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common even among the most favored classes in Mongolia. One of his sons is familiar with the Confucian classics, and reads and speaks Chinese and Mongolian with equal fluency.
come for information concerning geography, astronomy, and other sciences; they come to see our white faces and foreign dress; and to learn something of our customs, and of the objects that have brought us to this place.
Visit from a Chief. "Last summer we were invited by the head man of a camp, about eighty miles to the north of this, to come and spend a month with him. He promised to put up a tent for us and to furnish us with water, fuel, and mutton, during our stay with him. He had received medicine from us the previous autumn, when we were living in the lower city, and when he visited the place again he sought us out, in our present residence in the upper city, spoke of the kindness we had shown him during his previous visit, and made an earnest request that we would visit him at his home. It was our purpose to have complied with his wish ere this, but our duties here have rendered it impossible.
Another Visit. แ Strange to say, while writing the last sentence I was interrupted by the coming in of a Mongol chief who lives about thirty miles from here. I had not met him before, but have been acquainted with his sons. A little more than a year ago, when I accompanied Mr. Blodget on a short trip into Mongolia, we spent half a day with them. Mr. Blodget was much interested in them, and I think they were interested in the many things of which he told them. As he is well acquainted with the Chinese, which one of them also speaks fluently, he had the pleasure of communicating with them much more freely than I have been able to do. We have since met the young men several times; but we had not seen their father till he called just now. He spoke of my having visited his place during his absence, and invited Mrs. Gulick and myself to go there next summer, when he would be at home. He is known as the Governor of the Towers, or landmarks, between this part of China and Mongolia. He is a man of quiet and unassuming manners, but of inquiring mind. He has given his sons a better education than is
"This Mongol chief deplores the ignorance of his own people, and admires the skill and learning of Western nations. When I told him I had a brother who I hoped would come to Kalgan to study their language and to teach them, he said, 'Let him come and live with us. We will teach him our language, and he will teach our children your language and books.' When I suggested that our books might be translated into their language, he seemed greatly pleased. That,' he said, will suit us better than any thing else. We can hardly learn to read Chinese, how much less your language. If you teach us in our own language we may be able to learn; but Mongols are very stupid; we do not know how to learn; we do not know how to do any thing.' He again said, that when my brother came he hoped we would both come to his place and teach them.
Characteristics of the People. "Like the Polynesians, the Mongols are a people of simple habits and of strong social and religious feelings; but they possess more vigor, both of mind and body, and a character more trustworthy and less weakened by excesses.
"We see many from Kuren, the old capital of Mongolia, the home of Genghis Khan, and we are not surprised that, under such a leader, they conquered Asia and threatened Europe. It was under their protection and in their service, that Marco Polo, at a later date, came from Venice to Peking, where Kublai Khan had established his court.
"It is but a few days since a Mongol called upon us bearing the name of Tamerlane, that great conqueror who founded the Mongol dynasty, that held the empire of India during the four centuries preceding its conquest by the English. When the present Manchu dynasty gained the sovereignty of China, the Mongols were their allies, and in consequence are still governed by their own princes, and have
other privileges not granted to the Chi
An Open Field. "The Mongol language was reduced to writing five or six centuries ago, and they now possess translations of the Chinese classics, besides Buddhist writings and a limited literature of their own. Their writing is alphabetic, and many of the people can read. The Bible and several tracts have been translated, but the people have not one missionary to interest them in these books, or to teach them of the Saviour who has come to open heaven to them. There is nothing to prevent the most free intercourse with them in this place, and if commenced in prayer and faith, I believe the way will open for an extensive work among them. The progress might at first be slow, but when the truth has once made an entrance amongst them I think its triumphs will be great and rapid.
"Their language is allied to that of the Turks, and is much easier than the other languages of Eastern Asia. A mission can be commenced among them with less outlay than is necessary in commencing most new missions; for much preliminary work has already been done in the translation of the Bible, and the publication of grammars and dictionaries."
(West Africa, near the Equator.) LETTER FROM MR. BUSHNELL, Sept. 3, 1867. Mr. Bushnell had recently returned from " a tour up the river, making repairs on the house at Nengenenge, and visiting Bakělie and Pangwe towns," to some extent. His statements respecting the people, and the results and prospects of missionary effort, are not the most encouraging, but should stimulate to more fervent prayer for the redemption of Africa.
Depravity and Superstition. "I saw much of the people, and my heart was sad dened by the exhibitions of heathen depravity and superstitions, and the evidence
that they are rapidly wasting away under Satan's cruel reign. The Bakĕlies and Shekanies seem entirely given up to belief in witchcraft, and to the sanguinary work of judging and killing those who are suspected of being guilty. During the time missionaries were located at Nengenenge they were able to hold this terrible superstition in check to some extent; and not a few poor victims were rescued through their influence. But now, with none to molest or make them afraid, they carry on the work of destruction with savage greediness and fiendish cruelty. In about every case of death, one at least, and often two or three poor victims are cruelly sacrificed.
passed along in my boat, I frequently saw, on the banks of the river, places where the bamboo had recently been burned, and upon inquiry was told that there the fires of superstition had been kindled to burn witches.
place a wife had been burned for her husband, who had fallen in battle with the Pangwes. In another, two persons had been burned for an old chief who had killed himself with rum-drinking. In this way the remnant of these two tribes, left by the slave-trade, are destroying each other, and will soon be numbered with the departed, or absorbed by the more numerous and powerful Pangwe tribe, who, though cannibals, are not witchkillers. They sometimes purchase and eat condemned Bakělie witches, but never kill their own people for the imaginary crime of witchcraft. They quietly look upon this destruction among the other tribes with satisfaction, seeing that soon they will occupy the places on the river which are being vacated, and come in direct contact with commerce on the coast, with no intervening factors to rob them of their profits.
Trade and its Influence. "Trade seemed to be very active, and boats from the English, Dutch, and French factories near us, were seen at almost every considerable town, receiving ivory, India rubber, red wood, ebony, etc., in exchange for rum, powder, guns, and other trade goods.
And what was saddest of all, was to see many of these boats, and the factories in the towns, manned by young men who have been educated in our schools, some of whom have been and still are members of the church. It seems almost incredible that persons of civilization, education, and a knowledge of the gospel, can prefer such a vile work to the service of the mission, and effort for the salvation of their people. But such is the native passion for trade, and the gambling kind of excitement and hopes connected with it, that of all the hundreds we have educated, we do not find one who has such a heart for the work, that for a reasonable compensation he would go and live at Něngenenge and try to do good to the people.
PROCEEDINGS OF OTHER SOCIETIES.
UNITED PRESBYTERIAN CHURCH (SCOTLAND).
THE annual missionary meeting of the (Scotch) United Presbyterian Synod was held on the 15th of May. The receipts of the Foreign Mission Fund, as reported, were £21,260 178. 1d., ($106,304,) and the expenditures £21,727 17d. 7s., ($108,639.) One of the missionary periodicals of the Church presents the following summary statements respecting the foreign operations :
"This discouragement, which we SO deeply feel, is felt to a greater or less extent by other missionaries, at Corisco, Calabar, and other stations on the coast, many of whose former pupils and converts are now engaged in work and trade here, with little to remind one of their former advantages. But I did not intend to dwell so long upon the dark picture which pains our eyes and hearts and tries our faith, for there is light in the purposes and promises of God, and comfort in the sympathy of Christ the dear Master, who knew all this when he issued 'his last commandment, Go ye into all the world,' and the gracious promise, Lo, I am with you always.' He is with us, and specially near and precious when we are partakers of his sufferings in labors for the lost."
"Jamaica. We have twenty-four congregations in Jamaica, and two in the Grand Caymanas. The two latter have been vacant during the year, and have not given any return. The table of statistics for the twenty-four congregations of Jamaica states that there are 4,684 members, being a decrease of 117; that the average attendance is 6,121; that there are 470 candidates; that the Sabbath classes are 298, with an attendance of 3,445, and 296 teachers; and that the income for all purposes is £2,539 3s. 6., being at the rate of 10s. 11d. per member.
"Trinidad. In this island we have three congregations, with a joint membership of 178; 16 having been admitted during the year.
"Old Calabar. This mission, situated on the west coast of Africa, immediately to the east of the Delta of the Niger, has five stations. There are 57 natives in full communion, 7 having, during the year, been baptized and added to the church for the first time. There are 40 candidates, and the gospel is preached each Lord's day to 1,350 persons in their own tongue. Nearly 400 children are attending the week-day schools, in which six natives are occupied as teachers. Several of the native members also teach in the Sabbath-school; and it is gratifying to observe that they not merely hold prayer-meetings themselves, but that they itinerate in the villages, and endeavor to communicate to others the truths which they have learned. This tendency to evangelize, which they manifest, would seem to indicate that, with proper training, they may become useful preachers of the gospel; and both the Rev. Mr. Robb and the presbytery have been doing what they can to secure this result. The most important event of the year is the completing of the Efik translation of the Old Testament Scriptures, in which the Rev. Mr. Robb has for years been laboriously engaged.
"South Africa. We have now four
congregations in South Africa, three in treated. There were several inquirers; but the want of an ordained missionary prevented the fruits from being gathered. One was baptized by a neighboring minis
Caffraria, and one in the colony. These four congregations have a native membership of 307, and 95 candidates. Six natives are employed as evangelists, and they are said to be faithful and consistent, working earnestly to convey the truth to their unconverted countrymen. There are five schools, which are attended by about
Aleppo, in Syria. We regret to state that as this mission, after eight years' experience, failed completely, both as a mission to the Jews and to the Arab-speaking population, the committee, after much consideration and correspondence with the Rev. Dr. Wortabet, came reluctantly to the conclusion that it was their duty to cease to support it.
Algiers, in Northern Africa. This mission, now placed under the care of the Union of Evangelical Churches in France, is supported by us. The missionary preaches in Algiers, and visits every month nine villages, and has an aggregate audience of 200 hearers, the greater proportion of whom are Roman Catholics. He has only eight members.
“Rajpootana, in India. This mission, situated in the British province of Ajmere and Mairwara, about 600 miles north of Bombay, was begun in 1860, and has four central stations. It has, during the six years of its existence, been attended with encouraging marks of the Divine favor. Eighteen natives have been baptized, and some of these are persons of high caste and considerable attainments, and they are now proving useful agents in the mission. Five natives have, during the year, been admitted to the church. One of these is the high priest of the Ram Suehs, and two are from the elder girls in the orphanAt all the stations, bazaar preaching, which presses the truths of salvation upon those who reside in the vicinity, has been steadily prosecuted; and in the cool months of the year the gospel has been carried over a wide extent of country, and proclaimed to many thousands.
"Ningpo, in China. There is here a medical hospital, which was visited four times a week by Dr. John Parker, aided by a native evangelist; 2,851 cases were
"Thus we have had, for the year 1866, irrespective of France and Belgium, eight separate mission fields; namely, Jamaica, Trinidad, Old Calabar, Caffraria, Aleppo, Algiers, Rajpootana, and China. These missions have been wrought by 36 ordained European missionaries, 2 European medical missionaries, 7 ordained native missionaries, 2 European evangelists, 12 native evangelists, 10 European teachers, and upwards of 100 native teachers; or, altogether, an educated agency of more than 170 persons. Besides several stations, there are forty congregations, with an aggregate membership of 5,615; and 106 day-schools, attended by 5,464 scholars."
PARIS MISSIONARY SOCIETY.
THIS Society held its forty-third annual meeting in the Church of the Redemption, Paris, on the 9th of May. The President, Count Jules Delaborde, made the opening address; after which M. Casalis, Director of the Missionary House, &c., proceeded to review the occurrences of the year which had just closed. Distressing as had been the apprehensions of the friends of the South Africa mission a twelvemonth ago, the reality had transcended their worst fears. The exclusion of so many missionaries from their former homes was a sore trial to them and to their converts; but the policy of the Boors was inexora ble. They coveted the land of the Bassootoos; and so the spiritual guides of this despised and obnoxious race must retire. No indemnity has been obtained as yet for the heavy losses which the mission has suffered. This dark cloud, however, has its silver lining. The constancy and fidelity of those who had professed the faith of the Lord Jesus Christ are the joy of their teachers. Instances were mentioned as touching as they are edifying; and the few brethren who reside in the unappropriated territory are much encouraged in their labors.
MENTION was made in the Herald for February, 1867, of the intention of Protestant missionary societies, the American Board among others, to make some exhibition at Paris, which should indicate what they had done and were doing for the good of the world. The "Exposition" has now closed, and gratifying testimony has been received as to the value of what was thus done in illustration of the missionary work. M. Vernes, Commissioner for Protestant missions, wrote to the Secretary of the Board November 21: "It is highly gratifying to me to be able to state, that every work undertaken on the Protestant mission ground succeeded far beyond our expectations. Probably never before, during an equal space of time, was the work of spreading the gospel carried out on so large a scale as during the seven months of the Exhibition, and all parties have left delighted with the result of their labors. In the museum, the idea originally suggested of showing the former and the present condition of the natives of the different mission fields, was rendered strikingly evident to all observers; and I must here request you to return my earnest thanks to the members of your Board for their important contribution."
ceeded 200,000 francs. On the other hand, the expenses had increased, the disbursements having been as follows: for South Africa, 175,000 francs; for Tahiti, 44,000; for Senegal, 20,000. It became necessary, therefore, to report a deficit of 70,000 francs.
Professor Joy, of Columbia College, New York, also writes respecting this exhibition of Protestant Christian work: “I was from the outset deeply impressed with the importance of such an exhibition as the American Board proposed to make, and did all I could to facilitate it. There were few things more complete than the arrangements in the separate building in
Paris; and judging by the throngs of people one always encountered there, few places were more attractive. I dare say several hundred thousand visitors were in the Hall from first to last, and many of them were people of intelligence, who would report their observations to friends at home.
"I really believe that the true objects and workings of the missionary enterprise were better disclosed in this way than they could have been by any other form of publication."
Another eye-witness states, that the condensed table of statistics of its operations, furnished by the American Board, in the form of a large placard, was copied probably by hundreds of persons, and that the contrast between the past and the pres ent at the Sandwich Islands, brought to view by idols, implements, and books sent, attracted much attention.
In the building there were not only museums of idols from different pagan lands, sent by missionary societies, and specimens of Bibles and other books translated by missionaries into very many tongues, but Bible and other religious publication Societies displayed and disposed of specimens of their books and tracts. It is said that two and a half millions of portions of Scripture and four millions of tracts were sold and given away.
The friends of the Board are under great obligations to Rev. Dr. Eldridgė, of the American Chapel at Paris, for the unwearied pains taken by him in exhibiting and caring for their part in the Exposition. It would appear that his labor, and that of others in this matter, has not been in vain.