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which would have been sufficient for a siege of many years. So they were taken by the means of the famine, which it was imposs ble they sliould liave been), unless they had thus prepared the way for it by this procedure.

5. And row, as the city was engaged in a war on all sides, from those treacherous crowds of wicked men, the people of the city between them were like a great body toro in pieces. The aged men and the women were in such distress by their internal calamities ibat they wished for the Romans, and earnestly hoped for an external war, in order to their delivery from their donjestical miseries. The citizens themselves were under a terrible consternation and fear; nor had they any opportunity of taking counsel, and of changing their conduct; nor were there any hopes of coming to an agreeInent with their enemics; por could such as had a mind flee alar; for guards were set at all places, and the heads of the robbers, although they wcre seditious ope against auother in other respects, yet did they agree in killing those that were for peace with the Romans, or were suspected of ap inclination to desert to them, as their common enemies.

They agreed. in nothing but this, to kill those that were in. mocent. The poise also of those that were fighting was inccssant both ljy day and by night; but the lamentation of those that mourned exceeded the other; nor was there ever any occasion for them to leave off their lamentations, because their calamities came perpetually one upon another, although the deep consternation they were in prevented their outward wailing; but being constrained by their fear to conceal their inward passions, they were inwardly tormented, without daring to open their lips in groans. Nor was any regard paid to those that were still alive by their relations; nor was there any care taken of burial for those that were

lead; the occasion of both which was this, that every one despaired of himself; for those that were not among the seJitious had no great desires of any thing, as expecting for certain, that they should very soon be destroyed ; but for the seditious themselves, they fought against each other while they trode upon the dead bodies as they lay heaped one upon another, and, taking up a mad l'age from those dead bo. dies that were under their feet, became the fiercer thereupon. They moreover were still inventing somewhat or other, that was pernicious against themselves; and when they had resolved upon any thing, they executed it without mercy, and

omitted po method of torment or of barbarity. Nay, John abused the sacred materials,* and employed them in the coostrction of his engines of war; for the people and the priests had formerly determined to support the temple, and raise the holy house twenty cubits higher; for king Agrippa bad, at a very great expense, and with very great pains, brought thither such materials as were proper for that purpose, being pieces of timber very well worth seeing, both for their straightness and their largeness; but the war coming on, and interrupting the work, John had them cut, and prepared for the building him towers, he finding them long enough to oppose from them those his adversaries that fought him from the temple that was above him. He also had them brought and erected behind the inger court, over against the west end of the cloisters, where alone t he could erect them; whereas the other side of the court had so many steps, as would not let them come nigh enough to the cloisters.

6. Thus did John hope to be too hard for his enemies by these engines, constructed by his impiety; but God himself demonstrated, that his paigs would prove of no use to him .by bringing the Romans upon him before he bad reared any of his towers; for Titus, when he had gotten together part of his forces about him, and had ordered the rest to meet him at Jerusalem, marched out of Cæsarea. He had with him those three legions, that had accompanied his father when he laid Judea waste, together with that twelfth legion which had been formerly beaten with Cestius; which legion, as it was otherwise remarkable for its valour, so did it march on now with greater alacrity to avenge themselves of the Jews, as remembering what they had formerly suffered from them. Of these legious he ordered the fifth to meet him, by going through Emmaus, and the tenth to go up by Jericho; he also moved himself together with the rest : besides which marched those auxiliaries that came from the kings, being

* This timber, we see, was designed for the rebuilding those twenty additional cubits of the holy house above the hundred whickz had fallen down some years before. See the note on Antiq. B. XV. ch. ix. 3. vol iji.

+ There being no gate on the west, and only on the west side of the court of the priests, and so no steps there, this was the only side, that the seditious, under this John of Gischala, could bring their engines close to the cloisters of that court endways, though upon the floor of the court of Israel. See the scheme of that temple in the description of the temples hereto belonging:

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now more in number than before, together with a considerable number that came to his assistance froin Syria. Those also that had been selected out of these four legious, and sent with Mucianus to Italy, had their places filled up out of those soldiers that came out of Egypt with Titus; which were two thousand men, chosen out of the armies at Alexandria. There followed him also three thousand drawn from those that guarded the river Euphrates: as also there came Tiberius Alexander, who was a friend of his, most valuable both for his good will to him, and for his prudence. He bad formerly been goveroor of Alexandria, but was now thought worthy to be general of the army sunder Titus. ] The reason of this was, that he had been the first who eucouraged Vespasian very lately to accept this his new dominion, and joined himself to him with great fidelity, when things were uncertain, and fortune had not yet declared for him. He also followed Titus as a counsellor, very useful to him in this war, both by his age, and skill in such affairs.

CHAP. II. Ilow Titus marched to Jerusalem, and how he was in danger, as

he was taking a view of the city. Of the places also where he pitched his camp.

8 1. Now, as Titus was upon his march into the enemies country, the auxiliaries, that were sent by the kings, march ed first, having all the other auxiliaries with them; after whom followed those that were to prepare the roads and measure out the camp i then came the commander's baggage, and after that the other soldiers, who were completely armed, to support them; then came Titus himself, having with him another select body, and then came the pike-men; after whom came the horse belonging to that legion. All these came before the engines; and after these cogines, came the tribunes and the leaders of the cohorts, with their select bodies; after these came the ensigos, with the eagle; and be. fore those epsigos came the trumpeters belorging to them; next these came the main body of the army in their ranks, every rank being six deep; the servants belonging to every legion came after these ; and before these last their baggage; the mercenaries came last and those that guarded them brought up the rear. Now Titus, according to the Roman

usage, went into the front of the army after a decent man- ner, and marched through Samaria to Gophna, a city that had been formerly taken by his father, and was then garrisoned by the Roman soldiers : and, when lie had lodged there one night, he marched on in the morning; and, when he had gone as far as a day's march, he pitched his camp at that valley which the Jews, in their own tongue, call the Valley of Thorns, near a certain village called Gabaothsaul, which signifies the Hill of Saul, being distant from Jerusalem about thirty furlongs. There it was that he chose out six hundred select horsemen, and went to take a view of the city, to observe what strength it was of, and how courageous the Jews were; whether, when they saw him, and before they came to a direct battle, they would be affright. ed, and submit; for he had been informed what was really true, that the people, who were falten under the power of the seditious and the robbers, were greatly desirous of peace; but, being too weak to rise up against the rest, they lay still.

2. Now, so long as he rode along the strait road which led to the wall of the city, nobody appeared out of the gates; but when he went out of the road, and declined towards the tower Psephinos, and led the band of horsemen obliquely, an immense number of the Jews leaped out suddenly at the towers called the Women's Tower, through that gate which is over against the monuments of Queen Helena, and intercepted his horse; and standing directly opposite to those that still rap along the road, hindered them from joining those that had declined out of it. They intercepted Titus also, with a few others. Now it was here impossible for him to go forward, because all the places had treoches dug in them from the wall to preserve the gardens round about, and were full of gardens obliquely situated, and of many hedges; and to return back to his own men, he saw it was also impossible by reason of the multitude of the enemies that lay between them; many of whom did not so much as know that the king was in any danger,* but supposed him still

* We may here note, that Titus is here called a king and Cæsar by Josephus, even while he was no more than the emperor's son, and general of the Roman army, and his father Vespasian was still alive, just as the New Testament says Archelaus reigned, or was king, Mat. ii 22. though he was properly no more than ethnarch, as Josephus assures lis, Antiq. B xvill. ch. xi. $ 4. vol. IV. of the war, B. II. ch. vi. 5 3. vol V. Thus also the Jews called the Roman emperors kings, though they never took that title to themselves : We have no king but Cesar, John xix. 15. Submit to the among them. So he perceived, that his preservation must be wholly owing to his own courage, and turned his horse about and cried out aloud to those that were about him to follow him, and ran with violence into the midst of his enemies, in order to force his way through them to his own men. Ang hence we may principally learn, that both the Success of wars, and the dangers that kings are in, are unfier the providence of God; for, while such a number of darts were thrown at Titus, when he had peither his headpiece og nor his breast-plate, (for as I told you, he went out not to light, but to view the city,) none of them touched his body, but went aside without hurting him; as if all of them missed him on purpose, and only made a noise as they pas. sed him. So he diverted those perpetually with his sword that came ou his side, and overturned many of those that directly met him, and made his horse ride over those that were overthrown. The enemy indeed made a shout at the boldoess of Cæsar,* and eshorted one another to rush upon him. Yet did those against whom he marched fly away, go off from him in great numbers: while those that were in the same danger with him kept up close to him, though they were wounded both on their backs and on their sides; for they had each of them but this one hope of escaping; if they could assist Titus jo opening himself a way, that he might not be encompassed round by bis euemies before he got away from them. Now, there were two of those that were with him, but at some distance; the one of which the enemy encompassed round, and slew him with their darts, and his horse also; but the other they slew as he leaped down from his horse ; and carried off his horse with them. But Titus es.caped with the rest, and care safe to the camp. So this success of the Jews' first attack raised their minds, and gave them an ill-grounded hope; and this short inclination of fortune on their side, made them courageous for the future.

3. But now, as soon as that legion that had been at Emmaus was joined to Cæsar at night, he removed thence when

king as supreme, 1 Pet. ii. 13, 17., which is also the language of the Apostolical Constitutions, ii. 11, 34. iv. 13. v. 19. vi. 2 25. vii. 16. viii. 2, 13.; and elsewhere in the New Testament, John xix. 15. Mat. x. 18. xvii. 25. 1 Tim. ii. 2. and in Josephus also ; though I suspect Josephus particularly esteemed Tiius as joint king with lis father, ever since his divine dreams that declared them bol such, B. iii.ch. viii. $ 9, vol. v.

* See the above note.

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