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very heavy. The country from Worcester, beautiful, with neat improvements, and swelling grounds for seventeen or eighteen miles, then it becomes heathy, and afterwards very coarse, till near Bermingham.
N.B.—The borough of Witch is one of the great manufactorys for salt in England ; they pay three shillings and four pence per bushel, duty, and sell at three and sixpence, but three pence a bushel is allowed for prompt payment; and V.B.—Baskerville, the Printer, was originally a little schoolmaster at Worcester, then turned painter, type-founder, and printer. He was a professed disbeliever of a future state, and ordered himself to be buried under a mill he had built; a few days before he died a dissenting clergyman visited Chim]: Baskerville told him he was glad to see him, ordered him wine, &c., “ but,” says he, “let me not hear of your d-d stuff of prayers and the other world, and that sort of nonsense.” The country between Bermingham and Litchfield, the worst I have yet seen in England, it is bare, naked, and of shallow soil, not so billy as the County Cavan, but almost as bad, near Litchfield it improves.
May 6th. Fair, but excessively cold. Staffordshire, from Litchfield about sixteen miles, a pleasant gravelly and hilly country, the most populous I have yet seen, from thence it becomes heathy. Cheshire, near Chester, a good and populous country.
7th. Cold, and rainy in the evening. Heard a good sermon in the Choir of the Cathedral, and in the evening in the Parish Church, expected the Preacher would have begun to spell.
8th. Small rain in the evening. At Conway, where the cooking was execrable. Here, as in every other part of Wales, few of the natives can speak English ; the women wear hats like men's, and all the young ones have ruddy complexions, but not clear, the blood being broke in the cheeks. The Fingallians are most undoubtedly originated from Wales, for they have a family likeness.
9th. Rain in the morning, dined at Widow Knowles in Gwinda, where every thing was better than I met in any other part of England, and the Hostess herself discovered such a goodness of mind, that she redeems in my thoughts the character of Publican.
In October, 1776, I went the second time to London, to publish the “ The Philosophical Survey.” I staid there till May, 1777.
Again I went there in May, 1781, to look for some preferment
for my nephew, Tom Campbell, and that worthy man, Mr. Alex. ander Scott, of James Street, Bedford Row, procured him a cadet's place in the East India Company's service. I staid but a fortnight or so in London.
JUNE 11th, 1781. I went to see Dr. Johnson, found him alone, Barretti came soon after. Barretti (after some pause in conversation) asked me, if the disturbances were over in Ireland. I told him I had not heard of any disturbances there. What,” says he, “ have you not been up in arms? “ Yes, and a great number of men continue so to be." “ And dont you call that disturbance ?" returned Barretti. No,” said I,“ the Irish volunteers have demeaned themselves very peaceably, and instead of disturbing the peace of the country, have contributed much to its preservation.” The Doctor, who had been long silent, turned a sharp ear to what. I was saying, and with vehemence said, “What Sir, dont
call it disturbance to oppose legal government with arms in your hands, and compel it to make laws in your favour? Sir, I call it rebellion ; rebellion as much as the rebellion of Scotland." “ Doctor," said I, “I am sorry to hear that fall from you, I must however
that the Irish consider themselves as the most loyal of His Majesty's subjects, at the same that they firmly deny any allegiance to a. British Parliament. They have a separate Legislature, and that they have never showed any inclination to resist.” the Doctor, “ you do owe allegiance to the British Parliament as a conquered nation, and had I been Minister I would have made you submit to it.
I would have done as Oliver Cromwell did; I would have burned your cities, and wasted you in the fires (or flames) of them.” I, after allowing the Doctor to vent his indignation
upon Ireland, cooly replyed, “ Doctor, the times are altered, and I dont find that you have succeeded so well in burning the cities, and roasting the inhabitants of America.” Sir,” says
he gravely, and with a less vehement tone, “what you say is true, the times are altered, for power is now nowhere, we live under a government of influence, not of power; but Sir, had we treated the Americans as we ought, and as they deserved, we should have at once razed all their towns, -and let them enjoy their forests -." After this wild rant, argument would but have enraged him, I therefore let him vibrate into calmness, then turn
6. Sir," says.
See the account of this conversation, page 336-8 of Dr. Campbell's Strictures on the History of Ireland. London, 1790.-Editor.
ing round to me, he, with a smile, says, “ After all Sir, though I hold the Irish to be rebels, I dont think they have been so very wrong,
you know that you compelled our Parliament, by force of arms, to pass an act in your favour. That, I call rebellion.” “But Doctor,” said I, “did the Irish claim anything that ought not to have been granted, though they had not made the claim.” “Sir, I wont dispute that matter with you, but what I insist upon is that the mode of requisition was rebellious." “ Well Doctor, let me ask you but one question, and I shall ask you no more on this subject, do you think that Ireland would have obtained what it has got, by any other means ?” “Sir,” says he candidly, “I believe it would not. However, a wise government should not grant even a claim of justice, if an attempt is made to extort it by force."
I said no more.
My fourth excursion to London, I made in October, 1786, to learn the sense of the booksellers in regard to my intended History of the Revolutions of Ireland. I found little encouragement in point of profit, as all expressed a fear of enterprising in Irish affairs, for two reasons, the first was, that whatever is published in London respecting that country is immediately published in Dublin, and Ireland should be the principal market for Irish Histories ; but the other and principal discouragement was this, so many paltry productions had of late appeared on the subject as to give the public a distrust of any new publication on the same subject, till its merit could be decidedly ascertained. O'Halloran prejudiced one, Crawford another, and Vallancy all. However, after a fortnight or three weeks stay there, I set out with Sir Capel Molyneux to the North, in his way to Ireland, intending to return to London, to be more explicit with the booksellers or one of them, as to the immediate publication of a first volume, which I thought was ready, but having some conversation with Mr. Thorkelin the Icelander, relative to some disputed points of the most remote antiquity, relative to which he promised to procure me certain documents from Denmark; and ruminating on the propriety or impropriety of publishing one volume alone, which would have reached only to Henry 7th. I no sooner found myself in Edinburgh, than I resolved to return home with the worthy Baronet, though I had left all my papers in London, so that my progress was interrupted.
N.B.-In the interim, I built the gallery in the Church, out of the fifty pounds which I gave out of my own pocket, to encourage the parish to raise one hundred pounds to roof and repair the Church.
I say my work, that is, the History, was interrupted all this while, I therefore set out a fifth time for London, after Whitsuntide, 1787, and after a short stay there, I visited Paris.
Paris was new to me, and therefore and because it was other. wise so worthy of recollection, I now make a few cursory remarks upon
it. Calais seemed to me a new world, in the persons and manners of the people, yet there, and in Boulogne there was a greater conformity with England, than in the other parts of France. The impressions, at first made upon me, were against the nation I was in, and so they continued till I was above a week in Paris, but there I every day began to like more and more the faces of the people in their public walks, &c. The shops, carriages, &c. were disgusting, but France does not value itself for commerce. I came into Paris on Sunday, and was surprised to see the people at work every where ; the masons, carpenters, stone cutters, &c., &c., yet I never saw so much devotion as in their Churches. The Palaces, Churches, and some other public buildings, particularly the Hal du Ble, are magnificent. The Chapel of the Virgin in the Church of St. Sulpice, far above the force of my imagination. No wonder that the devotees there kissed the ground on their departure from it; it was heaven upon earth in miniature: the Dome of the Invalid's fine and grand, but in the former respect not to be compared to this inimitable
The Hal du Ble is forty yards, or a hundred and twenty feet, under the cupola, besides the concentrical exterior area in Colonnade, this should have been the model for our Rotunda. St. Eustace comes next to St. Sulpice, the view of the East window through the high altar is so solcmn as to impress devotion. On a view of St. Sulpice the ceiling appeared to me too low, and as it wanted the Gothic ramification to give it lightness, it might have appeared heavy to me, even if it had been high enough ; but the Chapel of St. Mary, the more I saw it, the more I liked it, it is the most happy combination of architecture, sculpture, and painting, decies repetita placebat, it never lost its enchantment, it enwrapped me each time more and more, and made me almost pardon the idolatries of popery. The Notre Dame is a magnificent pile, from the steeple, Paris does not
appear to me half as large, (that is, not to cover half the ground,) as London does from St. Paul's, but then the houses in Paris are twice as high as those in London, and the streets appear more populous. The dome and Church in the Sorbonne, built by Cardinal Richlieu, is well worth seeing, not only for the Cardi. nal's monument of parian marble in the centre of the Choir, with his statue in a recumbent posture, his beautiful niece in the character of Religion supporting his head, and Science weeping at his feet with her book cast aside, but for the statnes of the four Evangelists and the twelve Apostles; the pictures but middling.
On Sunday the 22nd of July, I went to the anniversary celebration of St. James's day, at his Church of the Bucheries. High Mass is mere mummery, the musick was said to be fine, but I dont understand, musick. The mode of collecting the alms alone struck me, and was indeed a reflected image of the despotism, the superstition, and the gallantry of the nation. The Swiss Hal. berdier struck the ground every now and then with his halbert, to make way for a clerical-like person, who led in his hand a beautiful little girl, who carried a scrip or bag to receive the alms. The Swiss commanded awe, the gownsman reminded you to contribute, and the pretty female by her looks, told you, “ sure! you cant refuse."
On Tuesday the 24th. I went to the Parliament house with Mr. Blakeway, and after waiting four hours and more, saw what ? why, Monsieur, Count D'Artois, Bishop of Paris, &c., come out after their deliberations on the renonstrance against Stamp Duty.
Wednesday the 25th. Went to Versailles with Mr. Smyth ; was much disappointed at the sight of the palace, the outside is great, but not magnificent; and the inside tawdry, not beautiful; the gardens in the old square style, thickly studded with statues. The only thing in true style was the grotto of Louis 14th, where he is represented in the character of Apollo coming out of the bath, attended by six nymphs, with his horses in two caves on each side that large one, wherein was the group of the vain monarch, in the character of a god, and under whose statue in the Place de Victorine, is the inscription viro immortali.
On Monday, July the 30th, between eleven and twelve o'clock, I left Paris. At eight next day I got to Rouen, when I spent two hours viewing the cathedral, tombs, &c., and during that interval became acquainted with Mr. Sturgeon, husband to Lady