and we know that in the XIIth dynastyl mestchem was of use

brought from the land of Absha, by people of the Āāmu, paint. as an acceptable gift to the king of Egypt. This custom

seems to have been common all over the East, and it will be remembered that Jezebel “set her eyes in stibium" (TWY DI DOM 2 Kings ix. 30), and that the daughter of Zion was told that her lovers would seek her life, even though "she rent asunder her eyes with stibium,”' in allusion to the wide open appearance which stibium gives to women's eyes in the East.

Oils, unguents, scents, etc., were kept in alabaster, diorite and porphyry jars, or vases, of various shapes, 0 o 0 0 0. Sets of alabaster jars and flat vessels were arranged on a table in the tomb, and sometimes contained unguents, sweetmeats, etc., and sometimes were merely votive offerings. A fine

example of a votive set in alabaster is (B.M. No. 4694) Alabaster inscribed with the name Åtenā, from Abydos, which comvases of Atenā.

prises a wide mouthed jar on a stand, five smaller jars with pointed ends, and four flat saucers, the whole standing on a circular table of the same material. The shapes of the jars are of great beauty, and the alabaster is of the finest. The custom of placing alabaster jars in tombs is, at least, as ancient as the IVth dynasty, and it lasted until the XXVIth dynasty ; examples are known inscribed with the names of Unås (B.M. No. 4602), Pepi 1. (B.M. No. 22559), Mentuem-sa-f (B.M. No. 4493), Amāsis I. (B.M. No. 4671a), Thothmes III. (B.M. No. 4498), Amenophis II. (B.M. No. 4672), Rameses II. (B.M. No. 2880), Queen Amenårțās (B.M. No. 4701), etc.

NECKLACES, RINGS, BRACELETS, ETC. Judging by the enormous quantity of beads which are found in Egyptian tombs, Egyptian ladies must have thought very highly of the necklace as an ornament. Beads are of all shapes, round, rectangular, oval, and oblong, and were made of

In the sixth year of Usertsen II. The scene of the presentation of the mestchem is painted on the walls of the tomb of Chnemu-ḥetep at Beni-Hasân ; see Lepsius, Denkmäler, II. ff. 131-133.



.Jeremiah iv . 3o כִּי־תִקְרְעִי בַפּוּךְ עֵינַיִךְ

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