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give this as the first mark of performance of the general of his army, came immediately to the present league, that he might have his Hebron: and when he bad understood that wife Michal restored to him, as her whom he Abner had been with David, and had parted had purchased with great hazards, and with with him a little before under an agreement, those six hundred heads of the Philistines that the government should be delivered up to which he had brought to Saul, her father. David; he feared lest David should place AbSo Abner took Michal from Phaltiel, who ner, who had assisted him to gain the kingwas then her husband, and sent her to David ; dom, in the first rank of dignity; especially Ishbosheth himself afforded.bim his assistance; since he was a shrewd man in other respects; for David had written to him that of right he in understanding affairs, and in managing ought to have his wife restored to him. Ab- them artfully, as proper seasons should require; ner also called together the elders of the mul- and that he should himself be put lower, and titude, the commanders, and captains of thou deprived of the command of the army: so sands: and spake thus to them, that he had | he took a kvavish and a wicked course. In formerly dissuaded them from their own reşo- the first place he endeavored to calumniate lution, when they were ready to forsake Ish- Abner to the king, exhorting him to have a bosheth, and to join themselves to David: care of him, and not to give attention to what that, however, he now gave them leave so to he had engaged to do for him; because all he do, if they had a mind to it, for they knew did tended to confirm the government to Saul's that God had appointed David to be king of son; that he came to him deceitfully, and with all the Hebrews, by Samuel the prophet; and guile, and was gone away in hopes of gaining had foretold that be sbould punish the Philis- his purpose by this management.

management. But when times, and finally overcome them. Now when he could not thus persuade David, nor saw the elders and rulers heard this, and under-him at all exasperated, he betook himself to stood that Abner was come over to those sen- | a project bolder than the former. He detertiments about the public affairs which they | mined to kill Abner; and in order thereto he were of before, they changed their measures, sent some messengers after him ; to whom he and came in to David. When these men had gave in charge, that when they should overagreed to Abner's proposal, he called toge- take him, they should recall him in David's ther the tribe of Benjamin ; (for all of that naine; and tell him, that he had somewhat to tribe were the guards of Ishbosheth's body ;) say to him about his affairs which he had not and spake to them to the same purpose. And remembered to speak of when he was with when he saw that they did not in the least him. oppose what he said, but resigned themselves Now when Abner heard what the mesup to his opinion, he took about twenty of his sengers said, (for they overtook him in a cerfriends, and came to David, in order to re- tain place called Bisera, which was distant ceive bimself security upon oath from him. from Hebron twenty furlongs :) he suspected For we may justly esteem those things to be none of the mischief which was befalling him; firmer which every one of us do by ourselves, and came back. Hereupon Joab met him than those which we do by another. He also in the gate; and received him in the kindest gave him an account of what he had said to manner, as if he were Abner's most benevothe rulers, and to the whole tribe of Benja- lent acquaintance and friend; for such as unmin. And when David had received him in dertake the vilest actions, in order to prevent a courteous manner, and had treated him with the suspicion of any private mischief, do fregreat hospitality for many days, Abner, when quently make the greatest.pretence to what he was disinissed, desired perinission to bring good men do sincerely. So he took him aside the multitude with him, that he might deliver from his own followers, as if he would speak up the government to him, when David him to him in private, and brought him into a void self was present, and a spectator of what was place of the gate; having himself nobody with done.

him, but his brother Abishai: then he drew When David had sent Abner away, Joab, his sword, and smote him in the groin; upon

This pro

which Abder died* by this treachery of Joab's; rulers ; lamenting Abner, and by his tears which, as he said himself, was in way of pu- demonstrating his good will to him while he nishment for his brother Asahel, whom Abner was alive, and his sorrow for hiin now he was smote and slew as he was pursuing after him dead; and that he was not taken off with his in the battle of Hebron; but as the truth was, consent.

So he buried him at Hebron, in a out of fear of his losing his command of the magnificent manner, and indited funeral elearmy, and his dignity with the king ; and lest gies for him : he also stood first over the he should be deprived of those advantages, monument weeping, and caused others to do and Abner should obtain the first rank in Da- the same. Nay, so deeply did the death of vid's court. By these examples any one may Abner disorder him, that his companions could learn, how many and how great instances of by no means persuade him to take any food : wickedness men will venture upon, for the but he affirmed with an oath that he would sake of getting money and authority; and that taste nothing till the sun was set. they may not fail of either of them. For as cedure gained him the good will of the molwhen they are desirous of obtaining the same, titude : for such as had an affection for Abner they acquire them by ten thousand evil prac- were highly gratified with the respect he paid tices; so when they are afraid of losing them, him, when he was dead; and the observance they get them confirmed by practices much of that faith he had plighted to him; which worse than the former. As if no other cala- was shewn in his vouchsafing him all the usual mity so terrible could befall them, as the failure ceremonies, as if he had been bis kinsman and of acquiring so exalted an authority, or as the loss friend, and not suffering him to be neglected of it, after its acquisition and long enjoyment. and injured with a dishonorable burial, as if And since this last would be the heaviest of he had been his enemny. Insomuch that the all afflictions, they all of them contrive and entire nation rejoiced at the king's gentleness venture upon the most difficult actions, out of and mildness of disposition; every one being fear of losing the same. But let it suffice ready to suppose that the king would have that I have made these short reflections upon taken the same care of them, in the like cirthat subject.

cumstances, which they saw he shewed in the When David heard that Abner was slain; || burial of Abner. And indeed David princiit grieved bis soul, and he called all men to pally intended to gain a good reputation; and witness, with stretching out his hands to God, therefore he took care to do what was and crying out, that he was not a partaker in proper in this case : 'whence none had any the murder of Abner, and that his death was suspicion that he was the author of Abner's not procured by his command or approbation. death. He also said to the multitude, that he He also wished the heaviest curses might fall was greatly troubled at the death of so good upon him that slew him, and upon his whole a man, and that the affairs of the Hebrews house, and he devoted those that had assisted had suffered great detriment by being dehim in this murder to the same penalties on prived of him, who was of so great abilities to its account. For he took care not to appear preserve them by his excellent advice, and by to have had any hand in this murder, contrary the strength of his hands in war. to the assurances he had given, and the oaths added he, “that God, who hath a regard to he had taken to Abner. However, he com- all mens' actions, will not suffer this man manded all the people to weep and lament this (Joab) to go off unrevenged. But know ye, man, and to honor his dead body with the that I am not able to do any thing to these usual solemnities : that is, by rending their sons of Zeruiah, Joab and Abishai, who have garments, and putting on sackcloth; and that more power than I have. But God will rethis should be the habit in which they should quite their insolent attempts upon their own go before the bier. He also followed it him-heads.”+ And this was the fatal conclusion self, with the elders, and those that were of the life of Abner.

6 But,"

* 2 Sam. iii. 27.

+ 2 Sam. iii. 39.





done, as they expected ; but said to them, CHAP. II.

“ Vile wretches ! you shall immediately receive the punishment you deserve. Did not you know what vengeance


that murdered Saul,t and brought me his

crown of gold : and this while he who perpeTHEN Ishbosheth, the son of Saul, had trated that action did it as a favor to him,

heard of the death of Abner, he took that he might not be caught by his enemies? it to heart, to be deprived of a man that was or do you imagine that I am altered in my of his kindred, and had indeed given him the disposition, and suppose that I am not the kingdom, and Abner's death very much trou-same man I then was? but am pleased with bled him. Nor did he himself survive any men that are wicked doers? and esteem your long time; but was treacherously set upon vile actions, when you are become murderer's by the sons of Rimmon, Baanah and Rechab; of your master, as grateful to me, when yok and was slain by them. For these being of have slain a righteous man upon his bed, who a family of the Benjamites, and of the first never did evil to any body; and treated you rank among them, thought that if they should with great good will and respect; wherefore slay Ishbosheth, they should obtain large pre- you shall suffer the punishment due on his acsents from David, and be made commanderscount, and the vengeance I ought to inflict by him, or at least should have some other upon you for killing Ishbosheth, and for suptrust committed to them. So when they once posing that I should take his death kindly at found him asleep, at noon, in an upper apart- | your hands; for you could not lay a greater ment, when- none of his guards were there; blot on my honor than the making such a and when the woman that kept the door was supposal." When David had said this, be not watching, but was fallen asleep also : tormented them with all sorts of torments, partly on account of the labor she had under- | and then put them to death; and he bestowgone, and partly on account of the heat of ed all accustomed rites on the burial of the the day: these men went into the room in head of Ishbosheth, and laid it in the grave of which Íshbosheth, Saul's son, lay asleep, and Abner. I slew him ;* they also cut off his head, and When these things were brought to this took their journey all that night, and the next conclusion, all the principal men of the Heday, as supposing themselves Heeing from brews 'caine to David to Hebron, with the those that they had injured, to one that would heads of thousands, and other rulers, and deaccept of this action as a favor, and would | livered themselves up to him : putting him in afford them security. So they came to He- | mind of the good will they had borne to him bron, and shewed David the head of Ishbo- l in Saul's life-time; and the respect they then sheth, and presented themselves to him, as had not ceased to pay him, when he was caphis well-wishers, and such as had killed one tain of a thousand; as also that he was that was his enemy, and antagonist. Yet chosen of God by Samuel the prophet, ş he and David did not approve of what they had his sons; declaring besides how God had

# 2 Sam. iv. 7.

and in this opinion, they night the rather be confirmed,

when they saw Joab, instead of being punished, continu+ It may seem a little strange, that these two ruffiansing in the very same post and power that he had before. were not discouraged by David's punishing the Amale- || Pool's Annotations. B. kite for killing of Saul, and by the detestation he had publicly shewn of Joabi's baseness in murdering Abner: but # 2 Sam. iv. 12. the former of these cases, they might think, was not pa. rallel to theirs ; because Saul was anointed king by God's $ This may be a true observation of Josephus's; that immediate direction, whereas Ishbosheth, having never Samuel, by command from God, entailed the crown un had such sacred unction, was no more than an usurper; || David and his posterity ; for no farther did that entail and as for the latter, they might think, that David's con ever reach. Solomon himself having never had any product, in relation to Abner's death, proceeded from art and mise made him that his posterity should always have the policy, rather than any serious dislike of the thing itself; right to it.

given him power to save the land of the He- || which came universally in to David : and all brews, and to overcome the Philistines. these had the same weapons with the tribe of Whereupon he received kindly their alacrity. Gad. Out of the tribe of Naphtali the emion his account; and exhorted them to con nent men and rulers were one thousand, whose tinue in it, for that they should have no rea- || weapons were shields and spears, and the son to repent of being thus disposed to him. tribe itself followed after; being, in a manSo when he had feasted them, and treated | nert, innumerable. Out of the tribe of Dan them kindly, he sent them out to bring all the there were of chosen men twenty-seven thoupeople to him. Upon which there came to sand and six hundred. Out of the tribe of him about six thousand and eight hundred Asher were forty thousand. Out of the two armed men of the tribe of Judah ; who bare tribes that were beyond Jordan, and the rest shields and spears for their weapons; for these of the tribe of Manasseh, such as used shields, had, till now, continued with Saul's son, when and spears, and head-pieces, and swords, were the rest of the tribe of Judah had ordained a hundred and twenty thousand. The rest of David for their king. There came also seven the tribe also made use of swords. This multhousand and one hundred out of the tribe of | titude came together to Hebron, to David; Simeon ; out of the tribe of Levi came four with a great quantity of corn, wine, and all thousand and seven hundred, having Jehoiada other sorts of food : and established David in for their leader. After these came Zadok, his kingdom with one consent. And when the high-priest, with twenty-two captains of the people had feasted and rejoiced three his kindred. Out of the tribe of Benjamin, | days in Hebron, David and all the people rethe armed men were four thousand ; but the moved, and came to Jerusalem. rest of the tribe continued still expecting that some one of the house of Saul should reign over

CHAP. III. them. Those of the tribe of Ephraim were twenty thousand and eight hundred ; and these mighty men of valor, and eminent for

Out of Ma W the Jebusites, inhacame eighteen of the most bitants of Jerusalem, and by expotent men. Out of the tribe of Issachartraction Canaanites, shut their gates; and came two hundred,* who foreknew what was placed their blind, lame, and maimed persons to come hereafter: but of armed men twenty | upon the wall, in way of derision of the thousand. Of the tribe of Zebulan fifty thou- | king ;f and said that the very lame themsand chosen men. This was the only tribe selves would hinder his entrance into it. This



* These words of Josephus concerning the tribe of Is- l interpretation seems to be a little too metaphorical and sachar, who foreknew what was to come hereafter, are best forced, for which reason we have rather chosen the conparaphrased by the parallel text, 1 Chr. xii. 32. Whostruction which Josephus (lib. 7, c. 2) puts upon this had understanding of the times to know what Israel ought passage, viz. that they imagined their fortress to be so to do, i. e. Who had so much knowledge in astronomy as impregnable, that, by way of contempt, they told David to make calendars for the Israelites; that they might that their very blind and lame would be able to defend keep their festivals, and plough and sow and gather in || it against him and all his forces; and this is a sense so their harvests and vintage in due season.

extremely plain and obvious, that the renowned Bocharı + Thirty-seven thousand, 1 Chron, xii. 34.

wonders, why any man of learning should seek for any The blind and the lame, says Luther upon this place, | other. The only exception to it is, that these blind and were the idols of the Jebusites, wbich, to irritate David, lame, (which were rather objects of compassion) are said they set upon their walls, as their patrons and protectors ; || to have been extremely hated by David. But we may and these they call blind and lame sarcastically, and with observe, that David here retorts the sarcasm upon them; respect to David's opinion: as if they had said, “ These | The lame and blind, i. e. those who are said to defend gods of ours, whom ye Israelities reproach, as blind and the place, and who, as they pretended, were to be only lame, and so unable io direct or defend us, will secure us the lame and the blind. And these were hateful to David, against you, and, to your cost, make you find that they because they had wickedly and insolently defied the arare neither blind nor lame, but have eyes to watch for us, I mies of the living God. Pool's Annotations, Patrick's and hands to fight against you, so that you must conguer) and Le Clerc's Com. B. and subdue them, before you take this place.” But this VOL. 1.-(20.)



they did out of contempt of his power and || Now when he had chosen Jerusalem to be his as depending on the strength of their walls. || royal city, his affairs did more and more prosa David was hereby enraged, and began the || per, by the providence of God; who took care siege of Jerusalem, and employed his utmost || that they should improve and be augmented. I diligence and alacrity therein ; as intending || Hiram also, the king of the Tyrians, sent amnby the taking of this place to demonstrate his bassadors, and made a league of mutual power, and to intimidate all others that might friendship and assistance with him. He also be of the like evil dispositions towards him. sent him presents, cedar-trees, and mechanics, So he took the lower city by force, but the* | and men skilful in building and architecture; citadel held out still. Whence it was that that they might build him a royal palace at the king, knowing that the proposals of dig- ||Jerusalem. Now David made buildings round nities and rewards would encourage the sol- | about the lower city: he also joined the citadiers to greater actions, promised that he who del to it, and made it one body : and when be should first go over the ditches that were be- had encompassed all with walls, he appointed neath the citadel, and should ascend to the Joab to take care of them. It was David citadel itself, and take it, should have the therefore who first cast the Jebusites out of command of the entire people conferred upon Jerusalem, and called it by his own name, the him. So they all were ambitious to ascend; city of David. For under our forefather and thought no pains too great, in order to Abraham it was called Salem or s Solyma. ascend thither, out of their desire of the chief | But after that time some say that Homer command. However Joab, the son of Ze- | mentions it by that name of Solyma. For ruiah, prevented the rest; and as soon as he he named the temple Solyma, according to was got up to the citadel, cried out to the the Hebrew language; which denotes secuking, and claimed the chief command. rity. Now the whole time from the warfare

When David had cast the Jebusites out of under Joshua our general, against the Cathe citadel, he rebuilt Jerusalem, and named naanites; and from that war in which he it the city of David ; and abode there all the overcame them, and distributed the land among time of his reign. But for the time that he the Hebrews ; (nor could the Israelites ever reigned over the tribe of Judah only in He-cast the Canaanites out of Jerusalem until bron, it was

vas † seven years and six months. this time, when David took it by siege ;)

* What our other copies say of mount Sion, as alone as I suppose, and not for a proper name. He still either properly called the city of David, 2 Sain. v. 6—9, and of styles it the citadel, or the upper city. Nor do I see any this its siege and conquest now by David, Josephus ap reason for Mr. Ottius's evil suspicions about this procedure plies to the whole city Jerusalem : though including the l of Josephus. citadel also. By what authority we do not now know ; + From An. 1995 to 1088 B. C. perhaps after David had united them together, or 2 Sam. v. 10. joined the citadel to the lower city, Josephus esteemed § Some copies of Josephus have here Solyma or Sathem as one city. However this notion seems to be con lem; and others Hierosolyma or Jerusalem. The latter firmed by what the same Josephus says concerning Da. | best agree to what Josephus says elsewhere, Of the War, vid's and many other kings of Judah's sepulchres, which, || VI. 10, that this city was called Solyma or Salem before as the authors of the Books of Kings and Chronicles say, || the days of Melchisedec, but was by him called Hierosowere in the city of David, so does Josephus still say they | lyma, or Jerusalem. I rather suppose it to have been so were in Jerusalem. The sepulchre of David seems to called after Abraham had received that oracle Jehovah have been a known place in the several days of Hyr- Jireh, the Lord will see or provide, Gen. xxii. 14. The canus, of Herod, and of St. Peter. Antiq. XIII. 8. latter word Jireh, with a little alteration prefixed to the XIV. 7. Acts ii. 29. Now no such royal sepulchres | old name Salem, Peace, will be Jerusalem. And since have been found about mount Sion : but are found close the expression, God will see, or rather God will provide by the north wall of Jerusalem, which I suspect to be himself a lamb for a burnt-offering, verse 8, is there said therefore these very sepulchres. See the note on chap. 15. to have been proverbial till the days of Moses; this seems In the mean time Josephus's explication of the lame and to me the most probable derivation of that name: which the blind and the maimed, as set to keep this city or will then denote that God would provide peace by that citadel, seems to be the truth: and gives the best light || Lamb of God which was to take away the sins of the to that history in our Bible. Mr. Oltius truly observes, world. However, that which is put into double brackets ap. Havercamp. pag. 305, that Josephus never mentions can hardly be supposed the genuine words of Josephus ; mount Sion by that name; as taking it for an appellative, | as Dr. Hudson well judges.

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