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Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.

Conjunctive or Connective Adverb, in some cases ; Subordinative Conjunction, in other cases.-Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. 465. therefore. 'for that,' 'for that cause,' 'for that

Termed :

Conjunctive Adverb, or Illative Adverb.-Morell.

• Such words as therefore, consequently, &c., are not conjunctions, but demonstrative adverbs.' - Mason, $ 408; compare § 292 and $$ 266, 285.

Adverb, denoting Cause and Effect.—Bain, p. 45.

Co-ordinating Conjunction of the Illative Class, ex

pressing effect or consequence.-Id. p. 67. though. A.-$. theah; Old English thah:

Richard, thah thou be ever trichard,
Tricchen shalt thou never mo.

Song on Richard of Cornwall.
Termed :

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.-Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. thus. A.-S. thus, thus,' so. Compare A.-S. thes, of this,

for this,' 'thus,' probably from thes, the genitive of
the pronoun thæet.
Termed :

Co-ordinating Conjunction of the Illative Class.

Bain. 466. unless.

Skinner suggests two derivations of this word: (1) one-less, that is, 'one being taken away;' or rather,

from onlesan, 'to dismiss,' set free,' as though it were Hoc dimisso. Horne Tooke accepts the latter derivation, and sees another proof in favour of his theory that conjunctions are often formed from the imperative mood of verbs; here from onles, dismiss.'

He quotes several passages to prove that the word was written onlesse and onles : as,

It was not possible for them to make whole

Christes cote without seme, onlesse certeyn
great men were brought out of the way.-

Trial of Sir John Oldcastle, anno 1413.
This peticion cannot take effect onles man be made

like an aungel.-Lupset, Treatise of Charitie,

P. 66.

We have the change of on to un in un-to for on-to, un-til for on-till.

Less is the comparative adjective; and in form,
on-less may be compared with on high; with aloud,
that is on-loud,' and below, that is 'by-low.'

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. until. The same word as the preposition until, that is,


Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.
Subordinative Conjunction.-Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. 467. when. A.-S. hwænne, hwenne, hwonne 'when,' 'at

what time.'
Termed :

Continuative Conjunction.-Morell.
Conjunctive, Connective, or Relative Adverb.-Mason.

Relative or Conjunctive Adverb; or Subordinating
Conjunction. The Relative-Adverbs introducing clauses
of Time, may be called Subordinating Conjunctions of
Time : when,' while,' as,' until,' 'ere,' before,'

after.'-Bain, p. 72. where, whither, whence. where. A.-S. hwær, at what place.' whither. A.-S. hwæder, 'to what place.' whence. A.-S. hwanan, hwanon.-Old English whannes,

whennes, from what place ?'

Continuative Conjunctions. Morell.
Conjunctive, Connective, or Relative Adverbs.


Relative or Conjunctive Adverbs.-Bain. whereforefor which, for which cause,' for which

Termed :

Conjunctive Adverb of the Illative Class. —Morell.
Demonstrative Adverb (see therefore).-Mason.
Adverb denoting Cause and Effect.—Bain, p. 45.

Co-ordinating Conjunction of the Illative Class.

Id. p. 67. whether. A.-S. hwæðre, called by Dr. Bosworth a Con

junctive Adverb; derived from the pronoun hwæder

whether ?'' which of two ?' Termed:

Subordinative Conjunction.-Mason.

Subordinating Conjunction.-Bain. while. This word is derived from the A.-S. noun hwil

hwile, ' a while, 'time,' duration.' In Anglo-Saxon

we find the phrase tha hwile, 'the while, and tha

hwile the, the while that.'- Matth. v. 25.
Termed :

Continuative Conjunction.—Morell.
Conjunctive or Connective Adverb.-Mason.

Relative or Conjunctive Adverb; or Subordinating

Conjunction.-Bain. why. A.-S. hwi, 'why,' wherefore,' 'for what cause,'

• for what reason.'
According to Dr. Bosworth, it is the ablative

case of the interrogative pronoun hwa, hwæt,

who ?' what?! Termed:

Conjunctive or Connective Adverb.-Mason.

Relative or Conjunctive Adverb.Bain. 468. yet. A.-S. gyt. Horne Tooke would derive this

word from getan or gytan, 'to get;' but this is doubtful. Sir John Stoddart calls the word an Adverb, but remarks, where yet is used for “ also,” “ moreover," or "nevertheless," it is properly to be considered as a Conjunction; but the distinction between a Conjunction and a Relative Adverb is not always easy to be drawn.'— Universal Grammar, p. 87.


Continuative Conjunction.-Morell, p. 90.

Conjunction or Conjunctive Adverb of the Adversative Class.-Id. p. 98.

Co-ordinating Conjunction of the Arrestive ClasA.Bain, p. 66.


PREPOSITIONS. 469. Prepositions were originally, and for a long time, classed with conjunctions; and when first separated from them, were only distinguished by the name of Prepositive Conjunctions.

Some of the Greek grammarians, considering that prepositions connect words, as conjunctions connect sentences, ranked both the preposition and the conjunction under the common head of connective (ovvdeopios); and the Stoics called the preposition the 'preposed connective' (ovvero poc a poetikos).

In the Greek and Latin languages, the words thus distinguished were most commonly placed immediately before the substantives which they governed; and this accidental circumstance was unfortunately selected by some grammarians to give name to the pre-position.

If this was their notion, the view was inaccurate; for even in Latin, tenus was always placed after the noun which it governed. So Plautus has mederga for erga me; and cum occupies a similar position in the words mecum, tecum, nobiscum, vobiscum.

To meet these variations, some grammarians were not ashamed to make a class of postpositive prepositions, which is a manifest contradiction of terms; for the same word cannot be at once after-placed' and 'fore-placed.'

There is, however, one aspect of the case, which may account for the origin of the term. In composition with verbs, in Greek and Latin, the preposition generally precedes the verb, and forms one word with it; whereas in English (and this we shall find to be a very important fact), the preposition usually follows the verb, and is written separately. 470. A preposition is a word which is used :

1. To express the relation in which one substantive stands to another: as, The middle of the street,'' The hat on

the table,' 'the crumbs under the table.' 2. To connect a substantive with a verb: as, 'He went

through the city,' They passed under the bridge.' 3. To connect a substantive with an adjective: as, 'He

is ready for anything.' 4. In composition with verbs; most commonly after the

verb: as, 'carry off,'' run through,''take out. In some cases, however, the preposition is prefixed, as 'overthrow,' 'under-go.' It is curious to observe, that to set up' is to establish ;' but to upset' is to 'over

turn;' and to take up' a cause is to undertake' it. Certain prepositions correspond to the case-endings of nouns in Greek and Latin. Thus of answers to the genitive case; to and for to the dative; from, by, and with to the ablative.

As English is a mixed language, we shall find it necessary to consider the English prepositions, strictly so called, and the Latin prepositions. The necessity of this will fully appear when we discuss the subject of Composition.

471. The simple original prepositions in English are these : a, at, but, by, for, fore, from, in, on, of, over, out, till, to, through, up, with.

Down and since are employed as prepositions. 472. a. The word a appears to be a remnant of the Anglo

Saxon preposition an, 'in,' .on. It is used before the gerund (or infinitive) in -ing : as, 'a-coming,' 'a-going, a-walking,'' a-shooting;' and before nouns, as 'a-bed,

a-board,' a-shore,' 'a-foot.' Our sailors have preserved many specimens of this, and of other old English

forms. Dr. Wallis supposes a to be the preposition at. Dr. Lowth rather thinks it is the preposition on. For at has relation chiefly to place; whereas on has a more general relation, and may be applied to action, as well as to place : ‘I was on coming, on going, &c.' So, likewise, the phrases above-mentioned, 'a-bed,' &c., exactly answer to on bed,'' on board,' on foot.' Dr. Bentley plainly supposed a to be the same with on, as appears from the following passage:

He would have a learned University to make barbarisms a

purpose.Dissertation on Phalaris, p. 223. See Lowth, English Grammar, p. 95.

at. A.-S. æt.
after. A.-S. æfter.

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