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happy, as being at rest already; as did those that were under torture in the prisons declare, that, upon this comparison, those that lay unburied were the happiest. These men, therefore, trampled on all the laws of men, and laughed at the laws of God; and for the oracles of the prophets they ridiculed them as the tricks of jugglers; yet did these prophets foretel many things concerning fthe rewards of] viriue, and punishments of ] vice, which when these zealots violated, they occasioned the fulfilling of those very prophecies belonging to their own country; for there was a certain .ancient oracle of those men, that "the city should then be " taken,* and the sanctuary burnt, by right of war, when - a sedition should invade the Jews, and their own hands - should pollute the temple of God.” Now while these zea. lots did not quite] disbelieve these predictions, they made themselves the instruments of their accomplishment.. :

CHAP VII. How John tyrannized over the rest; and what mischiefs the zealot's • did at Masada. How also Vespasian took Gadara ; and what acu

tions were performed by Placidus. - . , & 1. By this time John was beginning to tyrannize, and thought it beneath him to accept of barely the same honours: that others had; and joining to himself by degrees a party · of the wickedest of them all, he broke off from the rest of the faction. This was brought about by bis-still disagreeing with the opinions of others, and giving out injunctions of his own, in a very imperious mapper, so that it was evident he was setting up a monarchical power. Now some submit

*** This prediction, that “the city of Jerusalem should then be 6 taken, and the sanctuary burnt, by right of war, when a sedition " should invade the Jews, and their own hands should pollute that * " temple; or, as it is, B. vi. ch. ii. §. 1. “When any one should “ begin to slay his countrymen in the city," is wanting in our pre. sent copies of the Old Testament: See Essay on the Old Test. p. 104-112. But this prediction, as Josephus well remarks here, though, with the other predictions of the prophets, it was now laughed at by the seditious, was by their very means soon exactly fulfilled. However, I cannot but here take notice of Grotius' posi. tive assertion upon Matt. xxvi. 9. here quoted by Dr Hudson, that “ it ought to be taken for granted, as a certain truth, that many “ predictions of the Jewish prophets were preserved, not in wrile “ing, but by memory." Whereas, it seems to nie so fir from cere tain, that I think it has no evidence, nor probability at aldi

ted to him out of their fear of him, and others out of their good-will to him; for he was a shrewd man to entice men to him, both by deluding them, and putting cheats upon them. Nay, many there were that thought they should be safer themselves, if the causes of their past iosolent actions should now be reduced to one head, and not to a great many. His activity was so great, and that both in action and in counsel, that he had not a few guards about him; yet was there a great party of his avtagonists that left him; among whom envy at him weighed a great deal, while they thought it a very heavy thing to be in subjection to one that was formerJy their equal. But the main reason that moved men against him was the dread of monarchy, for they could not hope eagily to put an end to his power, if he had once obtained it; and yet they knew that he would have this pretence always against them, that they had opposed him when he was first advanced; while every one chose rather to suffer any thing whatsoever in war, than that when they had been in a voluntary slavery for some time, they should afterward perish. So the sedition was divided into two parts, and John reigned in opposition to his adversaries over one of them: but for their leaders they watched one another, nor did they at all, or at least very little meddle with arms in their quarrels; but they fought carnestly against the people, and contended one with another which of them should bring home the greatest prey. But because the city had to struggle with three of the greatest misfortunes, war, and tyranny, aud sedition, it appeared upon the comparison, that tbe war was the least troublesome to the populace of them all. Accordingly they cap away from their own houses to foreigners, and obtained that preservation from the Romans, whieh they despaired to obtain among their own people.

2. And now a fourth misfortune arose, in order to bring our nation to destruction. There was a fortress of very great strength pot far from Jerusalens, which had been built by our ancient kings, both as a repository for their effects in the hazards of war, and for the preservation of their bodies at the same time. It was called Masada. Those that were called Sicarii had taken possession of it formerly, but at this time they over-ran the neighbouriog countries, aiming only to procure to themselves necessaries ; for the fear they were then in prevented their further ravages. But whes onee they were informed that the Roman army lay still, and that the Jews were divided between sedition and tyranny, they boldly undertook greater matters; and at the feast of unleavened bread, which the Jews celebrate in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, when they were sent back into the country of their forefathers, they came down by night, without being discovered by those that could have prevented them, and over-ran a certain small city called Eugaddi. Jo which expedition they prevented those citizens that could have stopped them, before they could arm themselves, and fight them. They also dispersed them, and cast them out of the city : as for such as could pot run away, being women and children, they slew of them above seven hundred. Afterward, when they had carried every thing out of their houses, and had seized upon all the fruits that were in a flourishing condition, they brought them into Masada. Aud indeed these men laid all the villages that were about the fortress waste, and made the whole country desolate; while there came to them every day, from all parts, not a few men, as corrupt as themselves. At that time all the other regions of Judea, that had hitherto been at rest, were in motion, by means of the robbers. Now as it is in a buman body, if the principal part be inflamed, all the members are subject to the same distemper, so by means of the sedition and disorder that was in the metropolis, had the wicked men that were in the country opportunity to ravage the same. Accordingly when every one of them had plundered their own villages, they then retired into the desert; yet were these men that now got together, and joined in the conspiracy by parties, too small for an army, and too many for a gang of thieves; and thus did they fall upon the * holy places, and the cities; yet did it now so happen that. they were sometimes very ill treated by those upon whom they fell with such violence, and were taken by them as men are taken in war : but still they prevented any farther punishment, as do robbers, who, as soon as their ravages

• By these lege or holy places, as distinct from cities, must be meant proceuchàe, or houses of prayer out of cities; of which we find mention made in the New Testament and other authors. See Luke vi. 12. Acts xvi. 13, 16. Antiq. B. x. §.23. vol. iii. his Life, $ 54, vol. iv, In qua te quera prosuechê ? Juvenal. Sat. iii. ver. 296. They were situated sometimes by the sides of rivers, Acts xvi. 13. or by the sea-side. Antiq. B. xiv. ch. x. 8 23. So did the seventy-two interpreters go to prayer every morning by the seas side, before they went to their work, B. xii. ch. ii. § 12. vol. iii

fare discovered] run their way. Nor was there now any part of Judea that was not in a miserable condition, as well as its most eminent city also.

%. These things were told Vespasian by deserters; for although the seditious watched all the passages out of the city, and destroyed all, whosoever they were, that calis tbither, yet were there some that had concealed themselves, and when they had fled to the Romans, persuaded their general to come to the city's assistance, and save the remainder of the people : informing hin withal, that it was upon account of the people's good-will to the Romans that many of them were already slain, and the survivors in danger of the same treatment. Vespasian did indeed already pity the calamities these men were in, and arose, in appearance, as though he was going to besiege Jerusalem, but in reality to deliver them from a sworse siege they were already under. However, he was obliged first to overthrow what remained elsewhere, and to leave nothing out of Jerusalem bebind him, that might interrupt him in that siege. Accordingly he marched agaiost Gadara, the metropolis of Perea, which was a place of strength, and entered that city on the fourth day

sent an embassage to him without the knowledge of the seditious; to treat about a surrender; which they did out of the desire they had of peace, and for saving their effects, because many of the citizens of Gadara were rich mea. This embassy the opposite party knew nothing of, but discovered it as Vespasian was approaching near the city. However, they despaired of keeping possessiou of the city, as being inferior in number to their ecemies which were within the city; and seeing the Romans very uear to the city ;so they resolved to fly, but thought it dishonourable to do it without shedding some blood, and revenging themselves on the authors of this surrender; they seized upon Dolesus, (a person not only the first in rank and family in that city, but one that seemed the occasion of sending such an embassy,) and slew hini, and treated his dead body after a barbarous inanner, so very violent was their anger at him, and then ran out of the city. And as now the Roman army was just upon them, the people of Gadara admitted Vespasian with joyful acclamatious, and received from him the security of his right hand, as also a garrison of horsemen and 'footmen, to guard them against the excursions of the runagates; for as to their wall, they had pulled it down before the

Romans desired them so to do, that they might thereby give them assurance that they were lovers of peace, and that, if they had a mind, they could not now make war against them.

4. And now Vespasian sent Placidus against those that. had fled from Gadara, with five hundred horsemen, and three thousand footmen, while he returned himself to Cæsarea, with the rest of his army. But as soon as these fugitives saw the horsemen that pursued them just upon their backs, and before they came to a close fight, they ran together to a certain village, which was called Bethennabris, where finding a great multitude of young men, and arping them partly by their own consent, partly by force, they rasbly and suddenly assaulted Placidus, and the troops that were with him. These horsemen at the first onset gave way a little, as contriving to entice them further off the wall; and when they had drawn them into a place fit for their purpose, they made their horse encompass them round, and threw their darts at them. So the horsemen cut off the flight of the fugitives, while the foot terribly destroyed those that fought against them; for those Jews did no more than shew their courage, and then were destroyed; for as they fell upon the Romans, when they were joined close together, and as it were, walled about with their entire armour, they were not able to find any place where the darts could enter ; nor were they any way able to break their ranks, while they were themselves run through by the Roman darts, and like the wildest of wild beasts, rushed upon the points of the other's swords ; so some of them were destroyed, as cut with their enemies' swords upon their faces, and others were dispersed by the horsemen.

5. Now Placidus' concern was to exclude them in their flight from getting into the village and causing his horse to march contioually on that side of them, he then turned short upon them, and at the same time bis men made use of their darts, and easily took their aim at those that were nearest to them, as they made those that were farther off turn back by the terror they were in till at last the most courageous of them brake through those horsemen, and fled to the wall of the village. And now those that guarded the wall were in great doubt what to do; for they could not bear the thoughts of excludiug those that came from Gadara, because of their owo people that were amoug them ; and yet, if they should

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