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were first buried in them. When a scarab is found bound up in a mummy, the date of which can be ascertained from the inscriptions upon it, that scarab can be used with advantage as an authority by which to compare other scarabs ;? when, however, a scarab is dug up with a lot of miscellaneous stuff it is of little value for the purpose of comparison. From the lowest depths of the VIth and XIIth dynasty tombs at Aswân, scarabs have been dug up which could not have been a day older than the XXVIth dynasty, if as old. In some of these tombs, carefully closed with beautifully fitting blocks of stone, were found also red terra-cotta jars inscribed in hieratic which could not have been a day older than the XIXth dynasty, yet the inscriptions on the walls proved beyond a doubt that the tombs were made for officials who lived during the XIIth dynasty. It must then be clearly understood that the objects found in a tomb do not, necessarily, belong to the period of the tomb itself, and all the evidence known points to the fact that it is nearly impossible to arrange a collection of scarabs chronologically, except so far as the order of the names is concerned. Comparatively little is known about the various local manufactures of scarabs, or of their characteristics, and hundreds of examples of them exist which can neither be read nor explained nor understood.

What has been said of the scarabs of Naucratis applies equally to those found at Ialysos and Kamiros in Rhodes, and at Tharros in Sardinia, places associated with the Phænicians or Carthaginians. At Ialysos, farence and steatite scarabs are rare. Of the three found there preserved in the British Museum, two are steatite and one is of faïence. One of the examples in steatite is fractured, whereby the design or inscription is rendered illegible, and the other is

Chrono. logical arrangement of names possible.

of Ialysos,

inscribed with | tet, emblem of stability, on each side of

which is an uræus The example in faïence measures 14 inch in length, and is inscribed with the prenomen of

Scarabs are rare in Kamiros

1 Such a scarab, however, may quite well be older than the mummy upon which it is found.

? Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 72–3–15, 110; 70-10-3, 130 and 131.

sound at Nineveh.

also, so far as concerns the tombs, and in those in which black and red vases were obtained no scarabs were found; many specimens were, however, found in a well on the Acropolis, and among them were some inscribed with the prenomen of Thothmes III., having all the characteristics of those of the XXVIth dynasty found at Naucratis. The scarabs found at Tharros do not go farther back than the period of Carthaginian supremacy, that is, not farther than the middle of the VIth century B.C. A steatite scarab, found at Thebes in Bæotia, inscribed with fānch “ life," and a winged gryphon wearing the crowns of Upper and Lower Egypt 4, belongs to the same period.

At Kouyunjik there were found two pieces of clay, of Impresthe same colour and substance as that employed by Assur- scarabs banipal for the tablets of his library, bearing impressions of an Egyptian king slaughtering his enemies, and hieroglyphic inscriptions, probably from a scarab. The king holds a club or weapon in his raised left hand, and his right holds some instrument which rests on the heads of a number of captives. The inscriptions read 90(101 530)

neter nefer Shabaka ncb ari zet, “Beautiful god, Shabaka, the lord, maker of things” (the first king of the XXVth dynasty, about B.C. 700). Behind the king are the signs *- sa “ protection," fânch “ life," and na "increase [of power].” In front of the king is the speech of some god A

-ni nek set nebu, “I give to thee all foreign lands.” The Brit. Mus. Registration Nos, of these interesting objects are 51-9–2, 43, and 81-2-4, 352; as there is on the former also the impression of the seal of an Assyrian king, it has been thought ó that the impression

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| No. 132 in Table-Case E in the Kouyunjik Gallery.

Murray, Catalogue of Gems, p. 13. 3 Brit. Mus. Reg. Nos. 64-10-7, 895, 915, 1998. 4 Murray, op. cit., p. 13, and King, Antique Gems and Rings, Vol. I. p. 124. 6 See Layard, Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1867, pp. 173, 174.

formed the seal of a treaty between the kings of Egypt and Assyria. Shabaka (Sabaco) was a contemporary of Senna

cherib, B.C. 705-681. Use of

The Phænicians borrowed the use of the scarab from scarab by Phoni.

Egypt, and as their country was overrun by Shalmaneser II., cians.

King of Assyria B.C. 860–825, and by many of his successors, it is only natural that the scarab inscribed with devices to suit the Assyrian market should find its way to Nineveh and Babylon, the Phænician adopting in return the form of gem commonly used by the Assyrians for seals. A good example of the Phænicio-Assyrian scarab is No. 1029, exhibited in the table-case in the Phoenician Room of the British Museum. It is made of green jasper, and measures if in. in length. On the base is inscribed a man, who stands adoring a seated deity; above is a seven-rayed star, and between them is

anch, “ life.” Beneath is inscribed in Phænician characters, NIDD 17905, “Belonging to Hôdô the Scribe.” For other examples see the specimens exhibited in the same case. As an example of the adoption of the chalcedony cone by the Phænicians, see No. 1022, on which is inscribed a man at a fire altar and the name Palzîr-shemesh in Phænician

characters. The scarab in relief, with outstretched wings Use of inlaid with blue, red and gold carved upon an ivory panel scarab in Babylonia. found at Abu Habbah, about five hours' ride to the south

west of Bagdad, together with a number of miscellaneous ivory objects, is a proof of the knowledge of the scarab in Mesopotamia. That the panel was not carved by an Egyptian workman is very evident.?

Scaraboids in agate and crystal, etc., are a small but very interesting class; at times the device is purely Egyptian, and the inscriptions in Phænician letters are the only additions by the Phænicians. Brit. Mus. Nos. 1024 and 1036 are tolerably good examples of them. The former is inscribed on the base with three hawks with outspread wings, and two of them have disks on

| See Table-Case G in the Nimroud Gallery.

? The two rectangular weights (?) found at Nimroud by Sir A. H. Layard (Nineveh and Babylon, London, 1867, p. 64) have each, on one face, the figure of a scarab inlaid in gold in outline ; the work is excellent, and is a fine example of Phænician handicraft.

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2. Babylonia


their heads; these, of course, represent the hawk of Horus.
The Phænician inscription gives the narne Eliâm. The
latter is inscribed with a beetle in a square frame, and on the
right and left is an uræus ; each end of the perpendicular
sides of the frame terminates in
it is a figure of Rā, or Horus, hawk-headed, holding a sceptre

The name, inscribed in Phænician characters, is “Mersekem.” In 1891, while carrying on excavations at Dêr, a place about three and a half hours to the south-west of Bag

Scarabs in dad, I obtained a steatite scarab inscribed with an uræus

Babylonia. ānch f, and an illegible sign, together with an oval green transparent Gnostic gem inscribed with the lion-headed serpent XNOYBIC. Both objects were probably brought from Lower Egypt, and belong to a period after the birth of Christ. Dr. Birch describes in Nineveh and Babylon (London, Scarabs

found at 1853, pp. 281, 282) a series of eleven scarabs which Sir Henry Arbân. Layard dug up at Arbân, a mound situated on the western bank of the Khabûr, about two and a half days' journey north of Dêr on the Euphrates, and about ten miles east of the 'Abd el-'Azîz hills. With one exception they are all made of steatite, glazed yellow or green or blue. Two of them are inscribed with the prenomen of Thothmes III. (Nos. 304, 309) ; one bears the prenomen of Amenophis III. (No 320), with the titles "beautiful god, lord of two lands, crowned in every land”; one is inscribed in

men Chepers at Amen, “established of Cheperá, emanation of Amen”

(No. 322); two are inscribed blað (No. 303) and if it

(No. 318), and belong to the same period ; one is inscribed Scarabs with a hawk-headed lion and a hawk (No. 273) ; one bears Arbân. the legend,“ beautiful lord, lord of two lands,” i.e., the North and South (No. 321); one is inscribed with a human-headed

1 The numbers are G. 475 and 24,314.

? These interesting objects are exhibited in the Assyrian and Babylonian Room, in the Northern Gallery of the British Museum.

an uræus

beetle, with outstretched wings, in the field are uræi and
of beautiful workmanship (No. 302); and one is inscribed
with of and having on its head (No. 307).
The scarab in hæmatite (No. 313) is inscribed with the
figure of a king seated on a throne, and a man standing before
him in adoration ; between them is t With the exception
of this last scarab, it is pretty certain that all belong to the
period of the XVIIIth dynasty, for they have all the appear-
ance of such antiquity, and they possess all the delicacy of
workmanship found upon scarabs of this time. The design
on the hæmatite scarab appears to be a copy from an
Egyptian scarab executed by a foreign workman, but it may
be that the hardness of the material made the task of
engraving so difficult, that the character of the design was
altered in consequence. The presence of these scarabs at
Arbân is not difficult to account for. Thothmes I., one of
the early kings of the XVIIIth dynasty, carried his victorious
arms into Mesopotamia, and set up a tablet to mark the
boundary of the Egyptian territory at a place called Ni, on
the Euphrates, and the authority of the Egyptians in that
land was so great that when Thothmes III. arrived there
several years after, he found the tablet still standing. The
kings who immediately succeeded Thothmes I. marched into
this land, and that their followers should take up quarters on
the fertile banks of the Khabûr, and leave behind them
scarabs and other relics, is not to be wondered at. The
antiquities found at Arbân re of a very miscellaneous
character, and, among other things, include an Assyrian
colossus inscribed "Palace of Meshezib-Marduk the king "
(B.C. 700), and a Chinese glass bottle inscribed with a verse
of the Chinese poet KEÏN-TAU, A.D. 827-831; it is possible
that the scarabs described above may have been brought there
at a period subsequent to the XVIIIth dynasty, but, in any
case, the objects themselves appear to belong to this period.

The Gnostics inscribed the scarab on the gems worn by them, and partly adopted the views concerning it held by the

Use of scarab by the Gnostics.

I British Museum, No. N. 1380.

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