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II. The Tet |. This object, which represents a mason's o of Slrls. table and not a Nilometer, as a religious emblem symbolizes

Osiris the lord of Tettu, great god of the underworld. The meaning of the word tet is “firmness, stability, preservation,” etc. The tet had on it sometimes the plumes, disk and horns,

!!!, and was painted on mummies and tombs. The amulet

itself was placed on the neck of the mummy which it was supposed to protect. Tets are made of faïence, gold, wood gilded, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, and many other substances,

although the rubric of the 155th chapter, of which | is the

vignette, states that they are to be made of gold. This chapter is entitled:—

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O resting of heart, place thou thyself upon place thy. Come J,

awawa C-4-3 awawa ~ so 3–no loss} <-5 | o || || § Sco ân-nā nek tet en nub hā - k âm - f bring / to thee a tet of gold, rejoice thou in it.” " * Papyrus of Ani, pl. 33; the text given by Naville, Das Wodenbuch,

Bl, clxxx..., differs from this.

The Vulture of Isis.

This chapter was to be “said over a tet of gold, made of the heart of sycamore wood, which was to be placed on the neck of the mummy.” The tet enabled the deceased to enter in through the gates of the underworld, and if this chapter were known by him, he would “rise up as a perfect soul in the underworld, he would not be repulsed at the gates there, and cakes would be given to him, and joints of meat from the altars of Ră.”

III. The vulture oy. According to the rubric of the

157th chapter of the Book of the Dead, a vulture of gold was to be placed on the neck of the mummy on the day of the funeral; it was supposed to carry with it the protection of “Mother”. Isis. The chapter reads, “Isis has come, she has gone round about the towns, she has sought out the hidden places of Horus in his coming out from the swamp of papyrus reeds. His son has stood against evil, he has come into the divine boat, he has commanded the princes of the world, he has made a great fight, he makes mention of what he has done, he has caused himself to be feared and established terror of him. His mother, the mighty lady, makes his protection and brings (?) him to Horus.” Amulets of the vulture inscribed with this chapter are very rare.

IV. The Collar Soso, usex. The rubric of the 158th chapter of the Book of the Dead orders a collar of gold to be

laid upon the neck of the deceased on the day of the funeral. It was to be inscribed:—

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see I. I am one among the unbandaged ones [who] see Seb.

Amulet collars are found made of red jasper, carnelian, etc.

V. The “Papyrus Sceptre.” | uat'. This amulet is

usually made of mother-of-emerald or of faïence like unto it in colour, and the hieroglyphic word which it represents,

| Y i uat', means “verdure, flourishing, greenness,” and the

like; it was placed on the neck of the deceased, and indicated the eternal youth which it was hoped he would enjoy in the underworld. This amulet was sometimes inscribed with the 159th chapter of the Book of the Dead, where it is described as

| Hox s: uat' en mešem, “an uat' of mother-of[TWT, o

emerald.” The next chapter says that a rounded tablet, on

which is a figure of the | in relief, is to be placed on the

neck of the deceased ; it was supposed to be given to him by Thoth, and to protect his limbs.

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made of haematite, and is generally uninscribed ; it is a
model of the large pillows of wood, alabaster and stone which
are placed under the heads of mummies to “lift them up.”
When inscribed the text is a version of that of the 166th
chapter of the Book of the Dead.
No. 20,647 in the British Museum reads:—

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The papy. rus sceptre of Thoth.

6es - tu mentu st'eró Seres Aoise up from non-existence, O prostrate one. Watch ozer {\ [Oh So || * * <--> A Sco awwwow Sco c. [...] —“— <--> Sen tep-k er Xut 0es - u sexer - k they head thy at the horizon exa/fed, overthrowest thou | | G % _% 23. o -GO- | | <--> c | t=G, | <c l l | S-8 xest - k maâty eru - k her ări - u erek enemies thy, triumphest thou over what do they against ther,

1 See Birch, The Chapter of the Pillow, in Agg. Zeit., 1868, pp. 52-54.

of the

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utul er ari nek Heru net' tef - f [as] has commanded to be done for thee Horus, the avenger of father his

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Osiris this. Cuttest off thou heads of enemies thy, ztof

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Verily slaughter Osiris maketh at the coming forth of the heads

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VII. The Heart |Jö db. Amulets of the heart are made of carnelian, green jasper, basalt, lapis-lazuli, and many other kinds of hard stone. The heart was considered to be the source of all life and thought, and it was the part of the body that was specially taken care of in mummifying. It was embalmed and put in a jar by itself, and it could not be replaced in the body until it had undergone judgment by being weighed in the balance against s, representing “Law.” The heart was symbolised by the scarab, upon which the formulae relating to the heart were inscribed ; and sometimes a heart amulet was inscribed with one of the chapters of the heart on one side, and a scarab on the other (B.M. No. 8003). Sometimes the heart is human-headed, with the hands crossed over it (B.M. 15,598), and sometimes a figure of the soul, in the shape of a hawk with outstretched wings, is inlaid on one side of it (B.M. No. 8005). The chapters in the Book of the Dead which refer to the heart are the 26th, the “Chapter of giving to a person his heart in the underworld"; the 27th, 28th, 29th A, “Chapter of not allowing the heart of a person to be taken away from him in the underworld"; 29 B, “Chapter of a heart of carnelian ; ” 30 A, and 30 B, “Chapter of not allowing the heart of a person to be turned away from him in the underworld.” The most important chapter of the heart, and that most commonly found, 29 B, is translated in that portion of this Catalogue which describes the green basalt heart in the Fitzwilliam Museum ; for the text of the others see Naville, Das Todtenbuch, Bll. XXXVII.XLIII. ; and for translations see Birch, On formulas relating to the heart, in Aeg. Zeit., 1866, pp. 69, 1867, pp. 16, 54; and Pierret, Le Livre des Morts, pp. 103–114. An interesting example of the heart amulet is described by Birch"; on

one side are :E: Net, “Neith ” and the bennu bird, o, with the legend Ö $.3 Nuk ba Xeperd, “I am the

soul of Cheperä,” and on the other is the common chapter of the heart. The bennu bird or phoenix was an emblem of the resurrection.

VIII. The Amulet of Life anx. This object is found

in every material used by the Egyptians for making amulets, and formed a very common ornament for the living and the dead. Necklaces were frequently composed of pendants

made in forms of +. |. and *. and sometimes neferu !!!

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This amulet was made of glazed faience, wood, granite, haematite, carnelian, lapis-lazuli, gold, silver, and many other materials. Ut'ats are either right or left, and they are also made double or quadruple ; they are sometimes made in

* Catalogue of Egyptian Antiquities in Alnwick Castle, p. 224,

of the

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